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profileDouglas Eric Raines, M.D.

TitleEdward Mallinckrodt, Jr. Professor of Anaesthesia in the Field Pharmacology and Innovation
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentAnaesthesia
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
Dept. of Anesthesia
55 Fruit St
Boston MA 02114
Phone617/726-8800
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The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
R01GM122806     (RAINES, DOUGLAS E)Apr 5, 2017 - Jan 31, 2021
NIH/NIGMS
Competitive Antagonists for General Anesthetics: A New Class of Drugs for Improving Patient Care and Advancing Scientific Research
Role: Principal Investigator

R21DA029253     (RAINES, DOUGLAS E)Apr 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2013
NIH/NIDA
Preclinical Studies of Carbo-etomidate: An Etomidate Analogue for Use in Sepsis
Role: Principal Investigator

R01GM087316     (RAINES, DOUGLAS E)Jan 1, 2010 - Jul 31, 2017
NIH/NIGMS
Etomidate Analogues as Safer General Anesthetics
Role: Principal Investigator

R01GM061927     (RAINES, DOUGLAS E)Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2006
NIH/NIGMS
General Anesthetics and nAcCHOR Agonist Affinity
Role: Principal Investigator

R29GM053481     (RAINES, DOUGLAS E)Mar 1, 1996 - Feb 28, 2001
NIH/NIGMS
GENERAL ANESTHETICS AND LIPID PROTEIN INTERACTIONS
Role: Principal Investigator

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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Ma C, Pejo E, McGrath M, Jayakar SS, Zhou X, Miller KW, Cohen JB, Raines DE. Competitive Antagonism of Anesthetic Action at the ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor by a Novel Etomidate Analog with Low Intrinsic Efficacy. Anesthesiology. 2017 Nov; 127(5):824-837. PMID: 28857763.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Raines DE. Flumazenil Modulation of the ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor: Competitive versus Noncompetitive Antagonism at the Agonist-binding Site. Anesthesiology. 2017 Feb; 126(2):350-351. PMID: 28098614.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Pejo E, Zhou X, Husain SS, Raines DE. Sedative-hypnotic Binding to 11ß-hydroxylase. Anesthesiology. 2016 Nov; 125(5):943-951. PMID: 27541316.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Pejo E, Liu J, Lin X, Raines DE. Distinct Hypnotic Recoveries After Infusions of Methoxycarbonyl Etomidate and Cyclopropyl Methoxycarbonyl Metomidate: The Role of the Metabolite. Anesth Analg. 2016 Apr; 122(4):1008-14. PMID: 26991617; PMCID: PMC4800831 [Available on 04/01/17].
  5. Pejo E, Santer P, Wang L, Dershwitz P, Husain SS, Raines DE. ?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Modulation by Etomidate Analogs. Anesthesiology. 2016 Mar; 124(3):651-63. PMID: 26691905; PMCID: PMC4803471 [Available on 03/01/17].
  6. Desai R, Savechenkov PY, Zolkowska D, Ge RL, Rogawski MA, Bruzik KS, Forman SA, Raines DE, Miller KW. Contrasting actions of a convulsant barbiturate and its anticonvulsant enantiomer on the a1 ß3 ?2L GABAA receptor account for their in vivo effects. J Physiol. 2015 Nov 15; 593(22):4943-61. PMID: 26378885; PMCID: PMC4650410 [Available on 11/15/16].
  7. Santer P, Pejo E, Feng Y, Chao W, Raines DE. Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl Metomidate: Studies in a Lipopolysaccharide Inflammatory Model of Sepsis. Anesthesiology. 2015 Aug; 123(2):368-76. PMID: 26035348.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Raines DE. The pharmacology of etomidate and etomidate derivatives. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2015; 53(2):63-75. PMID: 25807019.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Campagna JA, Pojasek K, Grayzel D, Randle J, Raines DE. Advancing novel anesthetics: pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate in dogs. Anesthesiology. 2014 Dec; 121(6):1203-16. PMID: 25170571; PMCID: PMC4237671 [Available on 12/01/15].
  10. Pejo E, Santer P, Jeffrey S, Gallin H, Husain SS, Raines DE. Analogues of etomidate: modifications around etomidate's chiral carbon and the impact on in vitro and in vivo pharmacology. Anesthesiology. 2014 Aug; 121(2):290-301. PMID: 24777068; PMCID: PMC4121658.
