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profileEdwin Choy, M.D.,Ph.D.

TitleAssistant Professor of Medicine
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentMedicine
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
Yawkey 7B
55 Fruit St
Boston MA 02114
Phone617/724-4000
Fax617/643-1915
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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Liao Y, Sassi S, Halvorsen S, Feng Y, Shen J, Gao Y, Cote G, Choy E, Harmon D, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Androgen receptor is a potential novel prognostic marker and oncogenic target in osteosarcoma with dependence on CDK11. Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 06; 7:43941. PMID: 28262798.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Gao Y, Shen J, Choy E, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Inhibition of CDK4 sensitizes multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel by increasing apoptosiss. Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2017 Feb 27. PMID: 28243976.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Min L, Choy E, Pollock RE, Tu C, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Autophagy as a potential target for sarcoma treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Feb 24; 1868(1):40-50. PMID: 28242349.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Sebro R, DeLaney TF, Hornicek F, Schwab J, Choy E, Nielsen GP, Rosenthal DI. Frequency and Risk Factors for Additional Lesions in the Axial Spine in Subjects With Chordoma: Indications for Screening. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jan 01; 42(1):E37-E40. PMID: 27254658.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Liu T, Li Z, Zhang Q, De Amorim Bernstein K, Lozano-Calderon S, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Targeting ABCB1 (MDR1) in multi-drug resistant osteosarcoma cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to reverse drug resistance. Oncotarget. 2016 Dec 13; 7(50):83502-83513. PMID: 27835872.
    View in: PubMed
  6. De Amorim Bernstein K, Liebsch N, Chen YL, Niemierko A, Schwab JH, Raskin K, Lozano-Calderon SA, Cote G, Harmon DC, Choy E, Haynes A, Mullen J, Hornicek FJ, DeLaney TF. Clinical outcomes for patients after surgery and radiation therapy for mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. J Surg Oncol. 2016 Dec; 114(8):982-986. PMID: 27790706.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Duan Z, Gao Y, Shen J, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Bernstein K, Lozano-Calderon S, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ. miR-15b modulates multidrug resistance in human osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. Mol Oncol. 2017 Feb; 11(2):151-166. PMID: 28145098.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Kabolizadeh P, Chen YL, Liebsch N, Hornicek FJ, Schwab JH, Choy E, Rosenthal DI, Niemierko A, DeLaney TF. Updated Outcome and Analysis of Tumor Response in Mobile Spine and Sacral Chordoma Treated With Definitive High-Dose Photon/Proton Radiation Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Feb 01; 97(2):254-262. PMID: 27986348.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Schuetze SM, Bolejack V, Choy E, Ganjoo KN, Staddon AP, Chow WA, Tawbi HA, Samuels BL, Patel SR, von Mehren M, D'Amato G, Leu KM, Loeb DM, Forscher CA, Milhem MM, Rushing DA, Lucas DR, Chugh R, Reinke DK, Baker LH. Phase 2 study of dasatinib in patients with alveolar soft part sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, chordoma, epithelioid sarcoma, or solitary fibrous tumor. Cancer. 2017 Jan 01; 123(1):90-97. PMID: 27696380.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Molina G, Hull MA, Chen YL, DeLaney TF, De Amorim Bernstein K, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon DC, Mullen JT, Haynes AB. Preoperative radiation therapy combined with radical surgical resection is associated with a lower rate of local recurrence when treating unifocal, primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma. J Surg Oncol. 2016 Dec; 114(7):814-820. PMID: 27634478.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Ryan CW, Merimsky O, Agulnik M, Blay JY, Schuetze SM, Van Tine BA, Jones RL, Elias AD, Choy E, Alcindor T, Keedy VL, Reed DR, Taub RN, Italiano A, Garcia Del Muro X, Judson IR, Buck JY, Lebel F, Lewis JJ, Maki RG, Schöffski P. PICASSO III: A Phase III, Placebo-Controlled Study of Doxorubicin With or Without Palifosfamide in Patients With Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 12. PMID: 27621408.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Sebro R, DeLaney T, Hornicek F, Schwab J, Choy E, Nielsen GP, Rosenthal DI. Differences in sex distribution, anatomic location and MR imaging appearance of pediatric compared to adult chordomas. BMC Med Imaging. 2016 Sep 08; 16(1):53. PMID: 27609115; PMCID: PMC5016865.
  13. Jung J, Lee JS, Dickson MA, Schwartz GK, Le Cesne A, Varga A, Bahleda R, Wagner AJ, Choy E, de Jonge MJ, Light M, Rowley S, Macé S, Watters J. TP53 mutations emerge with HDM2 inhibitor SAR405838 treatment in de-differentiated liposarcoma. Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 31; 7:12609. PMID: 27576846.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Chen YL, Rosenthal DI, Kerr DA. CASE RECORDS of the MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL. Case 26-2016. A 28-Year-Old Woman with Back Pain and a Lesion in the Lumbar Spine. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 25; 375(8):779-88. PMID: 27557305.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Ahmad R, Jacobson A, Hornicek F, Haynes AB, Choy E, Cote G, Nielsen GP, Chen YL, DeLaney TF, Mullen JT. The Width of the Surgical Margin Does Not Influence Outcomes in Extremity and Truncal Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treated With Radiotherapy. Oncologist. 2016 Oct; 21(10):1269-1276. PMID: 27440063.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Liu X, Gao Y, Shen J, Yang W, Choy E, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 11 (CDK11) Is Required for Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo, and Its Inhibition Causes Apoptosis and Sensitizes Cells to Paclitaxel. Mol Cancer Ther. 2016 Jul; 15(7):1691-701. PMID: 27207777; PMCID: PMC4936930 [Available on 07/01/17].
