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Irving Kirsch, Ph.D.

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Irving Kirsch is Associate Director of the Program in Placebo Studies and lecturer in medicine at the Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. He is also Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Plymouth (UK), and University of Hull (UK), and University of Connecticut (US). He has published 10 books and more than 250 scientific journal articles and book chapters on placebo effects, antidepressant medication, hypnosis, and suggestion. He originated the concept of response expectancy. His meta-analyses on the efficacy of antidepressants were covered extensively in the international media and influenced official guidelines for the treatment of depression in the United Kingdom. His book, The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth, which has been published in English, French, Japanese, Italian, Turkish, and Polish, was shortlisted for the prestigious Mind Book of the Year award. It was the topic of 60 Minutes segment on CBS and a 5-page cover story in Newsweek.

Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Lembo A, Kelley JM, Nee J, Ballou S, Iturrino J, Cheng V, Rangan V, Katon J, Hirsch W, Kirsch I, Hall K, Davis RB, Kaptchuk TJ. Open-label placebo vs double-blind placebo for irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Pain. 2021 09 01; 162(9):2428-2435. PMID: 33605656.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  2. Jørgensen CK, Juul S, Siddiqui F, Barbateskovic M, Munkholm K, Hengartner MP, Kirsch I, Gluud C, Jakobsen JC. Tricyclic antidepressants versus 'active placebo', placebo or no intervention for adults with major depressive disorder: a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. Syst Rev. 2021 08 13; 10(1):227. PMID: 34389045.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  3. Peerdeman KJ, Geers AL, Della Porta D, Veldhuijzen DS, Kirsch I. Underpredicting pain: an experimental investigation into the benefits and risks. Pain. 2021 07 01; 162(7):2024-2035. PMID: 33470747.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  4. Kube T, Hofmann VE, Glombiewski JA, Kirsch I. Correction: Providing open-label placebos remotely-A randomized controlled trial in allergic rhinitis. PLoS One. 2021; 16(6):e0252850. PMID: 34077482.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  5. Juul S, Siddiqui F, Barbateskovic M, Jørgensen CK, Hengartner MP, Kirsch I, Gluud C, Jakobsen JC. Beneficial and harmful effects of antidepressants versus placebo, 'active placebo', or no intervention for adults with major depressive disorder: a protocol for a systematic review of published and unpublished data with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. Syst Rev. 2021 05 25; 10(1):154. PMID: 34034811.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  6. Carvalho C, Pais M, Cunha L, Rebouta P, Kaptchuk TJ, Kirsch I. Open-label placebo for chronic low back pain: a 5-year follow-up. Pain. 2021 05 01; 162(5):1521-1527. PMID: 33259459.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  7. Kube T, Hofmann VE, Glombiewski JA, Kirsch I. Providing open-label placebos remotely-A randomized controlled trial in allergic rhinitis. PLoS One. 2021; 16(3):e0248367. PMID: 33705475.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  8. Evers AWM, Colloca L, Blease C, Gaab J, Jensen KB, Atlas LY, Beedie CJ, Benedetti F, Bingel U, Büchel C, Bussemaker J, Colagiuri B, Crum AJ, Finniss DG, Geers AL, Howick J, Klinger R, Meeuwis SH, Meissner K, Napadow V, Petrie KJ, Rief W, Smeets I, Wager TD, Wanigasekera V, Vase L, Kelley JM, Kirsch I. "Consensus on Placebo and Nocebo Effects Connects Science with Practice:" Reply to "Questioning the Consensus on Placebo and Nocebo Effects". Psychother Psychosom. 2021; 90(3):213-214. PMID: 33631769.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  9. Ellingsen DM, Isenburg K, Jung C, Lee J, Gerber J, Mawla I, Sclocco R, Jensen KB, Edwards RR, Kelley JM, Kirsch I, Kaptchuk TJ, Napadow V. Dynamic brain-to-brain concordance and behavioral mirroring as a mechanism of the patient-clinician interaction. Sci Adv. 2020 Oct; 6(43). PMID: 33087365.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    