  11. Broderick DK, Raines DE, Nanji KC. Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-Sparing Drugs in a Patient with Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis. A A Case Rep. 2014 Apr 01; 2(7):83-5. PMID: 25611647.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Ge R, Pejo E, Gallin H, Jeffrey S, Cotten JF, Raines DE. The pharmacology of cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate: a comparison with propofol. Anesth Analg. 2014 Mar; 118(3):563-7. PMID: 24557104.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Chitilian HV, Eckenhoff RG, Raines DE. Anesthetic drug development: Novel drugs and new approaches. Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 1):S2-S10. PMID: 23653886; PMCID: PMC3642742.
  14. Shanmugasundararaj S, Zhou X, Neunzig J, Bernhardt R, Cotten JF, Ge R, Miller KW, Raines DE. Carboetomidate: an analog of etomidate that interacts weakly with 11ß-hydroxylase. Anesth Analg. 2013 Jun; 116(6):1249-56. PMID: 23492967; PMCID: PMC3836822.
  15. Desai R, Miller KW, Raines DE. The pyrrole etomidate analog carboetomidate potently inhibits human 5-HT3A receptor function: comparisons with etomidate and potential implications for emetogenesis. Anesth Analg. 2013 Mar; 116(3):573-9. PMID: 23400978; PMCID: PMC3582768.
  16. Ge R, Pejo E, Cotten JF, Raines DE. Adrenocortical suppression and recovery after continuous hypnotic infusion: etomidate versus its soft analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate. Crit Care. 2013 Jan 30; 17(1):R20. PMID: 23363638; PMCID: PMC4057162.
  17. Ge R, Pejo E, Husain SS, Cotten JF, Raines DE. Electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries after brief and prolonged infusions of etomidate and optimized soft etomidate analogs. Anesthesiology. 2012 Nov; 117(5):1037-43. PMID: 22929726; PMCID: PMC3509380.
  18. Husain SS, Pejo E, Ge R, Raines DE. Modifying methoxycarbonyl etomidate inter-ester spacer optimizes in vitro metabolic stability and in vivo hypnotic potency and duration of action. Anesthesiology. 2012 Nov; 117(5):1027-36. PMID: 22929736; PMCID: PMC3509384.
  19. Stein M, Middendorp SJ, Carta V, Pejo E, Raines DE, Forman SA, Sigel E, Trauner D. Azo-propofols: photochromic potentiators of GABA(A) receptors. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 Oct 15; 51(42):10500-4. PMID: 22968919; PMCID: PMC3606271.
  20. Savechenkov PY, Zhang X, Chiara DC, Stewart DS, Ge R, Zhou X, Raines DE, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Miller KW, Bruzik KS. Allyl m-trifluoromethyldiazirine mephobarbital: an unusually potent enantioselective and photoreactive barbiturate general anesthetic. J Med Chem. 2012 Jul 26; 55(14):6554-65. PMID: 22734650; PMCID: PMC3717557.
  21. Pejo E, Ge R, Banacos N, Cotten JF, Husain SS, Raines DE. Electroencephalographic recovery, hypnotic emergence, and the effects of metabolite after continuous infusions of a rapidly metabolized etomidate analog in rats. Anesthesiology. 2012 May; 116(5):1057-65. PMID: 22417966; PMCID: PMC3351719.
  22. Pierce DW, Pejo E, Raines DE, Forman SA. Carboetomidate inhibits alpha4/beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at concentrations affecting animals. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jul; 115(1):70-2. PMID: 22543065; PMCID: PMC3381859.
  23. Pejo E, Feng Y, Chao W, Cotten JF, Le Ge R, Raines DE. Differential effects of etomidate and its pyrrole analogue carboetomidate on the adrenocortical and cytokine responses to endotoxemia. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jan; 40(1):187-92. PMID: 21926608; PMCID: PMC3242859.
  24. Stewart DS, Savechenkov PY, Dostalova Z, Chiara DC, Ge R, Raines DE, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Bruzik KS, Miller KW. p-(4-Azipentyl)propofol: a potent photoreactive general anesthetic derivative of propofol. J Med Chem. 2011 Dec 08; 54(23):8124-35. PMID: 22029276; PMCID: PMC3580944.