  17. Gao Y, Shen JK, Choy E, Zhang Z, Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of NSC23925b, a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor: preclinical study in mice and rats. Sci Rep. 2016 May 09; 6:25659. PMID: 27157103; PMCID: PMC4860631.
  18. Shen JK, Cote GM, Gao Y, Choy E, Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Targeting EZH2-mediated methylation of H3K27 inhibits proliferation and migration of Synovial Sarcoma in vitro. Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 29; 6:25239. PMID: 27125524; PMCID: PMC4850444.
  19. Schöffski P, Chawla S, Maki RG, Italiano A, Gelderblom H, Choy E, Grignani G, Camargo V, Bauer S, Rha SY, Blay JY, Hohenberger P, D'Adamo D, Guo M, Chmielowski B, Le Cesne A, Demetri GD, Patel SR. Eribulin versus dacarbazine in previously treated patients with advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma: a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2016 Apr 16; 387(10028):1629-37. PMID: 26874885.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Gao Y, Liao Y, Shen JK, Feng Y, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Evaluation of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression in human osteosarcoma by high-throughput tissue microarray. J Orthop Res. 2016 Sep; 34(9):1606-12. PMID: 26790551.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Wang H, Jacobson A, Harmon DC, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Raskin KA, Chebib IA, DeLaney TF, Chen YL. Prognostic factors in alveolar soft part sarcoma: A SEER analysis. J Surg Oncol. 2016 Apr; 113(5):581-6. PMID: 26804150.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Liu T, Shen JK, Li Z, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Development and potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology in sarcoma. Cancer Lett. 2016 Apr 01; 373(1):109-18. PMID: 26806808; PMCID: PMC4772675 [Available on 04/01/17].
  23. Ye S, Zhang J, Shen J, Gao Y, Li Y, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Mankin H, Gray NS, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. NVP-TAE684 reverses multidrug resistance (MDR) in human osteosarcoma by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (PGP1) function. Br J Pharmacol. 2016 Feb; 173(3):613-26. PMID: 26603906; PMCID: PMC4728419 [Available on 02/01/17].
  24. Wojcik J, Rosenberg AE, Bredella MA, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Nielsen GP, Deshpande V. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016 Jan; 40(1):72-80. PMID: 26414220.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Liao Y, Feng Y, Shen J, Gao Y, Cote G, Choy E, Harmon D, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Clinical and biological significance of PIM1 kinase in osteosarcoma. J Orthop Res. 2016 Jul; 34(7):1185-94. PMID: 26687194.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Schuetze SM, Wathen JK, Lucas DR, Choy E, Samuels BL, Staddon AP, Ganjoo KN, von Mehren M, Chow WA, Loeb DM, Tawbi HA, Rushing DA, Patel SR, Thomas DG, Chugh R, Reinke DK, Baker LH. SARC009: Phase 2 study of dasatinib in patients with previously treated, high-grade, advanced sarcoma. Cancer. 2016 Mar 15; 122(6):868-74. PMID: 26710211.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Ye S, Shen J, Choy E, Yang C, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. p53 overexpression increases chemosensitivity in multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016 Feb; 77(2):349-56. PMID: 26698867; PMCID: PMC4749432 [Available on 02/01/17].
  28. Chen H, Shen J, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma. Cancer Treat Rev. 2016 Feb; 43:8-18. PMID: 26827688; PMCID: PMC4735639 [Available on 02/01/17].
  29. Sun R, Shen JK, Choy E, Yu Z, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. The emerging roles and therapeutic potential of microRNAs (miRs) in liposarcoma. Discov Med. 2015 Nov; 20(111):311-24. PMID: 26645903.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Lim SY, Rastalsky N, Choy E, Bolster MB. Tibial stress reaction presenting as bilateral shin pain in a man taking denosumab for giant cell tumor of the bone. Bone. 2015 Dec; 81:31-5. PMID: 26117225.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Gao Y, Feng Y, Shen JK, Lin M, Choy E, Cote GM, Harmon DC, Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. CD44 is a direct target of miR-199a-3p and contributes to aggressive progression in osteosarcoma. Sci Rep. 2015 Jun 16; 5:11365. PMID: 26079799; PMCID: PMC4468826.
  32. Feng Y, Shen J, Gao Y, Liao Y, Cote G, Choy E, Chebib I, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in chordoma. Oncotarget. 2015 May 10; 6(13):11139-49. PMID: 25871477; PMCID: PMC4484445.
  33. Osaka E, Kelly AD, Spentzos D, Choy E, Yang X, Shen JK, Yang P, Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. MicroRNA-155 expression is independently predictive of outcome in chordoma. Oncotarget. 2015 Apr 20; 6(11):9125-39. PMID: 25823817; PMCID: PMC4496207.
  34. Yang X, Iyer AK, Singh A, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Amiji MM, Duan Z. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer. Sci Rep. 2015 Feb 17; 5:8509. PMID: 25687880; PMCID: PMC4330541.
