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Stuart A. Forman, M.D.,Ph.D.

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Biography
1980
American Chemical Society Award
1980
Departmental High honors in Chemistry
1980
Hawk prize for undergraduate research
1980
Magna cum laude
1980
Phi Beta Kappa
1989
James Tolbert Shipley prize for published research
1993
(FAER) Starter Grant
1995 - 1996
Research Fellowship Award
1996 - 2001
Scientist Development Award (K21)
1998 - 1998
Election to Association of University Anesthesiologists
2004
2003 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE)

Overview
Basic research is a major part of my career, currently accounting for about 70-75% of my total effort. For nearly two decades, my research has focused on the mechanisms responsible for general anesthesia, particularly their actions at fast neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, which are responsible for neuron-to-neuron synaptic communication. Currently, my lab is studying anesthetic actions on both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are responsible for excitatory transmission in nerve and muscle, and gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors, which are responsible for inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain and spinal cord. To investigate both how and where anesthetics affect the function of these ion channels, my research combines electrophysiological techniques with recombinant ion channel expression. I have pioneered advances in ultrafast superfusion of excised patches and patch-clamp electrophysiology by developing methods and building equipment for sub-millisecond switching among up to four independent flowing superfusates in an "artificial synapse." This advance has enabled demonstration of novel mechanisms of drug action. By creating mutations in specific protein regions of recombinantly expressed ion channels in living cells, my research has tested hypotheses about sites of anesthetic action. I was the first investigator to provide solid evidence for such a site on a ligand-gated ion channel, and the rigorous demonstration of these sites on receptors in brain remains a major thrust of my current research. My current research also includes collaborative projects with scientific colleagues in and outside my department. My research has been funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research, the Medical Foundation/Charles King Trust, as well as a Scientist Training Award (K21) and Individual (P01/R01) Awards from the National Institutes of Health. I have been invited to present my research at regional, national, and international meetings. In 2004 I was awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) for my research. I serve as an ad hoc reviewer for a number of scientific journals. As a member of the Dept. of Anesthesia Executive Committee on Research and the Beecher/Mallincrodt Research Laboratories Executive Committee, I have dedicated time to encouraging and supervising research activities within our department and mentoring young researchers, including students, residents, and research fellows.

From 1995 through 2002, I was responsible for coordinating "Ten Minutes of Science", presented along with Dept. of Anesthesia & Critical Care Case Conferences and Grand Rounds on Thursday mornings. This program was presented weekly from 1995-99, and bi-monthly thereafter and provides a forum for basic and clinical researchers working within the department to keep colleagues up to date on their progress. Currently, I chair the DACC Grand Rounds Steering Committee, which is responsible for setting a departmental educational agenda, and recruiting speakers to our weekly Grand Rounds. As a staff anesthesiologist, I supervise, teach, and evaluate residents and medical students who are rotating through the operating rooms of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Each year, I dedicate two weeks to tutoring a new first year Clinical Anesthesia resident, usually during their critical first two weeks of residency. I also act as clinical advisor and career advisor to residents in Anesthesiology, particularly those with strong interests in academic research careers. I have extended my mentoring activities to advising and guiding undergraduates at MIT who are planning careers in medicine. My specific areas of teaching expertise, which I have been invited to speak on both at departmental didactic lectures, other clinical departments, and at Harvard Medical School CME courses, include How Anesthesia Works, Awareness During General Anesthesia, Thermoregulation and its Anesthetic Impact, and Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Nitrous Oxide. By participating as an examiner in mock oral exams, I have also helped prepare senior residents from the Harvard Teaching Hospitals for their oral board examinations.

As Staff Administrator of the MGH ORs several days each month, I am responsible for the deployment of over 100 Anesthesia personnel (staff, residents, and CRNAs) and efficient management of OR time in over 50 anesthetizing locations. I am also a member of the DACC Quality Assurance Committee, which reviews reports of actual or potential harm to patients associated with anesthetics administered in our department and decides how best to prevent such incidents. As a member of the General Surgery Anesthesia Team one day per week, I provide anesthesia care for patients undergoing a wide range of surgical procedures. These are frequently critically ill patients from various intensive care units at Mass. General Hospital or trauma patients from the emergency ward. The range of procedures includes thoracic and major vascular as well as neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and cancer surgery. Combined epidural and general anesthesia cases are my clinical forte.

Mentoring
Available: 05/01/19, Expires: 05/31/21

The broad goals of our research include understanding general anesthetic actions at CNS targets such as GABA-A receptors and to identify novel anesthetic agents. Our approaches combine biochemistry, cell culture, electrophysiology, molecular biology, and zebrafish as a platform for drug discovery and mechanism studies.