  25. Ge RL, Pejo E, Haburcak M, Husain SS, Forman SA, Raines DE. Pharmacological studies of methoxycarbonyl etomidate's carboxylic acid metabolite. Anesth Analg. 2012 Aug; 115(2):305-8. PMID: 22052979; PMCID: PMC3291806.
  26. Cotten JF, Le Ge R, Banacos N, Pejo E, Husain SS, Williams JH, Raines DE. Closed-loop continuous infusions of etomidate and etomidate analogs in rats: a comparative study of dosing and the impact on adrenocortical function. Anesthesiology. 2011 Oct; 115(4):764-73. PMID: 21572317; PMCID: PMC3534755.
  27. Pejo E, Cotten JF, Kelly EW, Le Ge R, Cuny GD, Laha JK, Liu J, Lin XJ, Raines DE. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies of methoxycarbonyl-carboetomidate. Anesth Analg. 2012 Aug; 115(2):297-304. PMID: 21965364; PMCID: PMC3252484.
  28. Husain SS, Stewart D, Desai R, Hamouda AK, Li SG, Kelly E, Dostalova Z, Zhou X, Cotten JF, Raines DE, Olsen RW, Cohen JB, Forman SA, Miller KW. p-Trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate: a potent photoreactive general anesthetic derivative of etomidate that is selective for ligand-gated cationic ion channels. J Med Chem. 2010 Sep 09; 53(17):6432-44. PMID: 20704351; PMCID: PMC3117435.
  29. Cotten JF, Forman SA, Laha JK, Cuny GD, Husain SS, Miller KW, Nguyen HH, Kelly EW, Stewart D, Liu A, Raines DE. Carboetomidate: a pyrrole analog of etomidate designed not to suppress adrenocortical function. Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar; 112(3):637-44. PMID: 20179500; PMCID: PMC2830733.
  30. Solt K, Kelly EW, Cotten JF, Raines DE. Inhibition of human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by volatile aromatic anesthetics depends on drug hydrophobicity. Anesth Analg. 2010 Feb 01; 110(2):455-60. PMID: 19917625; PMCID: PMC3534757.
  31. Cotten JF, Husain SS, Forman SA, Miller KW, Kelly EW, Nguyen HH, Raines DE. Methoxycarbonyl-etomidate: a novel rapidly metabolized and ultra-short-acting etomidate analogue that does not produce prolonged adrenocortical suppression. Anesthesiology. 2009 Aug; 111(2):240-9. PMID: 19625798; PMCID: PMC2739411.
  32. Sewell JC, Raines DE, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Sear JW. A comparison of the molecular bases for N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor inhibition versus immobilizing activities of volatile aromatic anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jan; 108(1):168-75. PMID: 19095845; PMCID: PMC3606081.
  33. Sewell JC, Raines DE, Laster M, Eger EI, Sear JW. Comparison of the molecular bases for NMDA-receptor inhibition versus immobilizing activities of volatile aromatic anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2008; in press.
  34. Cotten JF, Husain SS, Forman SA, Miller KW, Kelly EW, Nguyen HH Raines DE. MOC-etomidate: A Novel, Rapidly Metabolized and Ultra-Short-Acting Etomidate Analogue. Anesthesiology. 2008; A8.
  35. Lymar DS, Liu A, Cotten JF, Forman SA, Husain SS, Miller KW, Raines DE. Effects of Etomidate and Photoactivatable Etomidate Analogues on Adrenal Cortisol Synthesis. Anesthesiology. 2008; A8.
  36. Eger EI, Raines DE, Shafer SL, Hemmings HC, Sonner JM. Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility? Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):832-48. PMID: 18713892; PMCID: PMC2653203.
  37. Shnayderman D, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Oh I, Zhang Y, Jinks SL, Antognini JF, Raines DE. Increases in spinal cerebrospinal fluid potassium concentration do not increase isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):879-84. PMID: 18713900; PMCID: PMC2693418.
  38. Eger EI, Tang M, Liao M, Laster MJ, Solt K, Flood P, Jenkins A, Raines D, Hendrickx JF, Shafer SL, Yasumasa T, Sonner JM. Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):479-85. PMID: 18633026.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Raines DE, Forman SA, Husain SS, Miller KW. Etomidate Analogues with Improved Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties. 2008.
