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profileRoger Keith Pitman, M.D.

TitleProfessor of Psychiatry, Part-time
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentPsychiatry
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
149 13th Street
Charlestown MA 02129
Phone617/726-5333
Fax617/726-7492
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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Pitman RK. Harnessing Reconsolidation to Treat Mental Disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Dec 15; 78(12):819-20. PMID: 26589491.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Rosenbaum BL, Bui E, Marin MF, Holt DJ, Lasko NB, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Milad MR. Reprint of: "Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear". Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Dec; 98(3 Pt 2):606-11. PMID: 26608179.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Goetz JM, Pitman SR, Tanev KS, Pitman RK, Chemtob CM. Mixed-Handedness in Identical Twins Discordant for Combat Exposure in Vietnam: Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016; 28(1):45-8. PMID: 26404173.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Rosenbaum BL, Bui E, Marin MF, Holt DJ, Lasko NB, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Milad MR. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear. Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Oct; 98(1):59-64. PMID: 26151498.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Pachas GN, Gilman J, Orr SP, Hoeppner B, Carlini SV, Grasser EB, Loebl T, Nino J, Pitman RK, Evins AE. Erratum to: Single dose propranolol does not affect physiologic or emotional reactivity to smoking cues. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Jun; 232(11):2029. PMID: 25877745.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Greenberg MS, Wood NE, Spring JD, Gurvits TV, Nagurney JT, Zafonte RD, Pitman RK. Pilot Study of Neurological Soft Signs and Depressive and Postconcussive Symptoms During Recovery From Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015; 27(3):199-205. PMID: 26222967.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Pachas GN, Gilman J, Orr SP, Hoeppner B, Carlini SV, Grasser EB, Loebl T, Nino J, Pitman RK, Evins AE. Single dose propranolol does not affect physiologic or emotional reactivity to smoking cues. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 May; 232(9):1619-28. PMID: 25413896; PMCID: PMC4404704 [Available on 05/01/16].
  8. Wood NE, Rosasco ML, Suris AM, Spring JD, Marin MF, Lasko NB, Goetz JM, Fischer AM, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Pharmacological blockade of memory reconsolidation in posttraumatic stress disorder: three negative psychophysiological studies. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Jan 30; 225(1-2):31-9. PMID: 25441015.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Spring JD, Wood NE, Mueller-Pfeiffer C, Milad MR, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Prereactivation propranolol fails to reduce skin conductance reactivity to prepared fear-conditioned stimuli. Psychophysiology. 2015 Mar; 52(3):407-15. PMID: 25224026.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Greenberg MS, Tanev K, Marin MF, Pitman RK. Stress, PTSD, and dementia. Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Jun; 10(3 Suppl):S155-65. PMID: 24924667.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Brunet A, Thomas É, Saumier D, Ashbaugh AR, Azzoug A, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Tremblay J. Trauma reactivation plus propranolol is associated with durably low physiological responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery. Can J Psychiatry. 2014 Apr; 59(4):228-32. PMID: 25007116; PMCID: PMC4079131.
  12. Pace-Schott EF, Tracy LE, Rubin Z, Mollica AG, Ellenbogen JM, Bianchi MT, Milad MR, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Interactions of time of day and sleep with between-session habituation and extinction memory in young adult males. Exp Brain Res. 2014 May; 232(5):1443-58. PMID: 24481663; PMCID: PMC4013206.
  13. Bhuvaneswar CG, Ruskin JN, Katzman AR, Wood N, Pitman RK. Pilot study of the effect of lipophilic vs. hydrophilic beta-adrenergic blockers being taken at time of intracardiac defibrillator discharge on subsequent PTSD symptoms. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Jul; 112:248-52. PMID: 24389538; PMCID: PMC4051835.
  14. Mueller-Pfeiffer C, Zeffiro T, O'Gorman R, Michels L, Baumann P, Wood N, Spring J, Rufer M, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Cortical and cerebellar modulation of autonomic responses to loud sounds. Psychophysiology. 2014 Jan; 51(1):60-9. PMID: 24016238.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Pace-Schott EF, Spencer RM, Vijayakumar S, Ahmed NA, Verga PW, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Nov; 47(11):1776-84. PMID: 23992769; PMCID: PMC3791331.
  16. Pineles SL, Suvak MK, Liverant GI, Gregor K, Wisco BE, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Psychophysiologic reactivity, subjective distress, and their associations with PTSD diagnosis. J Abnorm Psychol. 2013 Aug; 122(3):635-44. PMID: 24016006.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Lonergan MH, Olivera-Figueroa LA, Pitman RK, Brunet A. Propranolol's effects on the consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term emotional memory in healthy participants: a meta-analysis. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2013 Jul; 38(4):222-31. PMID: 23182304; PMCID: PMC3692719.
  18. Weiner MW, Friedl KE, Pacifico A, Chapman JC, Jaffee MS, Little DM, Manley GT, McKee A, Petersen RC, Pitman RK, Yaffe K, Zetterberg H, Obana R, Bain LJ, Carrillo MC. Military risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Jul; 9(4):445-51. PMID: 23809365.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Elman I, Gurvits TV, Tschibelu E, Spring JD, Lasko NB, Pitman RK. Neurological soft signs in individuals with pathological gambling. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60885. PMID: 23593341; PMCID: PMC3617209.