Research
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
  1. R01GM128989 (FORMAN, STUART A) Aug 1, 2018 - Jul 31, 2021
    NIH/NIGMS
    Accelerating General Anesthetic Discovery and Mechanisms Research with Zebrafish
    Role: Principal Investigator
  2. R01GM089745 (FORMAN, STUART A) Sep 1, 2010 - Jul 31, 2022
    NIH/NIGMS
    General Anesthetic Sites in GABA-A Receptor Subunit Interfacial Pockets
    Role: Principal Investigator
  3. R01GM066724 (FORMAN, STUART A) Mar 1, 2003 - Aug 31, 2009
    NIH/NIGMS
    Volatile Anesthesia and the GABAA Receptor Gamma Subunit
    Role: Principal Investigator
  4. P01GM058448 (MILLER, KEITH W) Dec 1, 1998 - Aug 31, 2019
    NIH/NIGMS
    General Anesthetic Sites on Ligand Gated Ion Channels
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
  5. K21AA000206 (FORMAN, STUART A) Mar 1, 1996 - Feb 28, 2001
    NIH/NIAAA
    NICOTINIC RECEPTOR SITES FOR ALCOHOL ACTIONS
    Role: Principal Investigator

Bibliographic
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Yang X, Jounaidi Y, Dai JB, Marte-Oquendo F, Halpin ES, Brown LE, Trilles R, Xu W, Daigle R, Yu B, Schaus SE, Porco JA, Forman SA. High-throughput Screening in Larval Zebrafish Identifies Novel Potent Sedative-hypnotics. Anesthesiology. 2018 Sep; 129(3):459-476. PMID: 29894316.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Forman SA. Combining Mutations and Electrophysiology to Map Anesthetic Sites on Ligand-Gated Ion Channels. Methods Enzymol. 2018; 602:369-389. PMID: 29588039.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Ziemba AM, Szabo A, Pierce DW, Haburcak M, Stern AT, Nourmahnad A, Halpin ES, Forman SA. Alphaxalone Binds in Inner Transmembrane ß+-a- Interfaces of a1ß3?2 ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors. Anesthesiology. 2018 02; 128(2):338-351. PMID: 29210709.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Feng HJ, Forman SA. Comparison of aßd and aß? GABAA receptors: Allosteric modulation and identification of subunit arrangement by site-selective general anesthetics. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Jul; 133:289-300. PMID: 29294355.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Shin DJ, Germann AL, Johnson AD, Forman SA, Steinbach JH, Akk G. Propofol Is an Allosteric Agonist with Multiple Binding Sites on Concatemeric Ternary GABAA Receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2018 Feb; 93(2):178-189. PMID: 29192122.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Jounaidi Y, Cotten JF, Miller KW, Forman SA. Tethering IL2 to Its Receptor IL2Rß Enhances Antitumor Activity and Expansion of Natural Killer NK92 Cells. Cancer Res. 2017 11 01; 77(21):5938-5951. PMID: 28916655.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Savechenkov PY, Chiara DC, Desai R, Stern AT, Zhou X, Ziemba AM, Szabo AL, Zhang Y, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Miller KW, Bruzik KS. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of neurosteroid photoaffinity ligands. Eur J Med Chem. 2017 Aug 18; 136:334-347. PMID: 28505538.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Nourmahnad A, Stern AT, Hotta M, Stewart DS, Ziemba AM, Szabo A, Forman SA. Tryptophan and Cysteine Mutations in M1 Helices of a1ß3?2L ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Indicate Distinct Intersubunit Sites for Four Intravenous Anesthetics and One Orphan Site. Anesthesiology. 2016 12; 125(6):1144-1158. PMID: 27753644.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Rathmell JP, Forman S, Wanderer JP. Understanding Intravenous General Anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2016 Dec; 125(6):A21. PMID: 27845976.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Forman SA, Miller KW. Mapping General Anesthetic Sites in Heteromeric ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Reveals a Potential For Targeting Receptor Subtypes. Anesth Analg. 2016 11; 123(5):1263-1273. PMID: 27167687.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Maldifassi MC, Baur R, Pierce D, Nourmahnad A, Forman SA, Sigel E. Novel positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors with anesthetic activity. Sci Rep. 2016 05 20; 6:25943. PMID: 27198062.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Ziemba AM, Forman SA. Correction for Inhibition Leads to an Allosteric Co-Agonist Model for Pentobarbital Modulation and Activation of a1ß3?2L GABAA Receptors. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0154031. PMID: 27110714; PMCID: PMC4844112.
  13. Stern AT, Forman SA. A Cysteine Substitution Probes ß3H267 Interactions with Propofol and Other Potent Anesthetics in a1ß3?2L ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors. Anesthesiology. 2016 Jan; 124(1):89-100. PMID: 26569173.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Desai R, Savechenkov PY, Zolkowska D, Ge RL, Rogawski MA, Bruzik KS, Forman SA, Raines DE, Miller KW. Contrasting actions of a convulsant barbiturate and its anticonvulsant enantiomer on the a1 ß3 ?2L GABAA receptor account for their in vivo effects. J Physiol. 2015 Nov 15; 593(22):4943-61. PMID: 26378885; PMCID: PMC4650410 [Available on 11/15/16].