  40. Solt K, Ruesch D, Forman SA, Davies PA, Raines DE. Differential effects of serotonin and dopamine on human 5-HT3A receptor kinetics: interpretation within an allosteric kinetic model. J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 28; 27(48):13151-60. PMID: 18045909.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Kelly EW, Solt K, Raines DE. Volatile aromatic anesthetics variably impact human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function. Anesth Analg. 2007 Nov; 105(5):1287-92, table of contents. PMID: 17959956.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Daives PA, Solt K, Raines DE. Single Channel Studies Defining Anesthetic Alcohol Action on the 5-HT3A Receptor. Anesthesiology. 2007; A355.
  43. Ruesch D, Schuster A, Wulf H, Braun HA, Raines DE. Inhibition of Human 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB Receptors by Etomidate, Propofol and Pentobarbital. Anesthesiology. 2007; A355.
  44. Solt K, Kelly EW, Raines DE. The Variable Effects of Volatile Aromatic Anesthetics on GABA A Receptor Function. Anesthesiology. 2007; A8.
  45. Rüsch D, Braun HA, Wulf H, Schuster A, Raines DE. Inhibition of human 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3AB) receptors by etomidate, propofol and pentobarbital. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 14; 573(1-3):60-4. PMID: 17669396; PMCID: PMC2276611.
  46. Sandberg WS, Raines DE. Anesthesia for Liver Surgery and Transplantation. Longnecker D., Brown D., Newman M., and Zapol W., Eds., Principles and Practice of Anesthesiology,. 2007; 1338-1377.
  47. Solt K, Kelly EW, Raines DE. Human GABAA receptor enhancement by volatile aromatic anesthetics correlates inversely with NMDA receptor inhibition. Association of University Anesthesiologists. 2007.
  48. Antognini JF, Raines DE, Solt K, Barter LS, Atherley RJ, Bravo E, Laster MJ, Jankowska K, Eger EI. Hexafluorobenzene acts in the spinal cord, whereas o-difluorobenzene acts in both brain and spinal cord, to produce immobility. Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr; 104(4):822-8. PMID: 17377088.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Rüsch D, Musset B, Wulf H, Schuster A, Raines DE. Subunit-dependent modulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor open-close equilibrium by n-alcohols. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun; 321(3):1069-74. PMID: 17360702.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Spring SF, Sandberg WS, Anupama S, Walsh JL, Driscoll WD, Raines DE. Automated documentation error detection and notification improves anesthesia billing performance. Anesthesiology. 2007 Jan; 106(1):157-63. PMID: 17197858.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Ruesch D, Mittelstein M, Wulf H, Raines DE. Butanol Increases Channel Gating Probability in Human 5-HT3A Receptors. Anesthesiology. 2006; A174.
  52. Antognini JF, Raines DE, Solt K, Barter L, Atherley R, Laster M, Eger E. Hexafluorobenzene Acts in the Spinal Cord, While 0-diflurobenzene Can Act in Either Brain or Spinal Cord, to Produce Immobility. Society for Neuroscience Meeting. 2006; A174.
  53. Solt, K, Ruesch D, Davies P, Raines DE. Isoflurane Accelerates the Activation and Deactivation Rates of Human 5-HT3A Receptors. Anesthesiology. 2006; A174.
  54. Sewell JC, Sear JW, Raines DE, Eger EI, Laster MJ. The Molecular Basis of NMDA Receptor Inhibition by Aromatic Volatile General Anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2006; A776.
  55. Husain SS, Nirthanan S, Ruesch D, Solt K, Cheng Q, Li GD, Arevalo E, Olsen RW, Raines DE, Forman SA, Cohen JB, Miller KW. Synthesis of trifluoromethylaryl diazirine and benzophenone derivatives of etomidate that are potent general anesthetics and effective photolabels for probing sites on ligand-gated ion channels. J Med Chem. 2006 Aug 10; 49(16):4818-25. PMID: 16884293.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Sandberg WS, Spring SF, Anupama S, Raines DE. Improving billing effectiveness with automated anesthesia information management. Anesthesiology. 2006.
  57. Solt K, Johansson JS, Raines DE. Kinetics of anesthetic-induced conformational transitions in a four-alpha-helix bundle protein. 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association of University. 2006.
  58. Sandberg WS, Spring S, Raines DE. Improving billing effectiveness with automated anesthesia information management. 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association of University. 2006.