  20. Delahanty DL, Gabert-Quillen C, Ostrowski SA, Nugent NR, Fischer B, Morris A, Pitman RK, Bon J, Fallon W. The efficacy of initial hydrocortisone administration at preventing posttraumatic distress in adult trauma patients: a randomized trial. CNS Spectr. 2013 Apr; 18(2):103-11. PMID: 23557627.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Li Y, Meloni EG, Carlezon WA, Milad MR, Pitman RK, Nader K, Bolshakov VY. Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19; 110(12):4798-803. PMID: 23487762; PMCID: PMC3607055.
  22. Hall T, Galletly C, Clark CR, Veltmeyer M, Metzger LJ, Gilbertson MW, Orr SP, Pitman RK, McFarlane A. The relationship between Hippocampal asymmetry and working memory processing in combat-related PTSD - a monozygotic twin study. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2012; 2(1):21. PMID: 23198722; PMCID: PMC3582553.
  23. Pitman RK, Rasmusson AM, Koenen KC, Shin LM, Orr SP, Gilbertson MW, Milad MR, Liberzon I. Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Nov; 13(11):769-87. PMID: 23047775.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Gamache K, Pitman RK, Nader K. Preclinical evaluation of reconsolidation blockade by clonidine as a potential novel treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Dec; 37(13):2789-96. PMID: 22871915; PMCID: PMC3499710.
  25. Hoexter MQ, Fadel G, Felício AC, Calzavara MB, Batista IR, Reis MA, Shih MC, Pitman RK, Andreoli SB, Mello MF, Mari JJ, Bressan RA. Higher striatal dopamine transporter density in PTSD: an in vivo SPECT study with [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Nov; 224(2):337-45. PMID: 22700036.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Orr SP, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Pineles SL, Chang Y, Pitman RK. Predicting post-trauma stress symptoms from pre-trauma psychophysiologic reactivity, personality traits and measures of psychopathology. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2012; 2(1):8. PMID: 22738068; PMCID: PMC3412748.
  27. Pineles SL, Rasmusson AM, Yehuda R, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Predicting emotional responses to potentially traumatic events from pre-exposure waking cortisol levels: a longitudinal study of police and firefighters. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2013; 26(3):241-53. PMID: 22574657.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Mueller-Pfeiffer C, Rufibach K, Perron N, Wyss D, Kuenzler C, Prezewowsky C, Pitman RK, Rufer M. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Dec 30; 200(2-3):475-81. PMID: 22578820.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Furtak SC, Pitman RK, Quirk GJ, Milad MR. Resting amygdala and medial prefrontal metabolism predicts functional activation of the fear extinction circuit. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 169(4):415-23. PMID: 22318762; PMCID: PMC4080711.
  30. Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Reprint of: Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning. Biol Psychol. 2013 Jan; 92(1):26-35. PMID: 22425559.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning. Biol Psychol. 2012 Feb; 89(2):450-9. PMID: 22207247; PMCID: PMC3269527.
  32. Linnman C, Zeffiro TA, Pitman RK, Milad MR. An fMRI study of unconditioned responses in post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2011; 1(1):8. PMID: 22738227; PMCID: PMC3384234.
  33. Brunet A, Ashbaugh AR, Saumier D, Nelson M, Pitman RK, Tremblay J, Roullet P, Birmes P. Does reconsolidation occur in humans: a reply. Front Behav Neurosci. 2011; 5:74. PMID: 22065414; PMCID: PMC3204461.
  34. Pitman RK, Milad MR, Igoe SA, Vangel MG, Orr SP, Tsareva A, Gamache K, Nader K. Systemic mifepristone blocks reconsolidation of cue-conditioned fear; propranolol prevents this effect. Behav Neurosci. 2011 Aug; 125(4):632-8. PMID: 21688892.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Brunet A, Poundja J, Tremblay J, Bui E, Thomas E, Orr SP, Azzoug A, Birmes P, Pitman RK. Trauma reactivation under the influence of propranolol decreases posttraumatic stress symptoms and disorder: 3 open-label trials. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011 Aug; 31(4):547-50. PMID: 21720237.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Shin LM, Bush G, Milad MR, Lasko NB, Brohawn KH, Hughes KC, Macklin ML, Gold AL, Karpf RD, Orr SP, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Exaggerated activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during cognitive interference: a monozygotic twin study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Sep; 168(9):979-85. PMID: 21724666; PMCID: PMC3773363.
  37. Gold AL, Shin LM, Orr SP, Carson MA, Rauch SL, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Dougherty DD, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Pitman RK. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex during trauma-unrelated stressful imagery in Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychol Med. 2011 Dec; 41(12):2563-72. PMID: 21733221.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Pitman RK. Will reconsolidation blockade offer a novel treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder? Front Behav Neurosci. 2011; 5:11. PMID: 21427793; PMCID: PMC3050592.
  39. Hoge EA, Worthington JJ, Nagurney JT, Chang Y, Kay EB, Feterowski CM, Katzman AR, Goetz JM, Rosasco ML, Lasko NB, Zusman RM, Pollack MH, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Effect of acute posttrauma propranolol on PTSD outcome and physiological responses during script-driven imagery. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012 Jan; 18(1):21-7. PMID: 22070357.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Pitman RK. A recent VA rules change and the traumatic event requirement in PTSD. JAMA. 2010 Dec 1; 304(21):2409-10. PMID: 21119089.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Pitman RK, Kaelin D, Zafonte R. Point/Counterpoint. Posttraumatic stress disorder versus traumatic brain injury. PM R. 2010 Nov; 2(11):1051-4. PMID: 21093841.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Gilbertson MW, McFarlane AC, Weathers FW, Keane TM, Yehuda R, Shalev AY, Lasko NB, Goetz JM, Pitman RK. Is trauma a causal agent of psychopathologic symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder? Findings from identical twins discordant for combat exposure. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Oct; 71(10):1324-30. PMID: 20868640.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Pitman RK. Posttraumatic stress disorder and dementia: what is the origin of the association? JAMA. 2010 Jun 9; 303(22):2287-8. PMID: 20540170.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Milad MR, Zeidan MA, Contero A, Pitman RK, Klibanski A, Rauch SL, Goldstein JM. The influence of gonadal hormones on conditioned fear extinction in healthy humans. Neuroscience. 2010 Jul 14; 168(3):652-8. PMID: 20412837; PMCID: PMC2881679.