  10. Evers AWM, Colloca L, Blease C, Gaab J, Jensen KB, Atlas LY, Beedie CJ, Benedetti F, Bingel U, Büchel C, Bussemaker J, Colagiuri B, Crum AJ, Finniss DG, Geers AL, Howick J, Klinger R, Meeuwis SH, Meissner K, Napadow V, Petrie KJ, Rief W, Smeets I, Wager TD, Wanigasekera V, Vase L, Kelley JM, Kirsch I. What Should Clinicians Tell Patients about Placebo and Nocebo Effects? Practical Considerations Based on Expert Consensus. Psychother Psychosom. 2021; 90(1):49-56. PMID: 33075796.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
  11. Juul S, Gluud C, Simonsen S, Frandsen FW, Kirsch I, Jakobsen JC. Blinding in randomised clinical trials of psychological interventions: a retrospective study of published trial reports. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2021 Jun; 26(3):109. PMID: 32998993.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  12. Mitsikostas DD, Blease C, Carlino E, Colloca L, Geers AL, Howick J, Evers AWM, Flaten MA, Kelley JM, Kirsch I, Klinger R, MaassenVanDenBrink A, Moerman DE, Sfikakis PP, Vase L, Wager TD, Benedetti F. European Headache Federation recommendations for placebo and nocebo terminology. J Headache Pain. 2020 Sep 25; 21(1):117. PMID: 32977761.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  13. Blease CR, Delbanco T, Torous J, Ponten M, DesRoches CM, Hagglund M, Walker J, Kirsch I. Sharing clinical notes, and placebo and nocebo effects: Can documentation affect patient health? J Health Psychol. 2020 Aug 10; 1359105320948588. PMID: 32772861.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  14. Nitzan U, Carmeli G, Chalamish Y, Braw Y, Kirsch I, Shefet D, Krieger I, Mendlovic S, Bloch Y, Lichtenberg P. Open-Label placebo for the treatment of unipolar depression: Results from a randomized controlled trial. J Affect Disord. 2020 11 01; 276:707-710. PMID: 32871704.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  15. Stridh A, Pontén M, Arver S, Kirsch I, Abé C, Jensen KB. Placebo Responses Among Men With Erectile Dysfunction Enrolled in Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitor Trials: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 03 02; 3(3):e201423. PMID: 32196105.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  16. Frey Nascimento A, Gaab J, Kirsch I, Kossowsky J, Meyer A, Locher C. Open-label placebo treatment of women with premenstrual syndrome: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2020 02 17; 10(2):e032868. PMID: 32071176.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  17. Kirsch I. Re: "The Impact of Placebo Response Rates on Clinical Trial Outcome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Antidepressants in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder" by Li Y, Huang J, He Y, Yang J, Lv Y, Liu H, Liang L, Zheng Q, and Li L (J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 29:712-720, 2019). J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2020 02; 30(1):55-56. PMID: 31603715.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  18. Bernstein MH, Magill M, Weiss AP, Kaptchuk TJ, Blease C, Kirsch I, Rich JD, Becker SJ, Mach S, Beaudoin FL. Are Conditioned Open Placebos Feasible as an Adjunctive Treatment to Opioids? Results from a Single-Group Dose-Extender Pilot Study with Acute Pain Patients. Psychother Psychosom. 2019; 88(6):380-382. PMID: 31563914.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  19. Jakobsen JC, Gluud C, Kirsch I. Should antidepressants be used for major depressive disorder? BMJ Evid Based Med. 2020 08; 25(4):130. PMID: 31554608.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  20. Kirsch I. Placebo Effect in the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Front Psychiatry. 2019; 10:407. PMID: 31249537.