  59. Dutton RC, Laster MJ, Xing Y, Sonner JM, Raines DE, Solt K, Eger EI. Do N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate the capacity of inhaled anesthetics to suppress the temporal summation that contributes to minimum alveolar concentration? Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1412-8. PMID: 16632819.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Solt K, Eger EI, Raines DE. Differential modulation of human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by structurally diverse general anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1407-11. PMID: 16632818.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Eger EI, Liao M, Laster MJ, Won A, Popovich J, Raines DE, Solt K, Dutton RC, Cobos FV, Sonner JM. Contrasting roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the production of immobilization by conventional and aromatic anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1397-406. PMID: 16632817.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Solt K, Johansson JS, Raines DE. Kinetics of anesthetic-induced conformational transitions in a four-alpha-helix bundle protein. Biochemistry. 2006 Feb 07; 45(5):1435-41. PMID: 16445285; PMCID: PMC2581500.
  63. Feinberg-Zadek PL, Rusch D, Solt K, Raines DE, Davies PA. The 5-HT3B subunit influences 5-HT3 receptor kinetics and pharmacology. 35th annual meeting for the Society for Neurosciences. 2005.
  64. Solt K, Stevens RJ, Davies PA, Raines DE. General anesthetic-induced channel gating enhancement of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors depends on receptor subunit composition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Nov; 315(2):771-6. PMID: 16081679.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Stevens RJ, Rüsch D, Davies PA, Raines DE. Molecular properties important for inhaled anesthetic action on human 5-HT3A receptors. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jun; 100(6):1696-703. PMID: 15920198; PMCID: PMC4533112.
  66. Shaff DA, Raines DE, Vidal Melo MF, King ME, Misra S, Chen LL. Anesthetic management for transurethral resection of the bladder in a 74-year-old man with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot. J Clin Anesth. 2005 May; 17(3):198-201. PMID: 15896587.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Stevens R, Rüsch D, Solt K, Raines DE, Davies PA. Modulation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3AB receptors by volatile anesthetics and n-alcohols. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jul; 314(1):338-45. PMID: 15831437; PMCID: PMC4548296.
  68. Solt K, Eger EI, Raines DE. Modulation of human NMDA receptors by chemically diverse general anesthetics: differential inhibition at 1 MAC. Anesthesiology. 2005; A683.
  69. Raines DE. Cation-pi interactions modulate the NMDA receptor potencies of inhaled aromatic anesthetics. International Congress Series. 2005; 85-9.
  70. Weinstein L, Raines, DE. Management of the parturient with hepatic disease. 2005.
  71. Raines DE, Rusch D, Davies PA. 5-HT3A receptor kinetics: agonist and anesthetic action. International Congress Series. 2005; 247-50.
  72. Solt K, Stevens RJ, Rusch D, Raines DE, Davies PA. . General anesthethetic action on 5-HT3 receptors: influence of subunit composition. International Congress Series. 2005; 79-84.
  73. Solt K, Stevens R, Davies, PA, Raines DE. Co-expression of the 5-HT3B subunit attenuates general anesthetic action on 5-HT3 receptor channel gating efficacy. Anesthesiology. 2005; A664.
  74. Solt K, Liao M, Eger EI, Laster M, Raines DE. Contrasting effects of NMDA receptor inhibition by MK-801 on the immobilizing potencies of aromatic and non-aromatic inhaled anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005; A663.
  75. Zhang Y, Sonner JM, Eger EI, Stabernack CR, Laster MJ, Raines DE, Harris RA. Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors do not mediate the immobility produced by isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jul; 99(1):85-90. PMID: 15281509.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Raines DE, Gioia F, Claycomb RJ, Stevens RJ. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitory potencies of aromatic inhaled drugs of abuse: evidence for modulation by cation-pi interactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct; 311(1):14-21. PMID: 15166258.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Solt K, Davies P, Stevens R, Rusch D, Raines DE. Volatile anesthetics reduce the agonist EC50 of the human 5-HT3A receptor by increasing channel gating probability. Anesthesiology. 2004; A-106.
  78. Solt K, Davies P, Stevens R, Rusch D, Raines DE. Introduction of the 5-HT3B subunit decreases the sensitivity of 5-HT3A receptors to the potentiating actions of general anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2004; A-107.
  79. Stevens RS, Rusch D, Solt K, Raines DE, Davies PA. Volatile anesthetics enhance the open probability of 5-HT3A channels. 2004; A-584.