  45. Rougemont-Bücking A, Linnman C, Zeffiro TA, Zeidan MA, Lebron-Milad K, Rodriguez-Romaguera J, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2011 Aug; 17(4):227-36. PMID: 20406268.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Shin LM, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Karpf RD, Milad MR, Orr SP, Goetz JM, Fischman AJ, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Resting metabolic activity in the cingulate cortex and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 66(10):1099-107. PMID: 19805700; PMCID: PMC3752096.
  47. Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Evans KC, Hoge EA, Dusek JA, Morgan L, Pitman RK, Lazar SW. Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010 Mar; 5(1):11-7. PMID: 19776221; PMCID: PMC2840837.
  48. Milad MR, Pitman RK, Ellis CB, Gold AL, Shin LM, Lasko NB, Zeidan MA, Handwerger K, Orr SP, Rauch SL. Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Dec 15; 66(12):1075-82. PMID: 19748076; PMCID: PMC2787650.
  49. Elman I, Lowen S, Frederick BB, Chi W, Becerra L, Pitman RK. Functional neuroimaging of reward circuitry responsivity to monetary gains and losses in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Dec 15; 66(12):1083-90. PMID: 19640506.
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  50. Gruber RP, Roberts C, Schooler W, Pitman RK. Preventing postsurgical dissatisfaction syndrome after rhinoplasty with propranolol: a pilot study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Mar; 123(3):1072-8. PMID: 19319076.
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  51. Love J, Sonnenberg P, Glynn JR, Gibson A, Gopaul K, Fang Z, Le Brun F, Pitman R, Hayward AC, Innes J, Van den Bosch C, Delpech V, Drobniewski F, Watson JM. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in England, 1998. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Feb; 13(2):201-7. PMID: 19146748.
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  52. Pace-Schott EF, Milad MR, Orr SP, Rauch SL, Stickgold R, Pitman RK. Sleep promotes generalization of extinction of conditioned fear. Sleep. 2009 Jan; 32(1):19-26. PMID: 19189775; PMCID: PMC2625320.
  53. MacNeill SJ, Goddard F, Pitman R, Tharme S, Cullinan P. Childhood peak flow and the Oxford Transport Strategy. Thorax. 2009 Aug; 64(8):651-6. PMID: 19052055.
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  54. Holt DJ, Lebron-Milad K, Milad MR, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Cassidy BS, Walsh JP, Goff DC. Extinction memory is impaired in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Mar 15; 65(6):455-63. PMID: 18986648; PMCID: PMC3740529.
  55. Metzger LJ, Carson MA, Lasko NB, Paulus LA, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Yehuda R. Basal and suppressed salivary cortisol in female Vietnam nurse veterans with and without PTSD. Psychiatry Res. 2008 Dec 15; 161(3):330-5. PMID: 18951637; PMCID: PMC2621060.
  56. Metzger LJ, Clark CR, McFarlane AC, Veltmeyer MD, Lasko NB, Paige SR, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Event-related potentials to auditory stimuli in monozygotic twins discordant for combat: association with PTSD. Psychophysiology. 2009 Jan; 46(1):172-8. PMID: 18803598; PMCID: PMC3807820.
  57. Milad MR, Orr SP, Lasko NB, Chang Y, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Presence and acquired origin of reduced recall for fear extinction in PTSD: results of a twin study. J Psychiatr Res. 2008 Jun; 42(7):515-20. PMID: 18313695; PMCID: PMC2377011.
  58. Hopper JW, Pitman RK, Su Z, Heyman GM, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Orr SP, Lukas SE, Elman I. Probing reward function in posttraumatic stress disorder: expectancy and satisfaction with monetary gains and losses. J Psychiatr Res. 2008 Aug; 42(10):802-7. PMID: 18068725; PMCID: PMC2551554.
  59. Metzger LJ, Pitman RK, Miller GA, Paige SR, Orr SP. Intensity dependence of auditory P2 in monozygotic twins discordant for Vietnam combat: associations with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008; 45(3):437-49. PMID: 18629752; PMCID: PMC2861279.
  60. Pitman RK. Commentary: synthesis and perspectives. Prog Brain Res. 2008; 167:249-54. PMID: 18037020.
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  61. Elman I, Chi WH, Gurvits TV, Ryan ET, Lasko NB, Lukas SE, Pitman RK. Impaired reproduction of three-dimensional objects by cocaine-dependent subjects. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008; 20(4):478-84. PMID: 19196934.
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  62. Hinton DE, Hofmann SG, Pitman RK, Pollack MH, Barlow DH. The panic attack-posttraumatic stress disorder model: applicability to orthostatic panic among Cambodian refugees. Cogn Behav Ther. 2008; 37(2):101-16. PMID: 18470741; PMCID: PMC2755517.