  15. Liu K, Jounaidi Y, Forman SA, Feng HJ. Etomidate uniquely modulates the desensitization of recombinant a1ß3d GABA(A) receptors. Neuroscience. 2015 Aug 06; 300:307-13. PMID: 26028470; PMCID: PMC4484732.
  16. Zeng C, Long X, Cotten JF, Forman SA, Solt K, Faingold CL, Feng HJ. Fluoxetine prevents respiratory arrest without enhancing ventilation in DBA/1 mice. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Apr; 45:1-7. PMID: 25771493; PMCID: PMC4424071.
  17. Forman SA, Miller KW, Talmor D, Hickey P, Strichartz G, Wiener-Kronish J. Research at the Harvard Anesthesia Departments. Anesthesiology. 2014 Dec; 121(6):1141-3. PMID: 25299744; PMCID: PMC4493721.
  18. Stewart DS, Pierce DW, Hotta M, Stern AT, Forman SA. Mutations at beta N265 in ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors alter both binding affinity and efficacy of potent anesthetics. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e111470. PMID: 25347186; PMCID: PMC4210246.
  19. Forman SA, Chiara DC, Miller KW. Anesthetics target interfacial transmembrane sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2015 Sep; 96(Pt B):169-77. PMID: 25316107; PMCID: PMC4394016.
  20. Feng HJ, Jounaidi Y, Haburcak M, Yang X, Forman SA. Etomidate produces similar allosteric modulation in a1ß3d and a1ß3?2L GABA(A) receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 171(3):789-98. PMID: 24199598; PMCID: PMC3969089.
  21. Dostalova Z, Zhou X, Liu A, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Desai R, Forman SA, Miller KW. Human a1ß3?2L gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors: High-level production and purification in a functional state. Protein Sci. 2014 Feb; 23(2):157-66. PMID: 24288268; PMCID: PMC3926741.
  22. Forman SA. In reply. Anesthesiology. 2013 Oct; 119(4):996. PMID: 24195888.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Stewart DS, Hotta M, Li GD, Desai R, Chiara DC, Olsen RW, Forman SA. Cysteine substitutions define etomidate binding and gating linkages in the a-M1 domain of ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 18; 288(42):30373-86. PMID: 24009076; PMCID: PMC3798502.
  24. Forman SA. A paradigm shift from biophysical to neurobiological: the fading influence of Claude Bernard's ideas about general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2013 Apr; 118(4):984-5. PMID: 23511525; PMCID: PMC3740740.
  25. Forman SA. The expanding genetic toolkit for exploring mechanisms of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2013 Apr; 118(4):769-71. PMID: 23364596; PMCID: PMC3680125.
  26. Stewart DS, Hotta M, Desai R, Forman SA. State-dependent etomidate occupancy of its allosteric agonist sites measured in a cysteine-substituted GABAA receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Jun; 83(6):1200-8. PMID: 23525330; PMCID: PMC3657098.
  27. Stein M, Middendorp SJ, Carta V, Pejo E, Raines DE, Forman SA, Sigel E, Trauner D. Azo-propofols: photochromic potentiators of GABA(A) receptors. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 Oct 15; 51(42):10500-4. PMID: 22968919; PMCID: PMC3606271.
  28. Forman SA. Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric mechanisms of action and the pharmacology of etomidate. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2012 Aug; 25(4):411-8. PMID: 22614249; PMCID: PMC3673006.
  29. Savechenkov PY, Zhang X, Chiara DC, Stewart DS, Ge R, Zhou X, Raines DE, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Miller KW, Bruzik KS. Allyl m-trifluoromethyldiazirine mephobarbital: an unusually potent enantioselective and photoreactive barbiturate general anesthetic. J Med Chem. 2012 Jul 26; 55(14):6554-65. PMID: 22734650; PMCID: PMC3717557.
  30. Guitchounts G, Stewart DS, Forman SA. Two etomidate sites in a1ß2?2 ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors contribute equally and noncooperatively to modulation of channel gating. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jun; 116(6):1235-44. PMID: 22531336; PMCID: PMC3366439.
  31. Pierce DW, Pejo E, Raines DE, Forman SA. Carboetomidate inhibits alpha4/beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at concentrations affecting animals. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jul; 115(1):70-2. PMID: 22543065; PMCID: PMC3381859.
  32. Forman SA, Stewart D. Mutations in the GABAA receptor that mimic the allosteric ligand etomidate. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 796:317-33. PMID: 22052498; PMCID: PMC3360466.
  33. Ruesch D, Neumann E, Wulf H, Forman SA. An allosteric coagonist model for propofol effects on a1ß2?2L ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan; 116(1):47-55. PMID: 22104494; PMCID: PMC3261780.