  35. Yang X, Feng Y, Gao Y, Shen J, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Zhang Z, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. NSC23925 prevents the emergence of multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Gynecol Oncol. 2015 Apr; 137(1):134-42. PMID: 25677062.
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  36. Lee HJ, Yoon C, Park DJ, Kim YJ, Schmidt B, Lee YJ, Tap WD, Eisinger-Mathason TS, Choy E, Kirsch DG, Simon MC, Yoon SS. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor A and hypoxia-inducible factor 1a maximizes the effects of radiation in sarcoma mouse models through destruction of tumor vasculature. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Mar 01; 91(3):621-30. PMID: 25544668; PMCID: PMC4559849.
  37. Choy E, Flamand Y, Balasubramanian S, Butrynski JE, Harmon DC, George S, Cote GM, Wagner AJ, Morgan JA, Sirisawad M, Mani C, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z, Demetri GD. Phase 1 study of oral abexinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with doxorubicin in patients with metastatic sarcoma. Cancer. 2015 Apr 15; 121(8):1223-30. PMID: 25536954; PMCID: PMC4393337 [Available on 04/15/16].
  38. Yang X, Iyer AK, Singh A, Milane L, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Amiji MM, Duan Z. Cluster of Differentiation 44 Targeted Hyaluronic Acid Based Nanoparticles for MDR1 siRNA Delivery to Overcome Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer. Pharm Res. 2015 Jun; 32(6):2097-109. PMID: 25515492; PMCID: PMC4425596.
  39. Choy E, Butrynski JE, Harmon DC, Morgan JA, George S, Wagner AJ, D'Adamo D, Cote GM, Flamand Y, Benes CH, Haber DA, Baselga JM, Demetri GD. Phase II study of olaparib in patients with refractory Ewing sarcoma following failure of standard chemotherapy. BMC Cancer. 2014 Nov 05; 14:813. PMID: 25374341; PMCID: PMC4230717.
  40. Choy E, Attar EC, Oh KS, Huang AJ, Kerr DA. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 33-2014. A 60-year-old man with bone pain. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 23; 371(17):1630-40. PMID: 25337753.
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  41. Duan Z, Zhang J, Ye S, Shen J, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Mankin H, Hua Y, Zhang Y, Gray NS, Hornicek FJ. A-770041 reverses paclitaxel and doxorubicin resistance in osteosarcoma cells. BMC Cancer. 2014 Sep 19; 14:681. PMID: 25236161; PMCID: PMC4177239.
  42. Shen JK, Cote GM, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Targeting programmed cell death ligand 1 in osteosarcoma: an auto-commentary on therapeutic potential. Oncoimmunology. 2014; 3(8):e954467. PMID: 25610746.
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  43. Mullen JT, Hornicek FJ, Harmon DC, Raskin KA, Chen YL, Szymonifka J, Yeap BY, Choy E, DeLaney TF, Nielsen GP. Prognostic significance of treatment-induced pathologic necrosis in extremity and truncal soft tissue sarcoma after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Cancer. 2014 Dec 01; 120(23):3676-82. PMID: 25081640; PMCID: PMC4239184.
  44. Choy E, MacConaill LE, Cote GM, Le LP, Shen JK, Nielsen GP, Iafrate AJ, Garraway LA, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Genotyping cancer-associated genes in chordoma identifies mutations in oncogenes and areas of chromosomal loss involving CDKN2A, PTEN, and SMARCB1. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101283. PMID: 24983247; PMCID: PMC4077728.
  45. Choy E. Sarcoma after 5 years of progression-free survival: lessons from the French sarcoma group. Cancer. 2014 Oct 01; 120(19):2942-3. PMID: 24942785.
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  46. Shen JK, Cote GM, Choy E, Yang P, Harmon D, Schwab J, Nielsen GP, Chebib I, Ferrone S, Wang X, Wang Y, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in osteosarcoma. Cancer Immunol Res. 2014 Jul; 2(7):690-8. PMID: 24866169; PMCID: PMC4082476.
  47. Guo S, Lopez-Marquez H, Fan KC, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Nielsen GP, Yang C, Zhang C, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Borger DR, Duan Z. Synergistic effects of targeted PI3K signaling inhibition and chemotherapy in liposarcoma. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93996. PMID: 24695632; PMCID: PMC3973642.
  48. Duan Z, Shen J, Yang X, Yang P, Osaka E, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Zhang Y, Nielsen GP, Spentzos D, Mankin H, Hornicek F. Prognostic significance of miRNA-1 (miR-1) expression in patients with chordoma. J Orthop Res. 2014 May; 32(5):695-701. PMID: 24501096; PMCID: PMC4049352.
  49. Shinagare AB, Jagannathan JP, Kurra V, Urban T, Manola J, Choy E, Demetri GD, George S, Ramaiya NH. Comparison of performance of various tumour response criteria in assessment of regorafenib activity in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib. Eur J Cancer. 2014 Mar; 50(5):981-6. PMID: 24388774; PMCID: PMC4242716.
  50. Cheney MD, Giraud C, Goldberg SI, Rosenthal DI, Hornicek FJ, Choy E, Mullen JT, Chen YL, Delaney TF. MRI surveillance following treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcoma. J Surg Oncol. 2014 May; 109(6):593-6. PMID: 24374823.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Choy E, Jacobs IA. Biosimilar safety considerations in clinical practice. Semin Oncol. 2014 Feb; 41 Suppl 1:S3-14. PMID: 24560025.