  63. Videlock EJ, Peleg T, Segman R, Yehuda R, Pitman RK, Shalev AY. Stress hormones and post-traumatic stress disorder in civilian trauma victims: a longitudinal study. Part II: the adrenergic response. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 May; 11(3):373-80. PMID: 17971259.
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  64. Shalev AY, Videlock EJ, Peleg T, Segman R, Pitman RK, Yehuda R. Stress hormones and post-traumatic stress disorder in civilian trauma victims: a longitudinal study. Part I: HPA axis responses. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 May; 11(3):365-72. PMID: 17971262.
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  65. Shin LM, Bush G, Whalen PJ, Handwerger K, Cannistraro PA, Wright CI, Martis B, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Dorsal anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2007 Oct; 20(5):701-12. PMID: 17955522.
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  66. Friedman MJ, Pitman RK. New findings on the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2007 Oct; 20(5):653-5. PMID: 17955528.
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  67. Carson MA, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Paulus LA, Morse AE, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Physiologic reactivity to startling tones in female Vietnam nurse veterans with PTSD. J Trauma Stress. 2007 Oct; 20(5):657-66. PMID: 17955532.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Kasai K, Yamasue H, Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Evidence for acquired pregenual anterior cingulate gray matter loss from a twin study of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 15; 63(6):550-6. PMID: 17825801; PMCID: PMC2752671.
  69. Milad MR, Quirk GJ, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Fischl B, Rauch SL. A role for the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in fear expression. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 15; 62(10):1191-4. PMID: 17707349.
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  70. Brunet A, Orr SP, Tremblay J, Robertson K, Nader K, Pitman RK. Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2008 May; 42(6):503-6. PMID: 17588604.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Gilbertson MW, Williston SK, Paulus LA, Lasko NB, Gurvits TV, Shenton ME, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Configural cue performance in identical twins discordant for posttraumatic stress disorder: theoretical implications for the role of hippocampal function. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep 1; 62(5):513-20. PMID: 17509537; PMCID: PMC2768050.
  72. Buhlmann U, Wilhelm S, Deckersbach T, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Physiologic responses to loud tones in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychosom Med. 2007 Feb-Mar; 69(2):166-72. PMID: 17289827.
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  73. Milad MR, Wright CI, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Quirk GJ, Rauch SL. Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep 1; 62(5):446-54. PMID: 17217927.
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  74. Milad MR, Goldstein JM, Orr SP, Wedig MM, Klibanski A, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Fear conditioning and extinction: influence of sex and menstrual cycle in healthy humans. Behav Neurosci. 2006 Dec; 120(6):1196-203. PMID: 17201462.
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  75. Levitt JJ, Chen QC, May FS, Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Pitman RK. Volume of cerebellar vermis in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: lack of relationship to post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Dec 1; 148(2-3):143-9. PMID: 17097862; PMCID: PMC2768053.
  76. Gilbertson MW, Paulus LA, Williston SK, Gurvits TV, Lasko NB, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Neurocognitive function in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2006 Aug; 115(3):484-95. PMID: 16866589.
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  77. Orr SP, Milad MR, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Gilbertson MW, Pitman RK. Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biol Psychol. 2006 Oct; 73(3):262-71. PMID: 16828533.
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  78. Pitman RK, Gilbertson MW, Gurvits TV, May FS, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Shenton ME, Yehuda R, Orr SP. Clarifying the origin of biological abnormalities in PTSD through the study of identical twins discordant for combat exposure. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jul; 1071:242-54. PMID: 16891575; PMCID: PMC2770249.
  79. Shin LM, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal function in PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jul; 1071:67-79. PMID: 16891563.
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  80. Hinton DE, Chhean D, Pich V, Pollack MH, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Cambodian refugees using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: psychometric properties and symptom severity. J Trauma Stress. 2006 Jun; 19(3):405-9. PMID: 16788999.
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  81. Gurvits TV, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Cannistraro PA, Tarhan AS, Gilbertson MW, Orr SP, Charbonneau AM, Wedig MM, Pitman RK. Subtle neurologic compromise as a vulnerability factor for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 May; 63(5):571-6. PMID: 16651514.
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  82. Coker R, Bell A, Pitman R, Zellweger JP, Heldal E, Hayward A, Skulberg A, Bothamley G, Whitfield R, de Vries G, Watson JM. Tuberculosis screening in migrants in selected European countries shows wide disparities. Eur Respir J. 2006 Apr; 27(4):801-7. PMID: 16585088.
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  83. Pollack MH, Simon NM, Fagiolini A, Pitman R, McNally RJ, Nierenberg AA, Miyahara S, Sachs GS, Perlman C, Ghaemi SN, Thase ME, Otto MW. Persistent posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11 in patients with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Mar; 67(3):394-9. PMID: 16649825.
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  84. Milad MR, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Quirk GJ. Fear extinction in rats: implications for human brain imaging and anxiety disorders. Biol Psychol. 2006 Jul; 73(1):61-71. PMID: 16476517.
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  85. Pitman RK. Combat effects on mental health: the more things change, the more they remain the same. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Feb; 63(2):127-8. PMID: 16461853.
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  86. Rauch SL, Milad MR, Orr SP, Quinn BT, Fischl B, Pitman RK. Orbitofrontal thickness, retention of fear extinction, and extraversion. Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28; 16(17):1909-12. PMID: 16272877.