  34. Stewart DS, Savechenkov PY, Dostalova Z, Chiara DC, Ge R, Raines DE, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Bruzik KS, Miller KW. p-(4-Azipentyl)propofol: a potent photoreactive general anesthetic derivative of propofol. J Med Chem. 2011 Dec 08; 54(23):8124-35. PMID: 22029276; PMCID: PMC3580944.
  35. Ge RL, Pejo E, Haburcak M, Husain SS, Forman SA, Raines DE. Pharmacological studies of methoxycarbonyl etomidate's carboxylic acid metabolite. Anesth Analg. 2012 Aug; 115(2):305-8. PMID: 22052979; PMCID: PMC3291806.
  36. Forman SA. Clinical and molecular pharmacology of etomidate. Anesthesiology. 2011 Mar; 114(3):695-707. PMID: 21263301; PMCID: PMC3108152.
  37. Forman SA, Miller KW. Anesthetic sites and allosteric mechanisms of action on Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. Can J Anaesth. 2011 Feb; 58(2):191-205. PMID: 21213095; PMCID: PMC3108180.
  38. Forman SA. Molecular approaches to improving general anesthetics. Anesthesiol Clin. 2010 Dec; 28(4):761-71. PMID: 21074751; PMCID: PMC2990980.
  39. Husain SS, Stewart D, Desai R, Hamouda AK, Li SG, Kelly E, Dostalova Z, Zhou X, Cotten JF, Raines DE, Olsen RW, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Miller KW. p-Trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate: a potent photoreactive general anesthetic derivative of etomidate that is selective for ligand-gated cationic ion channels. J Med Chem. 2010 Sep 09; 53(17):6432-44. PMID: 20704351; PMCID: PMC3117435.
  40. Dostalova Z, Liu A, Zhou X, Farmer SL, Krenzel ES, Arevalo E, Desai R, Feinberg-Zadek PL, Davies PA, Yamodo IH, Forman SA, Miller KW. High-level expression and purification of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels in a tetracycline-inducible stable mammalian cell line: GABAA and serotonin receptors. Protein Sci. 2010 Sep; 19(9):1728-38. PMID: 20662008; PMCID: PMC2975136.
  41. Cotten JF, Forman SA, Laha JK, Cuny GD, Husain SS, Miller KW, Nguyen HH, Kelly EW, Stewart D, Liu A, Raines DE. Carboetomidate: a pyrrole analog of etomidate designed not to suppress adrenocortical function. Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar; 112(3):637-44. PMID: 20179500; PMCID: PMC2830733.
  42. Vanderweyde T, Bednar MM, Forman SA, Wolozin B. Iatrogenic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: surgery and anesthesia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010; 22 Suppl 3:91-104. PMID: 20858967; PMCID: PMC3108154.
  43. Desai R, Ruesch D, Forman SA. Gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptor mutations at beta2N265 alter etomidate efficacy while preserving basal and agonist-dependent activity. Anesthesiology. 2009 Oct; 111(4):774-84. PMID: 19741491; PMCID: PMC2798018.
  44. Cotten JF, Husain SS, Forman SA, Miller KW, Kelly EW, Nguyen HH, Raines DE. Methoxycarbonyl-etomidate: a novel rapidly metabolized and ultra-short-acting etomidate analogue that does not produce prolonged adrenocortical suppression. Anesthesiology. 2009 Aug; 111(2):240-9. PMID: 19625798; PMCID: PMC2739411.
  45. Chiara DC, Hong FH, Arevalo E, Husain SS, Miller KW, Forman SA, Cohen JB. Time-resolved photolabeling of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by [3H]azietomidate, an open-state inhibitor. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 May; 75(5):1084-95. PMID: 19218367; PMCID: PMC2672814.
  46. Stewart D, Desai R, Cheng Q, Liu A, Forman SA. Tryptophan mutations at azi-etomidate photo-incorporation sites on alpha1 or beta2 subunits enhance GABAA receptor gating and reduce etomidate modulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Dec; 74(6):1687-95. PMID: 18805938; PMCID: PMC2596762.
  47. Desai R, Kronengold J, Mei J, Forman SA, Kaczmarek LK. Protein kinase C modulates inactivation of Kv3.3 channels. J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 08; 283(32):22283-94. PMID: 18539595; PMCID: PMC2494927.
  48. Jaureguiberry G, Carpenter TO, Forman S, Jüppner H, Bergwitz C. A novel missense mutation in SLC34A3 that causes hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria in humans identifies threonine 137 as an important determinant of sodium-phosphate cotransport in NaPi-IIc. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008 Aug; 295(2):F371-9. PMID: 18480181; PMCID: PMC2519180.
  49. Forman SA, Chin VA. General anesthetics and molecular mechanisms of unconsciousness. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2008; 46(3):43-53. PMID: 18617817; PMCID: PMC3674880.
  50. Zhong H, Rüsch D, Forman SA. Photo-activated azi-etomidate, a general anesthetic photolabel, irreversibly enhances gating and desensitization of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Anesthesiology. 2008 Jan; 108(1):103-12. PMID: 18156888; PMCID: PMC2564603.