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  52. Gullick NJ, Abozaid HS, Jayaraj DM, Evans HG, Scott DL, Choy EH, Taams LS. Enhanced and persistent levels of interleukin (IL)-17? CD4? T cells and serum IL-17 in patients with early inflammatory arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Nov; 174(2):292-301. PMID: 23815507; PMCID: PMC3828833.
  53. Ceeraz S, Hall C, Choy EH, Spencer J, Corrigall VM. Defective CD8+CD28+ regulatory T cell suppressor function in rheumatoid arthritis is restored by tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Oct; 174(1):18-26. PMID: 23786396; PMCID: PMC3784209.
  54. Zhang L, Guo S, Schwab JH, Nielsen GP, Choy E, Ye S, Zhang Z, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical detection of brachyury is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75851. PMID: 24086644; PMCID: PMC3781148.
  55. Jia B, Choy E, Cote G, Harmon D, Ye S, Kan Q, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11) is crucial in the growth of liposarcoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2014 Jan 01; 342(1):104-12. PMID: 24007862; PMCID: PMC4128631.
  56. Cote GM, Choy E. Role of epigenetic modulation for the treatment of sarcoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2013 Sep; 14(3):454-64. PMID: 23749746.
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  57. Mullen JT, DeLaney TF, Rosenberg AE, Le L, Iafrate AJ, Kobayashi W, Szymonifka J, Yeap BY, Chen YL, Harmon DC, Choy E, Yoon SS, Raskin KA, Hornicek FJ, Nielsen GP. ß-Catenin mutation status and outcomes in sporadic desmoid tumors. Oncologist. 2013; 18(9):1043-9. PMID: 23960186; PMCID: PMC3780636.
  58. Cote GM, Choy E. Update in treatment and targets in Ewing sarcoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2013 Oct; 27(5):1007-19. PMID: 24093173.
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  59. Chawla S, Henshaw R, Seeger L, Choy E, Blay JY, Ferrari S, Kroep J, Grimer R, Reichardt P, Rutkowski P, Schuetze S, Skubitz K, Staddon A, Thomas D, Qian Y, Jacobs I. Safety and efficacy of denosumab for adults and skeletally mature adolescents with giant cell tumour of bone: interim analysis of an open-label, parallel-group, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Aug; 14(9):901-8. PMID: 23867211.
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  60. Look Hong NJ, Hornicek FJ, Harmon DC, Choy E, Chen YL, Yoon SS, Nielsen GP, Szymonifka J, Yeap BY, DeLaney TF, Mullen JT. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for patients with high-risk extremity and truncal sarcomas: a 10-year single institution retrospective study. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Mar; 49(4):875-83. PMID: 23092789; PMCID: PMC3777719.
  61. Yang W, Liu X, Choy E, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Targeting hedgehog-GLI-2 pathway in osteosarcoma. J Orthop Res. 2013 Mar; 31(3):502-9. PMID: 22968906.
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  62. Mullen JT, Delaney TF, Kobayashi WK, Szymonifka J, Yeap BY, Chen YL, Rosenberg AE, Harmon DC, Choy E, Yoon SS, Raskin KA, Petur Nielsen G, Hornicek FJ. Desmoid tumor: analysis of prognostic factors and outcomes in a surgical series. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Dec; 19(13):4028-35. PMID: 22965569.
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  63. Duan Z, Zhang J, Choy E, Harmon D, Liu X, Nielsen P, Mankin H, Gray NS, Hornicek FJ. Systematic kinome shRNA screening identifies CDK11 (PITSLRE) kinase expression is critical for osteosarcoma cell growth and proliferation. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Sep 01; 18(17):4580-8. PMID: 22791884.
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  64. George S, Wang Q, Heinrich MC, Corless CL, Zhu M, Butrynski JE, Morgan JA, Wagner AJ, Choy E, Tap WD, Yap JT, Van den Abbeele AD, Manola JB, Solomon SM, Fletcher JA, von Mehren M, Demetri GD. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic and/or unresectable GI stromal tumor after failure of imatinib and sunitinib: a multicenter phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 01; 30(19):2401-7. PMID: 22614970; PMCID: PMC3675695.
  65. Wagner AJ, Goldberg JM, Dubois SG, Choy E, Rosen L, Pappo A, Geller J, Judson I, Hogg D, Senzer N, Davis IJ, Chai F, Waghorne C, Schwartz B, Demetri GD. Tivantinib (ARQ 197), a selective inhibitor of MET, in patients with microphthalmia transcription factor-associated tumors: results of a multicenter phase 2 trial. Cancer. 2012 Dec 01; 118(23):5894-902. PMID: 22605650.
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  66. Liu X, Nielsen GP, Rosenberg AE, Waterman PR, Yang W, Choy E, Sassi S, Yang S, Harmon DC, Yang C, Schwab JH, Kobayashi E, Mankin HJ, Xavier R, Weissleder R, Duan Z, Hornicek FJ. Establishment and characterization of a novel chordoma cell line: CH22. J Orthop Res. 2012 Oct; 30(10):1666-73. PMID: 22504929.