    View in: PubMed
  87. Milad MR, Quinn BT, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Fischl B, Rauch SL. Thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans is correlated with extinction memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26; 102(30):10706-11. PMID: 16024728; PMCID: PMC1180773.
  88. Milad MR, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Context modulation of memory for fear extinction in humans. Psychophysiology. 2005 Jul; 42(4):456-64. PMID: 16008774.
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  89. Elman I, Ariely D, Mazar N, Aharon I, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Orr SP, Lukas SE, Pitman RK. Probing reward function in post-traumatic stress disorder with beautiful facial images. Psychiatry Res. 2005 Jun 30; 135(3):179-83. PMID: 15993948.
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  90. Shin LM, Wright CI, Cannistraro PA, Wedig MM, McMullin K, Martis B, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Cavanagh SR, Krangel TS, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Whalen PJ, Rauch SL. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Mar; 62(3):273-81. PMID: 15753240.
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  91. Pitman RK, Delahanty DL. Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectr. 2005 Feb; 10(2):99-106. PMID: 15685120.
    View in: PubMed
  92. Zatzick DF, Russo J, Pitman RK, Rivara F, Jurkovich G, Roy-Byrne P. Reevaluating the association between emergency department heart rate and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: A public health approach. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jan 1; 57(1):91-5. PMID: 15607305.
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  93. Roy-Byrne P, Arguelles L, Vitek ME, Goldberg J, Keane TM, True WR, Pitman RK. Persistence and change of PTSD symptomatology--a longitudinal co-twin control analysis of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004 Sep; 39(9):681-5. PMID: 15672287.
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  94. McNally RJ, Lasko NB, Clancy SA, Macklin ML, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Psychophysiological responding during script-driven imagery in people reporting abduction by space aliens. Psychol Sci. 2004 Jul; 15(7):493-7. PMID: 15200635.
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  95. Metzger LJ, Paige SR, Carson MA, Lasko NB, Paulus LA, Pitman RK, Orr SP. PTSD arousal and depression symptoms associated with increased right-sided parietal EEG asymmetry. J Abnorm Psychol. 2004 May; 113(2):324-9. PMID: 15122952.
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  96. May FS, Chen QC, Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Pitman RK. Cavum septum pellucidum in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Mar 15; 55(6):656-8. PMID: 15013837; PMCID: PMC2794416.
  97. Shin LM, Orr SP, Carson MA, Rauch SL, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Peters PM, Metzger LJ, Dougherty DD, Cannistraro PA, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Pitman RK. Regional cerebral blood flow in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Feb; 61(2):168-76. PMID: 14757593.
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  98. Shin LM, Shin PS, Heckers S, Krangel TS, Macklin ML, Orr SP, Lasko N, Segal E, Makris N, Richert K, Levering J, Schacter DL, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Hippocampal function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Hippocampus. 2004; 14(3):292-300. PMID: 15132428.
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  99. Roy-Byrne PP, Russo J, Michelson E, Zatzick D, Pitman RK, Berliner L. Risk factors and outcome in ambulatory assault victims presenting to the acute emergency department setting: implications for secondary prevention studies in PTSD. Depress Anxiety. 2004; 19(2):77-84. PMID: 15022142.
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  100. Bonne O, Brandes D, Segman R, Pitman RK, Yehuda R, Shalev AY. Prospective evaluation of plasma cortisol in recent trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2003 Jul 15; 119(1-2):171-5. PMID: 12860372.
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  101. Rauch SL, Shin LM, Segal E, Pitman RK, Carson MA, McMullin K, Whalen PJ, Makris N. Selectively reduced regional cortical volumes in post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroreport. 2003 May 23; 14(7):913-6. PMID: 12802174.
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  102. Orr SP, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Hu FB, Shalev AY, Pitman RK. Physiologic responses to sudden, loud tones in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: association with posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Mar; 60(3):283-8. PMID: 12622661.
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  103. Roy-Byrne P, Berliner L, Russo J, Zatzick D, Pitman RK. Treatment preferences and determinants in victims of sexual and physical assault. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003 Mar; 191(3):161-5. PMID: 12637842.
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  104. Hagengimana A, Hinton D, Bird B, Pollack M, Pitman RK. Somatic panic-attack equivalents in a community sample of Rwandan widows who survived the 1994 genocide. Psychiatry Res. 2003 Jan 25; 117(1):1-9. PMID: 12581815; PMCID: PMC2772881.
  105. Gurvits TV, Lasko NB, Repak AL, Metzger LJ, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Performance on visuospatial copying tasks in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2002 Nov 15; 112(3):263-8. PMID: 12450636.
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  106. Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Ciszewski A, Kasai K, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Nov; 5(11):1242-7. PMID: 12379862; PMCID: PMC2819093.
  107. Clancy SA, McNally RJ, Schacter DL, Lenzenweger MF, Pitman RK. Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens. J Abnorm Psychol. 2002 Aug; 111(3):455-61. PMID: 12150421.
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  108. Maguire H, Dale JW, McHugh TD, Butcher PD, Gillespie SH, Costetsos A, Al-Ghusein H, Holland R, Dickens A, Marston L, Wilson P, Pitman R, Strachan D, Drobniewski FA, Banerjee DK. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in London 1995-7 showing low rate of active transmission. Thorax. 2002 Jul; 57(7):617-22. PMID: 12096206; PMCID: PMC1746370.
  109. Orr SP, Metzger LJ, Pitman RK. Psychophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Jun; 25(2):271-93. PMID: 12136501.