  80. Stevens RJ, Rusch D, Davies PA, Raines DE. Modulation of 5-HT3A receptors by n-alcohols and volatile anesthetics is dependent on molecular volume. Biophysical Journal. 2004.
  81. Sonner JM, Antognini JF, Dutton RC, Flood P, Gray AT, Harris RA, Homanics GE, Kendig J, Orser B, Raines DE, Rampil IJ, Trudell J, Vissel B, Eger EI. Inhaled anesthetics and immobility: mechanisms, mysteries, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. Anesth Analg. 2003 Sep; 97(3):718-40. PMID: 12933393.
    View in: PubMed
  82. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Forman SA. Modulation of GABA(A) receptor function by nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics: the effects on agonist enhancement, direct activation, and inhibition. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jan; 96(1):112-8, table of contents. PMID: 12505935.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Raines DE, Gioia, FW, Claycomb RJ. NMDA receptor inhibitory potencies of volatile aromatic anesthetics: the role of cation-pi interactions. Anesthesiology. 2003; A-109.
  84. Eger EI, Gong D, Xing Y, Raines DE, Flood P. Acetylcholine receptors and thresholds for convulsions from flurothyl and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane. Anesth Analg. 2002 Dec; 95(6):1611-5, table of contents. PMID: 12456426.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Forman SA. Nonhalogenated anesthetic alkanes and perhalogenated nonimmobilizing alkanes inhibit alpha(4)beta(2) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Anesth Analg. 2002 Sep; 95(3):573-7, table of contents. PMID: 12198040.
    View in: PubMed
  86. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ. The role of electrostatic interactions in governing anesthetic action on the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Anesth Analg. 2002 Aug; 95(2):356-61, table of contents. PMID: 12145051.
    View in: PubMed
  87. Antognini JF, Carstens EE, Raines DE . Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 466.
  88. Antognini JF, and Raines DE, Carstens EE. The Future of Anesthetic Mechanisms Research. Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 449-453.
  89. Forman SA, Flood P, Raines DE. Anesthetic Action on the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 283-298.
  90. Raines DE. Rapid Agonist Binding Studies of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002.
  91. Raines DE, Scheller M, Forman SA, Claycomb RJ. Selective Receptor Actions of Nonhalogenated Alkane Anesthetics. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002.
  92. Claycomb, RJ, Forman, SA, and Raines DE. Inhibition of alpha4beta2 rat neuronal nicotinic receptors by nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics and perhalogenated alkane nonimmobilizers. Molecular and Basic Mechanisms of Anesthesia. 2002; 115-119.
  93. Baker K, Raines DE. Intra-anesthetic Problems. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. 2002.
  94. Cogswell LP, Raines DE, Parekh S, Jonas O, Maggio JE, Strichartz GR. Development of a novel probe for measuring drug binding to the F1*S variant of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Sep; 90(9):1407-23. PMID: 11745793.
    View in: PubMed
  95. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Scheller M, Forman SA. Nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics fail to potentiate agonist actions on two ligand-gated ion channels. Anesthesiology. 2001 Aug; 95(2):470-7. PMID: 11506122.
    View in: PubMed
  96. Fitzsimons MG, Peterfreund RA, Raines DE. Aprotinin administration and pulmonary thromboembolism during orthotopic liver transplantation: report of two cases. Anesth Analg. 2001 Jun; 92(6):1418-21. PMID: 11375816.
    View in: PubMed
  97. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ, Scheller, M., Forman SA. Nonhalogenated alkane anesthetics act with specificity on ligand-gated ion channels. Anesthesiology. 2001; A-116.
  98. Raines DE, Claycomb RJ. Molecular dipole modulates anesthetic potency. Biophysical Journal. 2001; A-117.
  99. Raines DE, Forman, SA. Molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia. in the Harvard Electronic Anesthesia Library. Bailin M, Bergeron B, Dershwitz M. eds. 2001.
  100. Raines DE. Perturbation of lipid and protein structure by general anesthetics: how little is too little? Anesthesiology. 2000 May; 92(5):1492-4. PMID: 10781301.
    View in: PubMed
  101. Raines DE, Zachariah VT. Isoflurane increases the apparent agonist affinity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by reducing the microscopic agonist dissociation constant. Anesthesiology. 2000 Mar; 92(3):775-85. PMID: 10719956.
