The Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (Salisbury Cove, ME) and The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) propose a five-year conference series, The Mount Desert Island Stem Cell Symposium, to be held annually at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, 2007 to 2011. The Mount Desert Island Stem Cell Symposium will focus on recent advances in stem cell research-such as the development of new model systems, novel ways to establish embryonic stem cell lines, and the differentiation of stem cells into new cell types. The conference series will engage the research strengths of MDIBL and TJL by emphasizing comparative stem cell research in human, mouse, fish, and invertebrates, a programmatic approach unique to this meeting. The Organizing Committee for this conference series, comprised of national leaders in biomedical and stem cell research, will develop the program of each symposium to address topical issues important to the stem cell research community. The specific aims of the 2007 symposium are: 1) Share and discuss current knowledge and recent discoveries in the molecular genetics of ES and adult stem cells; 2) Share and discuss the recent research on stem cells in lung, breast, blood, and neural cancers; 3) Examine developmental dynamics of organ systems in model organisms including mouse, fly, and fish; and 4) Discuss the recent research on stem cells in neuromuscular, renal, and cardiac disease, in addition to the role of stem cells in immune responses and transplant rejection. Scientific sessions will include platform presentations, a poster session, and a keynote address open to the general public.