    Citations: 18     
  21. Fernandez A, Kirsch I, Noël L, Rodondi PY, Kaptchuk TJ, Suter MR, Décosterd I, Berna C. A test of positive suggestions about side effects as a way of enhancing the analgesic response to NSAIDs. PLoS One. 2019; 14(1):e0209851. PMID: 30605458.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  22. Kirsch I, Jakobsen JC. Network meta-analysis of antidepressants. Lancet. 2018 09 22; 392(10152):1010. PMID: 30264698.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  23. Evers AWM, Colloca L, Blease C, Annoni M, Atlas LY, Benedetti F, Bingel U, Büchel C, Carvalho C, Colagiuri B, Crum AJ, Enck P, Gaab J, Geers AL, Howick J, Jensen KB, Kirsch I, Meissner K, Napadow V, Peerdeman KJ, Raz A, Rief W, Vase L, Wager TD, Wampold BE, Weimer K, Wiech K, Kaptchuk TJ, Klinger R, Kelley JM. Implications of Placebo and Nocebo Effects for Clinical Practice: Expert Consensus. Psychother Psychosom. 2018; 87(4):204-210. PMID: 29895014.
    Citations: 71     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  24. Kirsch I. Response Expectancy and the Placebo Effect. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2018; 138:81-93. PMID: 29681336.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Kong J, Wang Z, Leiser J, Minicucci D, Edwards R, Kirsch I, Wasan AD, Lang C, Gerber J, Yu S, Napadow V, Kaptchuk TJ, Gollub RL. Enhancing treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain by boosting expectancy: A functional neuroimaging study. Neuroimage Clin. 2018; 18:325-334. PMID: 29868449.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  26. Gollub RL, Kirsch I, Maleki N, Wasan AD, Edwards RR, Tu Y, Kaptchuk TJ, Kong J. A Functional Neuroimaging Study of Expectancy Effects on Pain Response in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis. J Pain. 2018 05; 19(5):515-527. PMID: 29325883.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  27. Locher C, Frey Nascimento A, Kirsch I, Kossowsky J, Meyer A, Gaab J. Is the rationale more important than deception? A randomized controlled trial of open-label placebo analgesia. Pain. 2017 Dec; 158(12):2320-2328. PMID: 28708766.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  28. Kirsch I. Response Expectancy and the Response to Antidepressant Medication. EBioMedicine. 2017 11; 25:13. PMID: 29037605.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  29. Locher C, Koechlin H, Zion SR, Werner C, Pine DS, Kirsch I, Kessler RC, Kossowsky J. Efficacy and Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, and Placebo for Common Psychiatric Disorders Among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 10 01; 74(10):1011-1020. PMID: 28854296.
    Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  30. Berna C, Kirsch I, Zion SR, Lee YC, Jensen KB, Sadler P, Kaptchuk TJ, Edwards RR. Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2017 06; 158(6):1014-1020. PMID: 28178072.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  31. Ballou S, Kaptchuk TJ, Hirsch W, Nee J, Iturrino J, Hall KT, Kelley JM, Cheng V, Kirsch I, Jacobson E, Conboy L, Lembo A, Davis RB. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2017 05 25; 18(1):234. PMID: 28545508.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  32. Sugarman MA, Kirsch I, Huppert JD. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a reduced placebo (and antidepressant) response compared to other anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2017 08 15; 218:217-226. PMID: 28477500.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  33. Jensen KB, Kirsch I, Pontén M, Rosén A, Yang K, Gollub RL, des Portes V, Kaptchuk TJ, Curie A. Certainty of genuine treatment increases drug responses among intellectually disabled patients. Neurology. 2017 May 16; 88(20):1912-1918. PMID: 28424273.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  34. Carvalho C, Kirsch I, Kaptchuk TJ. Reply. Pain. 2017 03; 158(3):536-537. PMID: 28187105.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  35. Carvalho C, Caetano JM, Cunha L, Rebouta P, Kaptchuk TJ, Kirsch I. Open-label placebo treatment in chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2016 12; 157(12):2766-2772. PMID: 27755279.