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  102. Nguyen L, Blust M, Bailin M, Melendez L, Raines DE. Photosensitivity and perioperative polyneuropathy complicating orthotopic liver transplantation in a patient with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Anesthesiology. 1999 Oct; 91(4):1173-5. PMID: 10519521.
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  103. Raines DE, Zachariah VT. The alkyl chain dependence of the effect of normal alcohols on agonist-induced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization kinetics. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jul; 91(1):222-30. PMID: 10422948.
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  104. Forman SA, Raines DE. Plus Ca Change. Anesthesiology. 1999; 90:632-633.
  105. Raines DE, Zachariah ZT. The fluorescent agonist Dns-C6-Cho binds with micromolar affinity to the alpha-delta binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor resting state. Biophysical Journal. 1999.
  106. Cogswell LP, Mok W-M, Parekh JE, Maggio JE, Raines DE, Strichartz GR. Development of a novel probe of drug-protein interactions. Biophysical Journal. 1999.
  107. Raines DE, Zachariah ZT. Kinetic modeling of isoflurane’s effect on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization implicates a reduction in the agonist dissociation constant. Anesthesiology. 1999.
  108. Raines DE, Zachariah VT. Isoflurane increases the apparent agonist affinity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jan; 90(1):135-46. PMID: 9915322.
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  109. Raines DE, Zachariah ZT. General anesthetics increase the apparent agonist affinity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: a case of (super)family resemblance. Anesthesiology. 1999.
  110. Raines DE. Conformational transitions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a model for anesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels: single and sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence studies. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Nov 23; 100-101:163-8. PMID: 10049137.
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  111. Raines DE, Krishnan NS. Agonist binding and affinity state transitions in reconstituted nicotinic acetylcholine receptors revealed by single and sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Sep 23; 1374(1-2):83-93. PMID: 9814855.
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  112. Forman SA, Raines DE. Nonanesthetic volatile drugs obey the Meyer-Overton correlation in two molecular protein site models. Anesthesiology. 1998 Jun; 88(6):1535-48. PMID: 9637648.
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  113. Raines DE, Krishnan NS. Transient low-affinity agonist binding to Torpedo postsynaptic membranes resolved by using sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1998 Jan 20; 37(3):956-64. PMID: 9454586.
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  114. Baker K, Raines DE. Intra-anesthetic Problems. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. 1998; 287-312.
  115. Raines DE. Conformational transitions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a model for anesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels: single and sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence studies. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of General Anesthesia. 1998; 100-101:163-168.
  116. Raines DE, Zachariah ZT. Isoflurane increases the apparent affinity of acetylcholine for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor resting state. Anesthesiology. 1998.
  117. Raines DE, McClure KB. Halothane interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membranes. Steady-state and kinetic studies of intrinsic fluorescence quenching. Anesthesiology. 1997 Feb; 86(2):476-86. PMID: 9054266.
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  118. Raines DE, Krishnan, NS, Miller KW. Cholesterol modulates anesthetic sensitivity in reconstituted nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Biophysical Journal. 1997.
  119. Raines DE, Liberthson RR, Murray JR. Anesthetic management and outcome following noncardiac surgery in nonparturients with Eisenmenger's physiology. J Clin Anesth. 1996 Aug; 8(5):341-7. PMID: 8832442.
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  120. Raines DE. Anesthetic and nonanesthetic halogenated volatile compounds have dissimilar activities on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization kinetics. Anesthesiology. 1996 Mar; 84(3):663-71. PMID: 8659795.
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  121. Raines DE. Nonanesthetic Haloalkanes and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Desensitization Kinetics. Anesthesiology. 1996; 85:431-432.
  122. Raines DE, McClure KB. The kinetics of halothane interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membranes: stopped-flow studies of intrinsic fluorescence quenching. Anesthesiology. 1996.
  123. Raines DE, Wu G, Dalton LA, Miller KW. Electron spin resonance studies of acyl chain motion in reconstituted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membranes. Biophys J. 1995 Aug; 69(2):498-505. PMID: 8527664; PMCID: PMC1236275.
  124. Raines DE, Rankin SE, Miller KW. General anesthetics modify the kinetics of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization at clinically relevant concentrations. Anesthesiology. 1995 Jan; 82(1):276-87; discussion 31A-32A. PMID: 7832311.