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  67. Duan Z, Li X, Huang H, Yuan W, Zheng SL, Liu X, Zhang Z, Choy E, Harmon D, Mankin H, Hornicek F. Synthesis and evaluation of (2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-quinolinyl)(2-piperidinyl)methanol (NSC23925) isomers to reverse multidrug resistance in cancer. J Med Chem. 2012 Apr 12; 55(7):3113-21. PMID: 22400811.
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  68. Mullen JT, Kobayashi W, Wang JJ, Harmon DC, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Rosenberg AE, Chen YL, Spiro IJ, DeLaney TF. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for large, extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 2012 Aug 01; 118(15):3758-65. PMID: 22180344.
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  69. Choy E, Hornicek F, MacConaill L, Harmon D, Tariq Z, Garraway L, Duan Z. High-throughput genotyping in osteosarcoma identifies multiple mutations in phosphoinositide-3-kinase and other oncogenes. Cancer. 2012 Jun 01; 118(11):2905-14. PMID: 22006429; PMCID: PMC3272156.
  70. Duan Z, Choy E, Harmon D, Liu X, Susa M, Mankin H, Hornicek F. MicroRNA-199a-3p is downregulated in human osteosarcoma and regulates cell proliferation and migration. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011 Aug; 10(8):1337-45. PMID: 21666078; PMCID: PMC3711153.
  71. Liu X, Choy E, Harmon D, Yang S, Yang C, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ, Duan Z. Inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 leads to the suppression of osteosarcoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Anticancer Drugs. 2011 Jun; 22(5):444-53. PMID: 21399492.
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  72. Yang C, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Schwab JH, Liu X, Mankin H, Duan Z. Histone deacetylase inhibitor PCI-24781 enhances chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in multidrug-resistant sarcoma cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2011 Apr; 31(4):1115-23. PMID: 21508354; PMCID: PMC3744220.
  73. Ciernik IF, Niemierko A, Harmon DC, Kobayashi W, Chen YL, Yock TI, Ebb DH, Choy E, Raskin KA, Liebsch N, Hornicek FJ, Delaney TF. Proton-based radiotherapy for unresectable or incompletely resected osteosarcoma. Cancer. 2011 Oct 01; 117(19):4522-30. PMID: 21448934; PMCID: PMC3716000.
  74. Liu X, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Yang S, Yang C, Harmon D, Mankin H, Duan Z. ROCK1 as a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma. J Orthop Res. 2011 Aug; 29(8):1259-66. PMID: 21387396.
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  75. Yoon SS, Duda DG, Karl DL, Kim TM, Kambadakone AR, Chen YL, Rothrock C, Rosenberg AE, Nielsen GP, Kirsch DG, Choy E, Harmon DC, Hornicek FJ, Dreyfuss J, Ancukiewicz M, Sahani DV, Park PJ, Jain RK, Delaney TF. Phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab and radiotherapy for resectable soft tissue sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Nov 15; 81(4):1081-90. PMID: 20932656; PMCID: PMC3021107.
  76. Susa M, Choy E, Liu X, Schwab J, Hornicek FJ, Mankin H, Duan Z. Cyclin G-associated kinase is necessary for osteosarcoma cell proliferation and receptor trafficking. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Dec; 9(12):3342-50. PMID: 20881269.
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  77. Yang C, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Schwab JH, Choy E, Mankin H, Duan Z. Blockage of Stat3 with CDDO-Me inhibits tumor cell growth in chordoma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Aug 15; 35(18):1668-75. PMID: 20386502.
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  78. Guo Y, Nemeth J, O'Brien C, Susa M, Liu X, Zhang Z, Choy E, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Effects of siltuximab on the IL-6-induced signaling pathway in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Dec 01; 16(23):5759-69. PMID: 20699329.
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  79. Ryu K, Choy E, Yang C, Susa M, Hornicek FJ, Mankin H, Duan Z. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway in osteosarcoma cells and overexpression of phosphorylated-Stat3 correlates with poor prognosis. J Orthop Res. 2010 Jul; 28(7):971-8. PMID: 20063378.
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  80. Duan Z, Choy E, Nielsen GP, Rosenberg A, Iafrate J, Yang C, Schwab J, Mankin H, Xavier R, Hornicek FJ. Differential expression of microRNA (miRNA) in chordoma reveals a role for miRNA-1 in Met expression. J Orthop Res. 2010 Jun; 28(6):746-52. PMID: 20041488.
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  81. Yang C, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Schwab JH, Choy E, Iafrate J, Rosenberg A, Nielsen GP, Xavier RJ, Mankin H, Duan Z. Characterization and analysis of human chordoma cell lines. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Jun 01; 35(13):1257-64. PMID: 20461036; PMCID: PMC3769690.
  82. Susa M, Iyer AK, Ryu K, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Mankin H, Milane L, Amiji MM, Duan Z. Inhibition of ABCB1 (MDR1) expression by an siRNA nanoparticulate delivery system to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma. PLoS One. 2010 May 24; 5(5):e10764. PMID: 20520719; PMCID: PMC2875382.
  83. Yang C, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Schwab JH, Liu X, Mankin H, Duan Z. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) PCI-24781 potentiates cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in bone sarcoma cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Feb; 67(2):439-46. PMID: 20461381.