  51. Solt K, Ruesch D, Forman SA, Davies PA, Raines DE. Differential effects of serotonin and dopamine on human 5-HT3A receptor kinetics: interpretation within an allosteric kinetic model. J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 28; 27(48):13151-60. PMID: 18045909.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Forman SA, Zhou QL, Stewart DS. Photoactivated 3-azioctanol irreversibly desensitizes muscle nicotinic ACh receptors via interactions at alphaE262. Biochemistry. 2007 Oct 23; 46(42):11911-8. PMID: 17910479.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Solt K, Forman SA. Correlating the clinical actions and molecular mechanisms of general anesthetics. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2007 Aug; 20(4):300-6. PMID: 17620835.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Forman SA. Of mice and nematodes. Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep; 105(3):442-4. PMID: 16931973.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Husain SS, Nirthanan S, Ruesch D, Solt K, Cheng Q, Li GD, Arevalo E, Olsen RW, Raines DE, Forman SA, Cohen JB, Miller KW. Synthesis of trifluoromethylaryl diazirine and benzophenone derivatives of etomidate that are potent general anesthetics and effective photolabels for probing sites on ligand-gated ion channels. J Med Chem. 2006 Aug 10; 49(16):4818-25. PMID: 16884293.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Zhong H, Ruesch D, Forman SA. Photo-activated azi-etomidate, a general anesthetic photolabel, irreversibly alters GABAA receptor function. Submitted. 2006.
  57. Mashour GA, Forman SA, Campagna JA. Mechanisms of general anesthesia: from molecules to mind. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2005 Sep; 19(3):349-64. PMID: 16013686.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Stuart A. Forman. Equilibrium and Kinetic Allosteric Mechanisms for Anesthetic and Structure Function Studies of GABA-A Receptors . Basic and Systemic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2005; (ICS 5886).
  59. Stuart A. Forman and Dirk Ruesch. Interpreting the Impact of GABA-A Receptor Structural Modifications Using an Allosteric Co-Agonist Mechanism for Etomidate Actions . Basic and Systemic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2005; (ICS 5886).
  60. Stuart A. Forman and Huijun Zhong. Irreversible Modulation of GABA-A Receptors by Azi-etomidate, a Photo-reactive General Anesthetic. Basic and Systemic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2005; (ICS 5886).
  61. Rüsch D, Forman SA. Classic benzodiazepines modulate the open-close equilibrium in alpha1beta2gamma2L gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr; 102(4):783-92. PMID: 15791108.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Arevalo E, Chiara DC, Forman SA, Cohen JB, Miller KW. Gating-enhanced accessibility of hydrophobic sites within the transmembrane region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor's {delta}-subunit. A time-resolved photolabeling study. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 08; 280(14):13631-40. PMID: 15664985.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Zhong H, Forman SA. Irreversible modulation of GABAA receptors by Azi-etomidate, a photoreactive general anesthetic. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 2004; A160.1.
  64. Ruesch D, Forman SA. Benzodiazepines modulate the gating efficacy of α1β2γ2L GABAA Receptors. Anesthesiology. 2004.
  65. Ruesch D, Forman SA. Interpreting the Impact of GABAA Receptor Structural Modifications Using an Allosteric Co-Agonist Mechanism for Etomidate Actions. Anesthesiology. 2004.
  66. Rüsch D, Zhong H, Forman SA. Gating allosterism at a single class of etomidate sites on alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA A receptors accounts for both direct activation and agonist modulation. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14; 279(20):20982-92. PMID: 15016806.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Zhong H, Forman SA. Irreversible modulation of GABAA receptors by Azi-etomidate, a photoreactive general anesthetic. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 2004; A160.1.
  68. Forman SA, Ruesch D. Two etomidate actions in GABAA receptors are explained by a co-agonist mechanism. Anesthesiology. 2003.
  69. Campagna JA, Miller KW, Forman SA. Mechanisms of actions of inhaled anesthetics. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22; 348(21):2110-24. PMID: 12761368.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Husain SS, Ziebell MR, Ruesch D, Hong F, Arevalo E, Kosterlitz JA, Olsen RW, Forman SA, Cohen JB, Miller KW. 2-(3-Methyl-3H-diaziren-3-yl)ethyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate: a derivative of the stereoselective general anesthetic etomidate for photolabeling ligand-gated ion channels. J Med Chem. 2003 Mar 27; 46(7):1257-65. PMID: 12646036.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Stuart A. Forman. Awareness During General Anesthesia (Powerpoint Presentation and handout). 2003.
  72. Forman SA, Ruesch D. Two general anesthetic actions in GABAARs are attributable to altered gating. Biophysical J. 2003; 81:A813.
  73. Forman SA, Flood P, Raines DE. Nicotinic Channels and Anesthetics. Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia--Antognini JF, Carstens E, Raines DE, eds. 2003; 283-297.