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  125. Raines DE, Miller KW. Lipids modulate ethanol-induced desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism. 1995.
  126. Wu G, Raines DE, Miller KW. A hydrophobic inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor acts on the resting state. Biochemistry. 1994 Dec 27; 33(51):15375-81. PMID: 7803400.
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  127. Raines DE, Miller KW. On the importance of volatile agents devoid of anesthetic action. Anesth Analg. 1994 Dec; 79(6):1031-3. PMID: 7677814.
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  128. Abadji V, Raines DE, Dalton LA, Miller KW. Lipid-protein interactions and protein dynamics in vesicles containing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: a study with ethanol. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 24; 1194(1):25-34. PMID: 8075138.
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  129. Forman SA, Raines DE, Miller KW. The Interactions of General Anesthetics with Membranes. Anesthesia: Biologic Foundations. 1994; 5-18.
  130. Dalton LA, Raines DE, Miller KW. Ethanol disrupts slow motions of the protein-associated lipid near the surface of acetylcholine receptors. Biophysical Journal. 1994.
  131. Raines DE, Rankin SE, Miller, KW. General anesthetic effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor conformational states are dependent upon lipid composition. 41st Annual Meeting of the Association of University. 1994.
  132. Raines DE, Rankin SE, Miller KW. Isoflurane's actions on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are dependent upon the composition of the lipid bilayer. Anesthesiology. 1994.
  133. Raines DE, Korten SE, Hill AG, Miller KW. Anesthetic cutoff in cycloalkanemethanols. A test of current theories. Anesthesiology. 1993 May; 78(5):918-27. PMID: 8489064.
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  134. Abadji VC, Raines DE, Watts A, Miller KW. The effect of general anesthetics on the dynamics of phosphatidylcholine-acetylcholine receptor interactions in reconstituted vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Apr 08; 1147(1):143-53. PMID: 8466926.
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  135. Raines DE, Miller KW. The role of charge in lipid selectivity for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biophys J. 1993 Mar; 64(3):632-41. PMID: 8386010; PMCID: PMC1262375.
  136. Rankin SA, Raines DE, Dalton LA, Miller KW. Functional Aspects of Acetylcholine Receptor-Lipid Interactions. Protein-Lipid Interactions. 1993; (79):213-229.
  137. Raines DE, Chang BS-P, Patafio O. Intra-anesthetic Problems. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. 1993.
  138. Raines DE, Miller KW. Spin-label studies into the effects of ethanol on lipid- protein interactions in reconstituted acetylcholine receptor vesicles. Biophysical Journal. 1993.
  139. Raines DE, Miller KW. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies into the origin of selectivity for negatively charged lipids at the lipid-protein interface of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The Pharmacologist. 1992; 34(3):296.
  140. Raines DE, Kortin SE, Hill WAG, Miller KW. Lipid disordering predicts anesthetic cutoff in cycloalkanemethanols. Anesthesiology. 1992; 2:757.
  141. Raines DE, Hogue CW, Wickens C, Welch J, Risk SC. Artifactual hypertension due to transducer cable malfunction. Anesthesiology. 1991 Jun; 74(6):1149-51. PMID: 2042769.
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  142. Raines DE, Cafiso DS. The enhancement of proton/hydroxyl flow across lipid vesicles by inhalation anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1989 Jan; 70(1):57-63. PMID: 2536253.
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  143. Hartsel SC, Moore CR, Raines DE, Cafiso DS. Time-dependent binding of paramagnetic and fluorescent hydrophobic ions to the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo. Biochemistry. 1987 Jun 16; 26(12):3253-60. PMID: 2820466.
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  144. Wills MH, Mosciki JS, Raines DE, Cafiso D, Difazio CA. Lipids, vesicles, and local anesthetic activity. Regional Anesthesia. 1987; 13(IS):59.
  145. Snyder SW, Raines DE, Rieger PT, Demas DN, Degraff BA. Luminescence quenching of Ruthenium (II) photosynthesizers by Cu (II) in triton surfactant media. Langmuir. 1985; 1:548-52.
  146. Raines DE, Cafiso DS. Potential-dependent phase partitioning of fluorescent hydrophobic ions in phospholipid vesicles. J Membr Biol. 1984; 82(3):241-7. PMID: 6530698.
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