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  110. Gurvits TV, Carson MA, Metzger L, Croteau HB, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Absence of selected neurological soft signs in Vietnam nurse veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2002 May 15; 110(1):81-5. PMID: 12007596.
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  111. Pitman RK, Sanders KM, Zusman RM, Healy AR, Cheema F, Lasko NB, Cahill L, Orr SP. Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jan 15; 51(2):189-92. PMID: 11822998.
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  112. Metzger LJ, Carson MA, Paulus LA, Lasko NB, Paige SR, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Event-related potentials to auditory stimuli in female Vietnam nurse veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychophysiology. 2002 Jan; 39(1):49-63. PMID: 12206295.
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  113. Shin LM, Whalen PJ, Pitman RK, Bush G, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Orr SP, McInerney SC, Rauch SL. An fMRI study of anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Dec 15; 50(12):932-42. PMID: 11750889.
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  114. Bonne O, Brandes D, Gilboa A, Gomori JM, Shenton ME, Pitman RK, Shalev AY. Longitudinal MRI study of hippocampal volume in trauma survivors with PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Aug; 158(8):1248-51. PMID: 11481158; PMCID: PMC2819102.
  115. Blumberg RS, van de Wal Y, Claypool S, Corazza N, Dickinson B, Nieuwenhuis E, Pitman R, Spiekermann G, Zhu X, Colgan S, Lencer WI. The multiple roles of major histocompatibility complex class-I-like molecules in mucosal immune function. Acta Odontol Scand. 2001 Jun; 59(3):139-44. PMID: 11501882; PMCID: PMC2824335.
  116. Gilbertson MW, Gurvits TV, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Multivariate assessment of explicit memory function in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2001 Apr; 14(2):413-32. PMID: 11469166.
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  117. Pitman RK, Lanes DM, Williston SK, Guillaume JL, Metzger LJ, Gehr GM, Orr SP. Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in breast cancer patients. Psychosomatics. 2001 Mar-Apr; 42(2):133-40. PMID: 11239126.
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  118. Bennett J, Pitman R, Jarman B, Innes J, Best N, Alves B, Cook A, Hart D, Coker R. A study of the variation in tuberculosis incidence and possible influential variables in Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham and Cardiff in 1991-1995. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001 Feb; 5(2):158-63. PMID: 11258509.
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  119. Pitman RK. Hippocampal diminution in PTSD: more (or less?) than meets the eye. Hippocampus. 2001; 11(2):73-4; discusion 82-4. PMID: 11345126.
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  120. Pitman RK, Shin LM, Rauch SL. Investigating the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder with neuroimaging. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001; 62 Suppl 17:47-54. PMID: 11495097.
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  121. McNally RJ, Clancy SA, Schacter DL, Pitman RK. Personality profiles, dissociation, and absorption in women reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Dec; 68(6):1033-7. PMID: 11142537.
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  122. Carson MA, Paulus LA, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Wolfe J, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam nurse veterans who witnessed injury or death. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Oct; 68(5):890-7. PMID: 11068975.
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  123. Kim HS, Colgan SP, Pitman R, Hershberg RM, Blumberg RS. Human CD1d associates with prolyl-4-hydroxylase during its biosynthesis. Mol Immunol. 2000 Oct; 37(14):861-8. PMID: 11257307.
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  124. McNally RJ, Clancy SA, Schacter DL, Pitman RK. Cognitive processing of trauma cues in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. J Abnorm Psychol. 2000 Aug; 109(3):355-9. PMID: 11016105.
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  125. Shin LM, Dougherty DD, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Lasko M, Macklin ML, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Rauch SL. Activation of anterior paralimbic structures during guilt-related script-driven imagery. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jul 1; 48(1):43-50. PMID: 10913506.
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  126. Orr SP, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Peri T, Pitman RK. De novo conditioning in trauma-exposed individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2000 May; 109(2):290-8. PMID: 10895567.
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  127. Rauch SL, Whalen PJ, Shin LM, McInerney SC, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Exaggerated amygdala response to masked facial stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional MRI study. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 May 1; 47(9):769-76. PMID: 10812035.
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  128. Gurvits TV, Gilbertson MW, Lasko NB, Tarhan AS, Simeon D, Macklin ML, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Neurologic soft signs in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Feb; 57(2):181-6. PMID: 10665621.
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  129. Shalev AY, Peri T, Brandes D, Freedman S, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Auditory startle response in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Feb; 157(2):255-61. PMID: 10671396.
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  130. Clancy SA, Schacter DL, McNally RJ, Pitman RK. False recognition in women reporting recovered memories of sexual abuse. Psychol Sci. 2000 Jan; 11(1):26-31. PMID: 11228839.
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  131. Macklin ML, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Berry NJ, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Five-year follow-up study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2000 Jan-Feb; 41(1):24-7. PMID: 10646615.
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  132. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Shalev AY, Metzger LJ, Mellman TA. Psychophysiological alterations in post-traumatic stress disorder. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 1999 Oct; 4(4):234-41. PMID: 10553028.
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  133. Dougherty DD, Shin LM, Alpert NM, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Lasko M, Macklin ML, Fischman AJ, Rauch SL. Anger in healthy men: a PET study using script-driven imagery. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Aug 15; 46(4):466-72. PMID: 10459395.
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  134. Rauch SL, Shin LM, Dougherty DD, Alpert NM, Orr SP, Lasko M, Macklin ML, Fischman AJ, Pitman RK. Neural activation during sexual and competitive arousal in healthy men. Psychiatry Res. 1999 Jul 30; 91(1):1-10. PMID: 10496688.