  74. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Forman SA. Modulation of GABA(A) receptor function by nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics: the effects on agonist enhancement, direct activation, and inhibition. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jan; 96(1):112-8, table of contents. PMID: 12505935.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Forman SA. Regions of the GABAA receptor gamma subunit affecting sensitivity to volatile agents. Anesthesiology. 2002.
  76. Scheller M, Forman SA. Coupled and uncoupled gating and desensitization effects by pore domain mutations in GABA(A) receptors. J Neurosci. 2002 Oct 01; 22(19):8411-21. PMID: 12351715.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Forman SA. Nonhalogenated anesthetic alkanes and perhalogenated nonimmobilizing alkanes inhibit alpha(4)beta(2) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Anesth Analg. 2002 Sep; 95(3):573-7, table of contents. PMID: 12198040.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Raines DE, Scheller M, Forman SA, Claycomb J. Selective receptor actions of nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 163-164.
  79. Forman SA, Zhou QL. Irreversible inhibition of nAChR by photo-incorporation of anesthetic 3-azioctanol. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 126.
  80. Claycomb, RJ, Forman SA, Raines DE. Inhibition of alpha-4/beta-2 Rat Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors by Nonhalogenated Alkane Anesthetics and Perhalogenated Alkane Nonimmobilizers. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 115-119.
  81. Forman SA. Administration of General Anesthesia. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital--Hurford WE, Bailin MT, Davison JK, Haspel KL, Rosow C, eds. 2002; 210-219.
  82. Forman, S.A. Hypothermia: Mechanisms and Clinical Impact (Powerpoint Presentation and handout). 2002.
  83. Forman SA. Ligand-gated ion channel pore domains and anesthetics. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 125.
  84. Scheller M, Forman SA. Two GABA(A) receptor pore mutations differentially affect anesthetic sensitivity and gating kinetics. Anesthesiology. 2001.
  85. Raines DE, Claycomb R, Scheller M, Forman SA . Nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics act with specificity on ligand-gated ion channels. Anesthesiology. 2001.
  86. Zhou Q, Forman SA. Irreversible inhibition by photo-incorporation of anesthetic 3-azi-octanol in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Anesthesiology. 2001.
  87. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Scheller M, Forman SA. Nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics fail to potentiate agonist actions on two ligand-gated ion channels. Anesthesiology. 2001 Aug; 95(2):470-7. PMID: 11506122.
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  88. Scheller M, Forman SA. The gamma subunit determines whether anesthetic-induced leftward shift is altered by a mutation at alpha1S270 in alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptors. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jul; 95(1):123-31. PMID: 11465549.
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  89. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Scheller M, Forman SA. Nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics fail to potentiate agonist actions on two ligand-gated ion channels at clinically relevant concentrations. Biophysical J. 2001; 80:103a.
  90. Scheller M, Forman SA. Two mutations in the GABAAR pore domain selectively alter deactivation and desensitization rates. Biophysical J. 2001; 80:107a.
  91. Scheller M, Forman SA. Butanol effects on gamma-amino butyric acid concentration-responses in human alpha1beta2gamma2L gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptors with a mutation at alpha1S270. Neurosci Lett. 2001 Jan 19; 297(3):179-82. PMID: 11137757.
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  92. Raines, DE, Forman SA. Molecular Mechanisms of Anesthesia (electronic media chapter). 2001.
  93. Forman SA. Molecular Bases of Anesthesia (Book review). Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2001; 93:806-807.
  94. Zhou QL, Zhou Q, Forman SA. The n-alcohol site in the nicotinic receptor pore is a hydrophobic patch. Biochemistry. 2000 Dec 05; 39(48):14920-6. PMID: 11101308.
    View in: PubMed
  95. Scheller M, Forman SA. General anesthetic effects on the Ą-S270I mutation in a1b2g2L GABA-A receptors. Anesthesiology. 2000; v(3A):A-810.
  96. Forman SA, Zhou QL. Mutation of an anesthetic-photolabeled residue in the nAChR pore alters sensitivity to GAs. Anesthesiology. 2000; 93(3A):A-774.
  97. Forman SA, Zhou Q. Nicotinic receptor pore mutations create a sensitive inhibitory site for ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000 Sep; 24(9):1363-8. PMID: 11003201.
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  98. Forman SA, Zhou Q. Curare agonism in nAChR: asymmetric forces on M2 domains. Biophysical J. 2000; 78:359A.
  99. Pratt MB, Forman SA, Husain SS, Dubois B, Kloczewiak MA, Addona GH, Yu J, Chiara DC, Cohen JB, Miller KW. Sites of Anesthetic Action on the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Progress in Anesthetic Mechanism. 2000; 6:285-291.
  100. Forman SA. A hydrophobic photolabel inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via open-channel block following a slow step. Biochemistry. 1999 Nov 02; 38(44):14559-64. PMID: 10545178.