    Citations: 75     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  36. Faria V, Kossowsky J, Petkov MP, Kaptchuk TJ, Kirsch I, Lebel A, Borsook D. Parental Attitudes About Placebo Use in Children. J Pediatr. 2017 02; 181:272-278.e10. PMID: 27863847.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  37. Rutherford BR, Wall MM, Brown PJ, Choo TH, Wager TD, Peterson BS, Chung S, Kirsch I, Roose SP. Patient Expectancy as a Mediator of Placebo Effects in Antidepressant Clinical Trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 01; 174(2):135-142. PMID: 27609242.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  38. Egorova N, Park J, Orr SP, Kirsch I, Gollub RL, Kong J. Not seeing or feeling is still believing: conscious and non-conscious pain modulation after direct and observational learning. Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 18; 5:16809. PMID: 26578164.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  39. Kirsch I. Clinical trial methodology and drug-placebo differences. World Psychiatry. 2015 Oct; 14(3):301-2. PMID: 26407779.
    Citations: 3     
  40. Curie A, Yang K, Kirsch I, Gollub RL, des Portes V, Kaptchuk TJ, Jensen KB. Placebo Responses in Genetically Determined Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0133316. PMID: 26226597.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  41. Jensen K, Kirsch I, Odmalm S, Kaptchuk TJ, Ingvar M. Classical conditioning of analgesic and hyperalgesic pain responses without conscious awareness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 23; 112(25):7863-7. PMID: 25979940.
    Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  42. Moncrieff J, Kirsch I. Empirically derived criteria cast doubt on the clinical significance of antidepressant-placebo differences. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Jul; 43:60-2. PMID: 25979317.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  43. Locher C, Kossowsky J, Gaab J, Kirsch I, Bain P, Krummenacher P. Moderation of antidepressant and placebo outcomes by baseline severity in late-life depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2015 Aug 01; 181:50-60. PMID: 25917293.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  44. Lynn SJ, Green JP, Kirsch I, Capafons A, Lilienfeld SO, Laurence JR, Montgomery GH. Grounding Hypnosis in Science: The "New" APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis as a Step Backward. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015 Apr; 57(4):390-401. PMID: 25928778.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  45. Freeman S, Yu R, Egorova N, Chen X, Kirsch I, Claggett B, Kaptchuk TJ, Gollub RL, Kong J. Distinct neural representations of placebo and nocebo effects. Neuroimage. 2015 May 15; 112:197-207. PMID: 25776211.
    Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  46. Lynn SJ, Laurence JR, Kirsch I. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015 Jan; 57(3):314-29. PMID: 25928681.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  47. Jensen KB, Kaptchuk TJ, Chen X, Kirsch I, Ingvar M, Gollub RL, Kong J. A Neural Mechanism for Nonconscious Activation of Conditioned Placebo and Nocebo Responses. Cereb Cortex. 2015 Oct; 25(10):3903-10. PMID: 25452576.
    Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  48. Hall KT, Tolkin BR, Chinn GM, Kirsch I, Kelley JM, Lembo AJ, Kaptchuk TJ, Kokkotou E, Davis RB, Conboy LA. Conscientiousness is modified by genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase to reduce symptom complaints in IBS patients. Brain Behav. 2015 Jan; 5(1):39-44. PMID: 25722948.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  49. Hsieh C, Kong J, Kirsch I, Edwards RR, Jensen KB, Kaptchuk TJ, Gollub RL. Well-loved music robustly relieves pain: a randomized, controlled trial. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e107390. PMID: 25211164.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  50. Sugarman MA, Loree AM, Baltes BB, Grekin ER, Kirsch I. The efficacy of paroxetine and placebo in treating anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis of change on the Hamilton Rating Scales. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e106337. PMID: 25162656.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  51. Hall KT, Nelson CP, Davis RB, Buring JE, Kirsch I, Mittleman MA, Loscalzo J, Samani NJ, Ridker PM, Kaptchuk TJ, Chasman DI. Polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase modify treatment effects of aspirin on risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Sep; 34(9):2160-7. PMID: 25035343.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  52. Hall K, Nelson C, Davis R, Buring J, Kirsch I, Mittleman M, Loscalzo J, Samani N, Ridker P, Kaptchuk T, Chasman D. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Associated Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Is Modified by Treatment with Vitamin E. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 May; 20(5):A3. PMID: 24805564.