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  84. Ryu K, Susa M, Choy E, Yang C, Hornicek FJ, Mankin HJ, Duan Z. Oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-Me induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cells through inhibition of Stat3 pathway. BMC Cancer. 2010 May 10; 10:187. PMID: 20459702; PMCID: PMC2874784.
  85. Yoon SS, Chen YL, Kirsch DG, Maduekwe UN, Rosenberg AE, Nielsen GP, Sahani DV, Choy E, Harmon DC, DeLaney TF. Proton-beam, intensity-modulated, and/or intraoperative electron radiation therapy combined with aggressive anterior surgical resection for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Jun; 17(6):1515-29. PMID: 20151216; PMCID: PMC2943833.
  86. Susa M, Choy E, Yang C, Schwab J, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Multidrug resistance reversal agent, NSC77037, identified with a cell-based screening assay. J Biomol Screen. 2010 Mar; 15(3):287-96. PMID: 20150589.
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  87. Duan Z, Ji D, Weinstein EJ, Liu X, Susa M, Choy E, Yang C, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ. Lentiviral shRNA screen of human kinases identifies PLK1 as a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma. Cancer Lett. 2010 Jul 28; 293(2):220-9. PMID: 20144850.
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  88. Yang C, Ji D, Weinstein EJ, Choy E, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Liu X, Mankin H, Duan Z. The kinase Mirk is a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Apr; 31(4):552-8. PMID: 20042639; PMCID: PMC2847087.
  89. Choy, E., Digumarthy, S., and Koplin, S. "A 23 year old man with cough, hoarseness, and fever" Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. New Engl J Med. 2009; (Manuscript in press).
  90. Choy E, Digumarthy SR, Koplin SA. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 36-2009. A 23-year-old man with cough, hoarseness, and abnormalities on chest imaging. N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 19; 361(21):2080-7. PMID: 19923580.
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  91. Duan Z, Choy E, Hornicek FJ. NSC23925, identified in a high-throughput cell-based screen, reverses multidrug resistance. PLoS One. 2009 Oct 12; 4(10):e7415. PMID: 19823672; PMCID: PMC2757897.
  92. Yang C, Schwab JH, Schoenfeld AJ, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Choy E, Nielsen P, Mankin H, and Duan Z. A novel target for treatment of chordoma: Stat3. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(9).
  93. Duan Z, Choy E, Harmon D, Yang C, Ryu K, Schwab J, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ. ZNF93 increases resistance to ET-743 (Trabectedin; Yondelis) and PM00104 (Zalypsis) in human cancer cell lines. PLoS One. 2009 Sep 09; 4(9):e6967. PMID: 19742314; PMCID: PMC2734182.
  94. Yang C, Schwab JH, Schoenfeld AJ, Hornicek FJ, Wood KB, Nielsen GP, Choy E, Mankin H, Duan Z. A novel target for treatment of chordoma: signal transducers and activators of transcription 3. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Sep; 8(9):2597-605. PMID: 19723879.
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  95. Duan Z, Choy E, Harmon D, Yang C, Ryu K, Schwab J, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cyclolignan picropodophyllin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Aug; 8(8):2122-30. PMID: 19638450; PMCID: PMC2766237.
  96. Schwab J, Antonescu C, Boland P, Healey J, Rosenberg A, Nielsen P, Iafrate J, Delaney T, Yoon S, Choy E, Harmon D, Raskin K, Yang C, Mankin H, Springfield D, Hornicek F, Duan Z. Combination of PI3K/mTOR inhibition demonstrates efficacy in human chordoma. Anticancer Res. 2009 Jun; 29(6):1867-71. PMID: 19528441.
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  97. Duan Z, Choy E, Jimeno J, Cuevas C, Mankin H, Hornicek F. Diverse cross-resistance phenotype to ET-743 (Yondelis®;Trabectedin) and PM00104 (Zalypsis®) in multi-drug resistant cell lines selected in vitro using paclitaxel, doxorubicin or cisplatin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009; 63(6):1121-9.
  98. Maduekwe UN, Hornicek FJ, Springfield DS, Raskin KA, Harmon DC, Choy E, Rosenberg AE, Nielsen GP, DeLaney TF, Chen YL, Ott MJ, Yoon SS. Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the staging of synovial, epithelioid, and clear cell sarcomas. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 May; 16(5):1356-63. PMID: 19259743.
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  99. De Jager PL, Baecher-Allan C, Maier LM, Arthur AT, Ottoboni L, Barcellos L, McCauley JL, Sawcer S, Goris A, Saarela J, Yelensky R, Price A, Leppa V, Patterson N, de Bakker PI, Tran D, Aubin C, Pobywajlo S, Rossin E, Hu X, Ashley CW, Choy E, Rioux JD, Pericak-Vance MA, Ivinson A, Booth DR, Stewart GJ, Palotie A, Peltonen L, Dubois B, Haines JL, Weiner HL, Compston A, Hauser SL, Daly MJ, Reich D, Oksenberg JR, Hafler DA. The role of the CD58 locus in multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 31; 106(13):5264-9. PMID: 19237575; PMCID: PMC2664005.
  100. Duan, Z., Choy, E., Yang, C., Mankin, H., and Hornicek, F.J. . IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cyclolignan PPP inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma drug sensitive and resistant cells. 55th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society . 2009.