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  101. Husain SS, Forman SA, Kloczewiak MA, Addona GH, Olsen RW, Pratt MB, Cohen JB, Miller KW. Synthesis and properties of 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-n-pentyldiazirine, a photoactivable general anesthetic. J Med Chem. 1999 Aug 26; 42(17):3300-7. PMID: 10464016.
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  102. Stuart A. Forman. Mechanisms of General Anesthesia (Powerpoint Presentation and lecture notes). 1999.
  103. Forman SA, Zhou Q. Novel modulation of a nicotinic receptor channel mutant reveals that the open state is stabilized by ethanol. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jan; 55(1):102-8. PMID: 9882703.
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  104. Forman SA. Direct interactions of anesthetics and nonanesthetics with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor pore. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Nov 23; 100-101:169-78. PMID: 10049138.
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  105. Zhou Q, Forman SA. Hydrophobic scanning mutagenesis maps the hexanol site in the nicotinic receptor pore. Anesthesiology. 1998; 89:A702.
  106. Miller KW, Addona GH, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Husain SS, Kloczewiak MA, Olsen RW. Probing anesthetic sites of action with a novel general anesthetic; 3,3-azi-octan-1-ol. Anesthesiology. 1998; 89:A732.
  107. Forman SA, Raines DE. Nonanesthetic volatile drugs obey the Meyer-Overton correlation in two molecular protein site models. Anesthesiology. 1998 Jun; 88(6):1535-48. PMID: 9637648.
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  108. Forman SA, Zhou Q. Scanning hydrophobic mutagenesis maps a discrete region of the nAChR pore that interacts with ethanol. Alcoholism. 1998; 22:46A .
  109. Forman SA, Zhou Q. A pore mutation reveals that ethanol stabilizes the open nAChR receptor state. Alcoholism. 1998; 22:46A .
  110. Forman SA, Zhou Q. Leftward Shift of ACh concentration-response curves by ethanol is unaffected by nAChR pore mutations. Alcoholism. 1998; 22:47A .
  111. Bergwitz C, Klein P, Kohno H, Forman SA, Lee K, Rubin D, Jüppner H. Identification, functional characterization, and developmental expression of two nonallelic parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor isoforms in Xenopus laevis (Daudin). Endocrinology. 1998 Feb; 139(2):723-32. PMID: 9449646.
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  112. Bergwitz C, Klein P, Kohno H, Forman SA, Lee K, Rubin D, Ju Ppner H. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Developmental Expression of Two Nonallelic Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/PTH-Related Peptide Receptor Isoforms in Xenopus laevis (Daudin). Endocrinology. 1998 Feb 01; 139(2):723-732. PMID: 28199655.
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  113. Forman SA, Culley DJ. Administration of General Anesthesia. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital--Hurford WE, Bailin MT, Davison JK, Haspel KL, Rosow C, eds. 1998; 223-232.
  114. Forman SA. Homologous mutations on different subunits cause unequal but additive effects on n-alcohol block in the nicotinic receptor pore. Biophys J. 1997 May; 72(5):2170-9. PMID: 9129819; PMCID: PMC1184411.
  115. Forman SA. Ethanol interactions with nicotinic ACh receptor probed in an alcohol-sensitive mutant, alpha-S10'I+beta-T10'I. Biophys. J. 1997; 72 (2):A152.
  116. Forman SA, Miller KW, Raines DE. Interactions of general anesthetics with membranes. J.F. Biebuyck, C.Lynch III, M. Maze, L.J. Saidman, T.L Yaksh, W.M. Zapol, eds. Anesthesia: Biologic Foundations. 1997; 5-18.
  117. Forman SA. Homologous Hydrophobic mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, beta and gamma subunit M2 domains contribute unequally but additively to anesthetic binding energy. Anesthesiology. 1996; 85 (3A):A686.
  118. Forman SA, Yellen G, Thiele EA. Alternative mechanism for pathogenesis of an inherited epilepsy by a nicotinic AChR mutation. Nat Genet. 1996 Aug; 13(4):396-7. PMID: 8696332.
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  119. Forman SA, Miller KW, Yellen G. A discrete site for general anesthetics on a postsynaptic receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Oct; 48(4):574-81. PMID: 7476881.
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  120. Zaret BL, Wackers FJ, Terrin ML, Forman SA, Williams DO, Knatterud GL, Braunwald E. Value of radionuclide rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fraction in assessing survival of patients after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: results of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) phase II study. The TIMI Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Jul; 26(1):73-9. PMID: 7797778.
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  121. Forman SA, Yellen G, Miller KW. A Site in the acetylcholine receptor’s channel modulates ethanol’s action. Alcoholism. 1995; 19:87A.
  122. Forman SA, Miller KW, Yellen G. General anesthetics bind in the transmembrane pore of a neurotransmitter receptor protein. Proceedings of 42nd Annual AUA Meeting. 1995; 60-61.
  123. Forman SA, Miller KW, Yellen G. Hydrophobic mutations in the M2 domain of nicotinic ACh receptors modulate n-alcohol blocking potencies. Biophys. J. 1995; 68:A233.