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  135. Metzger LJ, Orr SP, Berry NJ, Ahern CE, Lasko NB, Pitman RK. Physiologic reactivity to startling tones in women with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 1999 May; 108(2):347-52. PMID: 10369045.
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  136. Shin LM, McNally RJ, Kosslyn SM, Thompson WL, Rauch SL, Alpert NM, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: A PET investigation. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Apr; 156(4):575-84. PMID: 10200737.
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  137. Orr SP, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Berry NJ, Ahern CE, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic assessment of women with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from childhood sexual abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998 Dec; 66(6):906-13. PMID: 9874903.
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  138. McNally RJ, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Clancy SA, Pitman RK. Directed forgetting of trauma cues in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 1998 Nov; 107(4):596-601. PMID: 9830247.
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  139. Yehuda R, Resnick HS, Schmeidler J, Yang RK, Pitman RK. Predictors of cortisol and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol responses in the acute aftermath of rape. Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Jun 1; 43(11):855-9. PMID: 9611677.
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  140. Shalev AY, Sahar T, Freedman S, Peri T, Glick N, Brandes D, Orr SP, Pitman RK. A prospective study of heart rate response following trauma and the subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Jun; 55(6):553-9. PMID: 9633675.
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  141. Shalev AY, Freedman S, Peri T, Brandes D, Sahar T, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 May; 155(5):630-7. PMID: 9585714.
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  142. Macklin ML, Metzger LJ, Litz BT, McNally RJ, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Lower precombat intelligence is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998 Apr; 66(2):323-6. PMID: 9583335.
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  143. Orr SP, Meyerhoff JL, Edwards JV, Pitman RK. Heart rate and blood pressure resting levels and responses to generic stressors in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 1998 Jan; 11(1):155-64. PMID: 9479684.
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  144. Metzger LJ, Orr SP, Lasko NB, Pitman RK. Auditory event-related potentials to tone stimuli in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1997 Dec 1; 42(11):1006-15. PMID: 9386852.
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  145. Orr SP, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Pitman RK. Physiologic responses to non-startling tones in Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1997 Nov 14; 73(1-2):103-7. PMID: 9463843.
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  146. Shalev AY, Peri T, Gelpin E, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic assessment of mental imagery of stressful events in Israeli civilian posttraumatic stress disorder patients. Compr Psychiatry. 1997 Sep-Oct; 38(5):269-73. PMID: 9298319.
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  147. Pitman RK. Overview of biological themes in PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21; 821:1-9. PMID: 9238189.
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  148. Shin LM, McNally RJ, Kosslyn SM, Thompson WL, Rauch SL, Alpert NM, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. A positron emission tomographic study of symptom provocation in PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21; 821:521-3. PMID: 9238243.
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  149. Gurvits TV, Gilbertson MW, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Neurological status of combat veterans and adult survivors of sexual abuse PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21; 821:468-71. PMID: 9238231.
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  150. Gilbertson MW, Gurvits TV, Lasko NB, Pitman RK. Neuropsychological assessment of Vietnam combat veterans with and without PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21; 821:476-9. PMID: 9238233.
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  151. Orr SP, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Berry NJ, Ahern CE, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic assessment of PTSD in adult females sexually abused during childhood. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21; 821:491-3. PMID: 9238236.
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  152. Metzger LJ, Orr SP, Lasko NB, Berry NJ, Pitman RK. Evidence for diminished P3 amplitudes in PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21; 821:499-503. PMID: 9238238.
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  153. Shalev AY, Peri T, Orr SP, Bonne O, Pitman RK. Auditory startle responses in help-seeking trauma survivors. Psychiatry Res. 1997 Mar 3; 69(1):1-7. PMID: 9080539.
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  154. Shin LM, Kosslyn SM, McNally RJ, Alpert NM, Thompson WL, Rauch SL, Macklin ML, Pitman RK. Visual imagery and perception in posttraumatic stress disorder. A positron emission tomographic investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Mar; 54(3):233-41. PMID: 9075464.
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  155. Orr SP, Solomon Z, Peri T, Pitman RK, Shalev AY. Physiologic responses to loud tones in Israeli veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Biol Psychiatry. 1997 Feb 1; 41(3):319-26. PMID: 9024955.
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  156. Metzger LJ, Orr SP, Lasko NB, McNally RJ, Pitman RK. Seeking the source of emotional Stroop interference effects in PTSD: a study of P3s to traumatic words. Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1997 Jan-Mar; 32(1):43-51. PMID: 9105913.
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  157. Gurvits TV, Shenton ME, Hokama H, Ohta H, Lasko NB, Gilbertson MW, Orr SP, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW, Pitman RK. Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Dec 1; 40(11):1091-9. PMID: 8931911; PMCID: PMC2910907.
  158. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Altman B, Longpre RE, Poiré RE, Macklin ML, Michaels MJ, Steketee GS. Emotional processing and outcome of imaginal flooding therapy in Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1996 Nov-Dec; 37(6):409-18. PMID: 8932965.
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  159. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Altman B, Longpre RE, Poiré RE, Macklin ML. Emotional processing during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy of Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1996 Nov-Dec; 37(6):419-29. PMID: 8932966.
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  160. Kosslyn SM, Shin LM, Thompson WL, McNally RJ, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Alpert NM. Neural effects of visualizing and perceiving aversive stimuli: a PET investigation. Neuroreport. 1996 Jul 8; 7(10):1569-76. PMID: 8904757.