  53. Kirsch I, Kong J, Sadler P, Spaeth R, Cook A, Kaptchuk T, Gollub R. Expectancy and Conditioning in Placebo Analgesia: Separate or Connected Processes? Psychol Conscious (Wash D C). 2014 Mar; 1(1):51-59. PMID: 25093194.
    Citations: 21     
  54. Kam-Hansen S, Jakubowski M, Kelley JM, Kirsch I, Hoaglin DC, Kaptchuk TJ, Burstein R. Altered placebo and drug labeling changes the outcome of episodic migraine attacks. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Jan 08; 6(218):218ra5. PMID: 24401940.
    Citations: 88     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  55. Kirsch I. The emperor's new drugs: medication and placebo in the treatment of depression. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2014; 225:291-303. PMID: 25304538.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  56. Kirsch I. Antidepressants and the Placebo Effect. Z Psychol. 2014; 222(3):128-134. PMID: 25279271.
    Citations: 16     
  57. Spielmans GI, Kirsch I. Drug approval and drug effectiveness. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2014; 10:741-66. PMID: 24329178.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  58. Accardi M, Cleere C, Lynn SJ, Kirsch I. Placebo versus "standard" hypnosis rationale: attitudes, expectancies, hypnotic responses, and experiences. Am J Clin Hypn. 2013 Oct; 56(2):103-14. PMID: 24665814.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  59. Kong J, Spaeth R, Cook A, Kirsch I, Claggett B, Vangel M, Gollub RL, Smoller JW, Kaptchuk TJ. Are all placebo effects equal? Placebo pills, sham acupuncture, cue conditioning and their association. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67485. PMID: 23935833.
    Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  60. Kirsch I. The placebo effect revisited: lessons learned to date. Complement Ther Med. 2013 Apr; 21(2):102-4. PMID: 23497811.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  61. Kirsch I, Low CB. Suggestion in the treatment of depression. Am J Clin Hypn. 2013 Jan; 55(3):221-9. PMID: 23488249.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  62. Huedo-Medina TB, Kirsch I, Middlemass J, Klonizakis M, Siriwardena AN. Effectiveness of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in treatment of adult insomnia: meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. BMJ. 2012 Dec 17; 345:e8343. PMID: 23248080.
    Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  63. Loggia ML, Kim J, Gollub RL, Vangel MG, Kirsch I, Kong J, Wasan AD, Napadow V. Default mode network connectivity encodes clinical pain: an arterial spin labeling study. Pain. 2013 Jan; 154(1):24-33. PMID: 23111164.
    Citations: 106     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  64. Hall KT, Lembo AJ, Kirsch I, Ziogas DC, Douaiher J, Jensen KB, Conboy LA, Kelley JM, Kokkotou E, Kaptchuk TJ. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism predicts placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48135. PMID: 23110189.
    Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  65. Jensen KB, Kaptchuk TJ, Kirsch I, Raicek J, Lindstrom KM, Berna C, Gollub RL, Ingvar M, Kong J. Nonconscious activation of placebo and nocebo pain responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Sep 25; 109(39):15959-64. PMID: 23019380.
    Citations: 81     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  66. Mazzoni G, Venneri A, McGeown WJ, Kirsch I. Neuroimaging resolution of the altered state hypothesis. Cortex. 2013 Feb; 49(2):400-10. PMID: 23026758.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  67. Khan A, Faucett J, Lichtenberg P, Kirsch I, Brown WA. A systematic review of comparative efficacy of treatments and controls for depression. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41778. PMID: 22860015.
    Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  68. Huedo-Medina TB, Johnson BT, Kirsch I. Kirsch et al.'s (2008) calculations are correct: reconsidering Fountoulakis & Möller's re-analysis of the Kirsch data. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Sep; 15(8):1193-8. PMID: 22433169.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  69. Cosgrove L, Shaughnessy AF, Wheeler EE, Austad KE, Kirsch I, Bursztajn HJ. The American Psychiatric Association's guideline for major depressive disorder: a commentary. Psychother Psychosom. 2012; 81(3):186-8. PMID: 22433532.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  70. Kirsch I. Role of placebo in irritable bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Dec; 53 Suppl 2:S42-3. PMID: 22235472.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  71. McGeown WJ, Venneri A, Kirsch I, Nocetti L, Roberts K, Foan L, Mazzoni G. Suggested visual hallucination without hypnosis enhances activity in visual areas of the brain. Conscious Cogn. 2012 Mar; 21(1):100-16. PMID: 22123187.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  72. Wechsler ME, Kelley JM, Boyd IO, Dutile S, Marigowda G, Kirsch I, Israel E, Kaptchuk TJ. Active albuterol or placebo, sham acupuncture, or no intervention in asthma. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jul 14; 365(2):119-26. PMID: 21751905.
    Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  73. Kirsch I. The altered state issue: dead or alive? Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2011 Jul; 59(3):350-62. PMID: 21644125.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  74. Kirsch I. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Preface. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Jun 27; 366(1572):1781-2. PMID: 21576134.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  75. Kirsch I. The use of placebos in clinical trials and clinical practice. Can J Psychiatry. 2011 Apr; 56(4):191-2. PMID: 21507274.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  76. Kaptchuk TJ, Friedlander E, Kelley JM, Sanchez MN, Kokkotou E, Singer JP, Kowalczykowski M, Miller FG, Kirsch I, Lembo AJ. Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 22; 5(12):e15591. PMID: 21203519.
    Citations: 175     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  77. Kirsch I. Review: benefits of antidepressants over placebo limited except in very severe depression. Evid Based Ment Health. 2010 May; 13(2):49. PMID: 21856612.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  78. Kirsch I. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect. Conscious Cogn. 2011 Jun; 20(2):335-6. PMID: 20430651.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  79. Mazzoni G, Foan L, Hyland ME, Kirsch I. The effects of observation and gender on psychogenic symptoms. Health Psychol. 2010 Mar; 29(2):181-5. PMID: 20230091.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  80. Irving Kirsch. The Emperor's New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth. 2010. View Publication.
  81. Kirsch I. Antidepressants and the placebo response. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009 Oct-Dec; 18(4):318-22. PMID: 20170046.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  82. McGeown WJ, Mazzoni G, Venneri A, Kirsch I. Hypnotic induction decreases anterior default mode activity. Conscious Cogn. 2009 Dec; 18(4):848-55. PMID: 19782614.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  83. Dienes Z, Brown E, Hutton S, Kirsch I, Mazzoni G, Wright DB. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation. Conscious Cogn. 2009 Dec; 18(4):837-47. PMID: 19709904.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  84. Kelley JM, Lembo AJ, Ablon JS, Villanueva JJ, Conboy LA, Levy R, Marci CD, Kerr CE, Kirsch I, Jacobson EE, Riess H, Kaptchuk TJ. Patient and practitioner influences on the placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosom Med. 2009 Sep; 71(7):789-97. PMID: 19661195.
    Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  85. Kong J, Kaptchuk TJ, Polich G, Kirsch I, Vangel M, Zyloney C, Rosen B, Gollub RL. An fMRI study on the interaction and dissociation between expectation of pain relief and acupuncture treatment. Neuroimage. 2009 Sep; 47(3):1066-76. PMID: 19501656.
    Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  86. Mazzoni G, Rotriquenz E, Carvalho C, Vannucci M, Roberts K, Kirsch I. Suggested visual hallucinations in and out of hypnosis. Conscious Cogn. 2009 Jun; 18(2):494-9. PMID: 19289292.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  87. Kong J, Kaptchuk TJ, Polich G, Kirsch I, Vangel M, Zyloney C, Rosen B, Gollub R. Expectancy and treatment interactions: a dissociation between acupuncture analgesia and expectancy evoked placebo analgesia. Neuroimage. 2009 Apr 15; 45(3):940-9. PMID: 19159691.
    Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  88. Kong J, Gollub RL, Polich G, Kirsch I, Laviolette P, Vangel M, Rosen B, Kaptchuk TJ. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study on the neural mechanisms of hyperalgesic nocebo effect. J Neurosci. 2008 Dec 03; 28(49):13354-62. PMID: 19052227.
    Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  89. Scoboria A, Mazzoni G, Kirsch I. "Don't know" responding to answerable and unanswerable questions during misleading and hypnotic interviews. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2008 Sep; 14(3):255-65. PMID: 18808279.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  90. Carvalho C, Kirsch I, Mazzoni G, Leal I. Portuguese norms for the Waterloo-Stanford Group C (WSGC) scale of hypnotic susceptibility. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2008 Jul; 56(3):295-305. PMID: 18569140.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  91. Kirsch I. Challenging received wisdom: antidepressants and the placebo effect. Mcgill J Med. 2008 Jul; 11(2):219-22. PMID: 19148327.
    Citations: 9     
  92. Kirsch I. Antidepressant drugs 'work', but they are not clinically effective. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2008 Jun; 69(6):359. PMID: 18646426.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  93. Whalley B, Hyland ME, Kirsch I. Consistency of the placebo effect. J Psychosom Res. 2008 May; 64(5):537-41. PMID: 18440407.
    Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  94. Kaptchuk TJ, Kelley JM, Conboy LA, Davis RB, Kerr CE, Jacobson EE, Kirsch I, Schyner RN, Nam BH, Nguyen LT, Park M, Rivers AL, McManus C, Kokkotou E, Drossman DA, Goldman P, Lembo AJ. Components of placebo effect: randomised controlled trial in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. BMJ. 2008 May 03; 336(7651):999-1003. PMID: 18390493.
    Citations: 292     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  95. Carvalho C, Mazzoni G, Kirsch I, Meo M, Santandrea M. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2008 Apr; 56(2):143-55. PMID: 18307125.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  96. Kirsch I, Johnson BT. Moving beyond depression: How full is the glass? BMJ. 2008 Mar 22; 336(7645):629-30. PMID: 18356211.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  97. Kaptchuk TJ, Kelley JM, Deykin A, Wayne PM, Lasagna LC, Epstein IO, Kirsch I, Wechsler ME. Do "placebo responders" exist? Contemp Clin Trials. 2008 Jul; 29(4):587-95. PMID: 18378192.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  98. Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT. Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Med. 2008 Feb; 5(2):e45. PMID: 18303940.
    Citations: 489     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  99. Kirsch I, Mazzoni G, Montgomery GH. Hypnotic history: a reply to critics. Am J Clin Hypn. 2007 Apr; 49(4):249-54. PMID: 17444362.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  100. Lorber W, Mazzoni G, Kirsch I. Illness by suggestion: expectancy, modeling, and gender in the production of psychosomatic symptoms. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb; 33(1):112-6. PMID: 17291177.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  101. Kirsch I, Mazzoni G, Montgomery GH. Remembrance of hypnosis past. Am J Clin Hypn. 2007 Jan; 49(3):171-8; discussion 179-80, 183-4. PMID: 17265971.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  102. Kong J, Kaptchuk TJ, Polich G, Kirsch I, Gollub RL. Placebo analgesia: findings from brain imaging studies and emerging hypotheses. Rev Neurosci. 2007; 18(3-4):173-90. PMID: 18019605.
    Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  103. Kirsch I, Moncrieff J. Clinical trials and the response rate illusion. Contemp Clin Trials. 2007 Jul; 28(4):348-51. PMID: 17182286.
    Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  104. Scoboria A, Mazzoni G, Kirsch I. Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2006 Jul; 54(3):340-59. PMID: 16858906.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  105. Kaptchuk TJ, Stason WB, Davis RB, Legedza AR, Schnyer RN, Kerr CE, Stone DA, Nam BH, Kirsch I, Goldman RH. Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments. BMJ. 2006 Feb 18; 332(7538):391-7. PMID: 16452103.
    Citations: 146     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  106. Raz A, Kirsch I, Pollard J, Nitkin-Kaner Y. Suggestion reduces the stroop effect. Psychol Sci. 2006 Feb; 17(2):91-5. PMID: 16466414.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  107. Conboy LA, Wasserman RH, Jacobson EE, Davis RB, Legedza AT, Park M, Rivers AL, Morey EB, Nam BH, Lasagna L, Kirsch I, Lembo AJ, Kaptchuk TJ, Kerr CE. Investigating placebo effects in irritable bowel syndrome: a novel research design. Contemp Clin Trials. 2006 Apr; 27(2):123-34. PMID: 16427366.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  108. Kong J, Gollub RL, Rosman IS, Webb JM, Vangel MG, Kirsch I, Kaptchuk TJ. Brain activity associated with expectancy-enhanced placebo analgesia as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci. 2006 Jan 11; 26(2):381-8. PMID: 16407533.
    Citations: 126     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  109. Moncrieff J, Kirsch I. Efficacy of antidepressants in adults. BMJ. 2005 Jul 16; 331(7509):155-7. PMID: 16020858.
    Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  110. Kirsch I. Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron? J Clin Psychol. 2005 Jul; 61(7):791-803. PMID: 15827992.
    Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  111. Milling LS, Kirsch I, Allen GJ, Reutenauer EL. The effects of hypnotic and nonhypnotic imaginative suggestion on pain. Ann Behav Med. 2005 Apr; 29(2):116-27. PMID: 15823785.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  112. Kirsch I, Lynn SJ, Vigorito M, Miller RR. The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning. J Clin Psychol. 2004 Apr; 60(4):369-92. PMID: 15022268.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  113. Kirsch I. Conditioning, expectancy, and the placebo effect: comment on Stewart-Williams and Podd (2004). Psychol Bull. 2004 Mar; 130(2):341-3; discussion 344-5. PMID: 14979776.
    Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  114. Maltby N, Kirsch I, Mayers M, Allen GJ. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of fear of flying: a controlled investigation. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002 Oct; 70(5):1112-8. PMID: 12362961.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  115. Charney DS, Nemeroff CB, Lewis L, Laden SK, Gorman JM, Laska EM, Borenstein M, Bowden CL, Caplan A, Emslie GJ, Evans DL, Geller B, Grabowski LE, Herson J, Kalin NH, Keck PE, Kirsch I, Krishnan KR, Kupfer DJ, Makuch RW, Miller FG, Pardes H, Post R, Reynolds MM, Roberts L, Rosenbaum JF, Rosenstein DL, Rubinow DR, Rush AJ, Ryan ND, Sachs GS, Schatzberg AF, Solomon S. National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association consensus statement on the use of placebo in clinical trials of mood disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Mar; 59(3):262-70. PMID: 11879164.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  116. Scoboria A, Mazzoni G, Kirsch I, Milling LS. Immediate and persisting effects of misleading questions and hypnosis on memory reports. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2002 Mar; 8(1):26-32. PMID: 12009174.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  117. Kirsch, I., Moore, T. J., Scoboria, A., & Nicholls, S. S. . The emperor's new drugs: An analysis of antidepressant medication data submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Prevention & Treatment . 2002; 5(1):10.1037/1522-3736.5.1.523a.
  118. Kirsch I. The politics of reinforcement. Psychotherapy (Chic). 1974; 11(4):311-6. PMID: 11662132.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.