  124. Eckhardt WR, Forman SA, Denman W, Grillo HC, Muehrcke D. Another use for the Laryngeal Mask Airway- Tracheoplasty for Tracheopathica Osteoplastica. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 1995; 80:622-624.
  125. Forman SA, Miller KW, Yellen G. General Anesthetic Potency is Unaltered by Mutations in the M2 (Ion Channel) Domains of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor that Modulate Local Anesthetic Potency. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81(3A):A873.
  126. Alifimoff JK, Bugge B, Forman SA, Miller KW. Stereoselectivity of channel inhibition by secondary alkanol enantiomers at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Anesthesiology. 1993 Jul; 79(1):122-8. PMID: 7688196.
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  127. Wood SC, Forman SA, Miller KW. Short chain and long chain alkanols have different sites of action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels from Torpedo. Mol Pharmacol. 1991 Mar; 39(3):332-8. PMID: 1706469.
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  128. Miller KW, Wood SC, Forman SA, Bugge B, Hill WA, Abadji V. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in its membrane environment. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 625:600-15. PMID: 1711816.
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  129. Forman SA, Righi DL, Miller KW. Ethanol increases agonist affinity for nicotinic receptors from Torpedo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Dec 11; 987(1):95-103. PMID: 2597688.
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  130. Roth SH, Forman SA, Braswell LM, Miller KW. Actions of pentobarbital enantiomers on nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1989 Dec; 36(6):874-80. PMID: 2481226.
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  131. Forman SA, Miller KW. Molecular sites of anesthetic action in postsynaptic nicotinic membranes. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1989 Nov; 10(11):447-52. PMID: 2692257.
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  132. Forman SA, Miller KW. Procaine rapidly inactivates acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and competes with agonist for inhibition sites. Biochemistry. 1989 Feb 21; 28(4):1678-85. PMID: 2719927.
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  133. Forman SA. Inhibition of cation channel function at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo: agonist self-inhibition and anesthetic drugs [Dissertation]. 1989.
  134. Forman SA, Miller KW. High acetylcholine concentrations cause rapid inactivation before fast desensitization in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo. Biophys J. 1988 Jul; 54(1):149-58. PMID: 3416024; PMCID: PMC1330324.
  135. Forman SA, Firestone LL, Miller KW. Is agonist self-inhibition at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor a nonspecific action? Biochemistry. 1987 May 19; 26(10):2807-14. PMID: 3038165.
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  136. Forman SA, Firestone LL, Miller KW. Agonist self-inhibition at the nicotinic receptor: additive effects of other inhibitors. Biophys. J. 1987; 51:62a.
  137. Miller KW, Firestone LL, Forman SA. General anesthetic and specific effects of ethanol on acetylcholine receptors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987; 492:71-87. PMID: 2440361.
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  138. Miller KW, Firestone LL, Forman SA. General anesthetic and specific effects of ethanol on acetylcholine receptors. E. Rubin, ed. Alcohol and the Cell. 1987; 492:71-87.
  139. Miller KW, Braswell LM, Firestone LL, Dodson BA, Forman SA. General anesthetics act both specifically and non-specifically on acetylcholine receptors. S.H. Roth, K.W. Miller, eds. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Anesthetics. 1986; 125-137.
  140. Forman SA, Verkman AS, Dix JA, Solomon AK. n-Alkanols and halothane inhibit red cell anion transport and increase band 3 conformational change rate. Biochemistry. 1985 Aug 27; 24(18):4859-66. PMID: 4074663.
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  141. Forman SA, Miller KW. Ethanol enhances, octanol and pentobarbital inhibit flux in Torpedo AChR vesicles. 1984.
  142. Ackerman JR, Forman SA, Katz L, Kohler BE, Wu CT. Photochemical site conversion: octatetraene in n-octane. Journal of Chemical Physics. 1984; 81:3387-3392.
  143. Ackerman JR, Forman SA, Hossain M, Kohler BE. s-cis Octatetraene: photoproduction and spectroscopic properties. Journal of Chemical Physics. 1984; 80:39-44.
  144. Forman SA, Verkman AS, Dix JA, Solomon AK. Interaction of phloretin with the anion transport protein of the red blood cell membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Aug 12; 689(3):531-8. PMID: 7126563.
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  145. Forman SA Verkman AS Dix, JA, Solomon AK. Effect of lipid perturbants on red cell band 3 conformational states. Biophys. J. 1982; 37:216a.
  146. Forman SA Verkman AS Dix, JA, Solomon AK. . Phloretin binds to band 3, the anion transport protein of the red blood cell membrane. Biophys. J. 1981; 33:48a.
  147. Forman SA. Photolysis of all-trans. octatetraene at 4 degrees Celsius [Honors Thesis]. 1980.
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Funded by the NIH/NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, grant number UL1TR001102, and through institutional support from Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.