  101. Choy E, Yelensky R, Bonakdar S, Plenge RM, Saxena R, De Jager PL, Shaw SY, Wolfish CS, Slavik JM, Cotsapas C, Rivas M, Dermitzakis ET, Cahir-McFarland E, Kieff E, Hafler D, Daly MJ, Altshuler D. Genetic analysis of human traits in vitro: drug response and gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines. PLoS Genet. 2008 Nov; 4(11):e1000287. PMID: 19043577; PMCID: PMC2583954.
  102. Duan, Z., Choy, E., Schwab, J., Jimeno, J.M., del Maria Cuevas, C., Mankin, H.J., and Hornicek, F.J. . Diverse cross-resistance phenotype to ET-743 (Yondelis; Trabectedin) and PM00104 (Zalypsis) in multi-drug resistant cell lines selected in vitro using paclitaxel, doxorubicin or cisplatin. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 2008.
  103. Duan Z, Choy E, Jimeno JM, Cuevas Cdel M, Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ. Diverse cross-resistance phenotype to ET-743 and PM00104 in multi-drug resistant cell lines. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 May; 63(6):1121-9. PMID: 18828019.
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  104. Duan Z, Weinstein EJ, Ji D, Ames RY, Choy E, Mankin H, Hornicek FJ. Lentiviral short hairpin RNA screen of genes associated with multidrug resistance identifies PRP-4 as a new regulator of chemoresistance in human ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Aug; 7(8):2377-85. PMID: 18687998; PMCID: PMC2597512.
  105. Duan, Z., Weinstein, E., Ji, D., Ames, R., Choy, E., Mankin, H., and Hornicek, F. Lentiviral shRNA screen of human kinases identifies new regulators of osteosarcoma cell survival and apoptosis. 14th Annual Connective Tissue Oncology Society Meeting. 2008.
  106. Maduekwe, U., Hornicek, F., Ott, M., Springfield, D., Raskin, K., Choy, E., Harmon, D., Rosenberg, A., Nielsen, G., DeLaney, T., and Yoon, S. Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in the Staging of Synovial, Epithelioid, and Clear Cell Sarcomas. 14th Annual Connective Tissue Oncology Society Meeting. 2008.
  107. Kambadakone, AR, Yoon, S, Harmon, D, Choy, E, Delaney, T, Rosenberg, A, Nielsen, P, Hornicek, F, Springfield, D, Raskin, K, Sahani,D. . Assessing Tumor Biology and Anti-angiogenic Response in Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Initial Observations on Perfusion CT (CTp). 94th Scientific Assembly and Annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). 2008.
  108. Wagner, A.J., Yazji, S., Morgan, J.A., Choy, E, George, S., Tap, W., and Demetri, G. A Phase 2 Study of the KIT Inhibitor XL820 in Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) Resistant to or Intolerant of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) Imatinib and/or Sunitinib. 14th Annual Connective Tissue Oncology Society Meeting. 2008.
  109. Reich D, Patterson N, Ramesh V, De Jager PL, McDonald GJ, Tandon A, Choy E, Hu D, Tamraz B, Pawlikowska L, Wassel-Fyr C, Huntsman S, Waliszewska A, Rossin E, Li R, Garcia M, Reiner A, Ferrell R, Cummings S, Kwok PY, Harris T, Zmuda JM, Ziv E. Admixture mapping of an allele affecting interleukin 6 soluble receptor and interleukin 6 levels. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Apr; 80(4):716-26. PMID: 17357077; PMCID: PMC1852718.
  110. Reich, D., Patterson, N., Ramesh, V., De Jager, P.L., McDonald G.V., Tandon, A., Choy, E., Hu, D., Tamraz, B., Pawlikowska, L., Wassel-Fyr, C., Huntsman, S., Waliszewska, A., Rossin, E., Li, R., Garcia, M., Reiner, A., Ferrell, R., Cummings, S., Kwok, P., Harris, T., Zmuda, J., and Ziv, E. Admixture mapping of an allele affecting serum IL6 and IL6 receptor levels. The American Journal of Human Genetics. 2007.
  111. Haglund, K.E., Goldberg, S., Rosenberg, A., Harmon, D., Kirsch, D., Hornicek, F., Springfield, D., Raskin, K., Choy, E., and Delaney, T. . Percent Necrosis in Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma After Preoperative Radiation Alone Versus Preoperative Radiation and Chemotherapy. 49th Annual ASTRO Meeting, Boston, MA. Proceedings of the 49th Annual ASTRO Meeting. Abst.#169. 2007.
  112. Yelensky, R., Choy, E., Bonakdar, S., Daly, M., and Altshuler, D. Genetic and non-genetic sources of phenotypic variation in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. 57th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics. 2007.
  113. Yelensky, R., Choy, E., Bonakdar, S., Daly, M., and Altshuler, D. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping and the Sources of Phenotypic Variation in Human Cell-Lines. 18th Annual Meeting at Cold Spring Harbor on Genome Science, “Biology of Genomes”. 2007.
  114. Pollard LC, Murray J, Moody M, Stewart EJ, Choy EH. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a recombinant version of human alpha-fetoprotein (MM-093) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 May; 66(5):687-9. PMID: 17114190; PMCID: PMC1954634.
  115. Choy, E., Yelensky, R., Bonakdar, S., Shaw, S., Daly, M., and Altshuler, D. Whole Genome Association Study of Chemotherapeutic Drug Response in HapMap Cell Lines. 3rd Annual International HapMap Project Community Analysis Meeting. 2006.
  116. Choy EH, Hazleman B, Smith M, Moss K, Lisi L, Scott DG, Patel J, Sopwith M, Isenberg DA. Efficacy of a novel PEGylated humanized anti-TNF fragment (CDP870) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a phase II double-blinded, randomized, dose-escalating trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Oct; 41(10):1133-7. PMID: 12364632.
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  117. Choy EH, Panayi GS, Emery P, Madden S, Breedveld FC, Kraan MC, Kalden JR, Rascu A, Brown JC, Rapson N, Johnston JM. Repeat-cycle study of high-dose intravenous 4162W94 anti-CD4 humanized monoclonal antibody in rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Oct; 41(10):1142-8. PMID: 12364634.
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  118. Choy EH, Scott DL, Kingsley GH, Thomas S, Murphy AG, Staines N, Panayi GS. Control of rheumatoid arthritis by oral tolerance. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Sep; 44(9):1993-7. PMID: 11592359.
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  119. Choy EH, Panayi GS. Cytokine pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 22; 344(12):907-16. PMID: 11259725.
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  120. Choy, E., Kehoe, L., Fleming, N., Wiest, F., Forcione, D.G., Friedman, L.S. Dyspepsia: GERD, PUD, and Nonulcer Dyspepsia. The MGH Ambulatory Care Syllabus, Edited by Basch, E., Messersmith, W., Birnbaum, S., and Garza, C. 2001.
  121. Choy E, Philips M. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Ras proteins for intracellular localization. Methods Enzymol. 2001; 332:50-64. PMID: 11305117.
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  122. Choy EH, Connolly DJ, Rapson N, Jeal S, Brown JC, Kingsley GH, Panayi GS, Johnston JM. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical effects of a humanized IgG1 anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2000 Oct; 39(10):1139-46. PMID: 11035136.
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  123. Choy EH. Oral toleragens in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2000 Sep; 1(1):58-62. PMID: 11249596.
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  124. Choy E, Philips M. Expression and activity of human prenylcysteine-directed carboxyl methyltransferase. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 325:101-14. PMID: 11036596.
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  125. Choy, E. and Philips, M.R. Expression and activity of a prenylcysteine-directed carboxyl methyltransferase. Methods of Enzymology. 2000; 325:101-14.
  126. Choy EH, Rankin EC, Kassimos D, Vetterlein O, Garyfallos A, Ravirajan CT, Sopwith M, Eastell R, Kingsley GH, Isenberg DA, Panayi GS. The engineered human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody CDP571 inhibits inflammatory pathways but not T cell activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1999 Nov; 26(11):2310-7. PMID: 10555883.
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  127. Choy E, Chiu VK, Silletti J, Feoktistov M, Morimoto T, Michaelson D, Ivanov IE, Philips MR. Endomembrane trafficking of ras: the CAAX motif targets proteins to the ER and Golgi. Cell. 1999 Jul 09; 98(1):69-80. PMID: 10412982.
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  128. Choy, E., Chiu, V.K., Silletti, J., Feoktistov, M., Morimoto, T., Michaelson, D., Ivanov, I.E., and Philips, M.R. Endomembrane Trafficking of Ras: the CAAX Motif Targets Proteins to the ER and Golgi. Cell. 1999; 98(1):69-80.
  129. Choy, Edwin. CAAX Proteins Target Ras to Intracellular Compartments. 1999.
  130. Dai, Q., Choy, E., Chiu, V., Romano, J., Slivka, S.R., Steitz, S.A., Michaelis, S., and Philips, M.R. . Mammalian Prenylcysteine Prenyltransferase is in the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1998; 273(24):15030-4.
  131. Dai Q, Choy E, Chiu V, Romano J, Slivka SR, Steitz SA, Michaelis S, Philips MR. Mammalian prenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase is in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 12; 273(24):15030-4. PMID: 9614111.
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  132. Choy, E., Chiu, V., and Philips, M.R. . The CAAX Motif Targets Proteins to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. 38th American Society for Cell Biology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 1998; 9:458a.
  133. Choy, E., Dai, Q., Slivka, S., Steitz, S., and Philips, M.R. Prenylcysteine Carboxyl Methyltransferase in the ER Directs Ras to the Vesicular Transport Pathway. 37th American Society for Cell Biology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 1997; 8:305a.
  134. Choy EH, Pitzalis C, Cauli A, Bijl JA, Schantz A, Woody J, Kingsley GH, Panayi GS. Percentage of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody-coated lymphocytes in the rheumatoid joint is associated with clinical improvement. Implications for the development of immunotherapeutic dosing regimens. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Jan; 39(1):52-6. PMID: 8546738.
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  135. Choy EH, Adjaye J, Forrest L, Kingsley GH, Panayi GS. Chimaeric anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody cross-linked by monocyte Fc gamma receptor mediates apoptosis of human CD4 lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol. 1993 Oct; 23(10):2676-81. PMID: 8104799.
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  136. Jobanputra P, Choy EH, Kingsley GH, Sieper J, Palacios-Boix AA, Heinegård D, Panayi GS. Cellular immunity to cartilage proteoglycans: relevance to the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992 Aug; 51(8):959-62. PMID: 1417120; PMCID: PMC1004803.
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