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  161. Rauch SL, van der Kolk BA, Fisler RE, Alpert NM, Orr SP, Savage CR, Fischman AJ, Jenike MA, Pitman RK. A symptom provocation study of posttraumatic stress disorder using positron emission tomography and script-driven imagery. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996 May; 53(5):380-7. PMID: 8624181.
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  162. Resnick HS, Yehuda R, Pitman RK, Foy DW. Effect of previous trauma on acute plasma cortisol level following rape. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Nov; 152(11):1675-7. PMID: 7485635.
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  163. McNally RJ, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Pitman RK. Autobiographical memory disturbance in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther. 1995 Jul; 33(6):619-30. PMID: 7654154.
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  164. Bieniasz PD, Rethwilm A, Pitman R, Daniel MD, Chrystie I, McClure MO. A comparative study of higher primate foamy viruses, including a new virus from a gorilla. Virology. 1995 Feb 20; 207(1):217-28. PMID: 7871729.
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  165. Kohn Y, Newman ME, Lerer B, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Absence of reduced platelet adenylate cyclase activity in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Biol Psychiatry. 1995 Feb 1; 37(3):205-8. PMID: 7727631.
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  166. Orr SP, Lasko NB, Shalev AY, Pitman RK. Physiologic responses to loud tones in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 1995 Feb; 104(1):75-82. PMID: 7897056.
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  167. Lasko NB, Gurvits TV, Kuhne AA, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Aggression and its correlates in Vietnam veterans with and without chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1994 Sep-Oct; 35(5):373-81. PMID: 7995030.
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  168. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Lasko NB. Effects of intranasal vasopressin and oxytocin on physiologic responding during personal combat imagery in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1993 Aug; 48(2):107-17. PMID: 8416021.
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  169. Shalev AY, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic assessment of traumatic imagery in Israeli civilian patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Apr; 150(4):620-4. PMID: 8465880.
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  170. Pitman RK. Posttraumatic obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case study. Compr Psychiatry. 1993 Mar-Apr; 34(2):102-7. PMID: 8485978.
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  171. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Shalev AY. Once bitten, twice shy: beyond the conditioning model of PTSD. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Feb 1; 33(3):145-6. PMID: 8448261.
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  172. Orr SP, Pitman RK, Lasko NB, Herz LR. Psychophysiological assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder imagery in World War II and Korean combat veterans. J Abnorm Psychol. 1993 Feb; 102(1):152-9. PMID: 8436691.
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  173. Orr SP, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic assessment of attempts to simulate posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Jan 15; 33(2):127-9. PMID: 8439601.
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  174. Pitman RK, Orr SP. Psychophysiologic testing for post-traumatic stress disorder: forensic psychiatric application. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1993; 21(1):37-52. PMID: 8477104.
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  175. Gurvits TV, Lasko NB, Schachter SC, Kuhne AA, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Neurological status of Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993; 5(2):183-8. PMID: 8508036.
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  176. Shalev AY, Orr SP, Peri T, Schreiber S, Pitman RK. Physiologic responses to loud tones in Israeli patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992 Nov; 49(11):870-5. PMID: 1444725.
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  177. Shalev AY, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Psychophysiologic response during script-driven imagery as an outcome measure in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992 Sep; 53(9):324-6. PMID: 1355475.
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  178. Shalev AY, Ragel-Fuchs Y, Pitman RK. Conditioned fear and psychological trauma. Biol Psychiatry. 1992 May 1; 31(9):863-5. PMID: 1637927.
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  179. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Lowenhagen MJ, Macklin ML, Altman B. Pre-Vietnam contents of posttraumatic stress disorder veterans' service medical and personnel records. Compr Psychiatry. 1991 Sep-Oct; 32(5):416-22. PMID: 1743012.
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  180. Pitman RK, Altman B, Greenwald E, Longpre RE, Macklin ML, Poiré RE, Steketee GS. Psychiatric complications during flooding therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1991 Jan; 52(1):17-20. PMID: 1988412.
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  181. Pitman RK, van der Kolk BA, Orr SP, Greenberg MS. Naloxone-reversible analgesic response to combat-related stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder. A pilot study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Jun; 47(6):541-4. PMID: 2350206.
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  182. Pitman RK, Orr SP. Modulation of the startle response in children with PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 1990 Jun; 147(6):815-6. PMID: 2343935.
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  183. Orr SP, Claiborn JM, Altman B, Forgue DF, de Jong JB, Pitman RK, Herz LR. Psychometric profile of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxious, and healthy Vietnam veterans: correlations with psychophysiologic responses. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1990 Jun; 58(3):329-35. PMID: 2365896.
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  184. Pitman RK, Orr SP. The black hole of trauma. Biol Psychiatry. 1990 Mar 1; 27(5):469-71. PMID: 2310801.
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  185. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Forgue DF, Altman B, de Jong JB, Herz LR. Psychophysiologic responses to combat imagery of Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder versus other anxiety disorders. J Abnorm Psychol. 1990 Feb; 99(1):49-54. PMID: 2307766.
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  186. Pitman RK, Orr SP. Twenty-four hour urinary cortisol and catecholamine excretion in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1990 Jan 15; 27(2):245-7. PMID: 2294983.
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  187. Pitman RK. Self-mutilation in combat-related PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 1990 Jan; 147(1):123-4. PMID: 2322327.
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  188. Pitman RK, Jenike MA. Normal and disordered compulsivity: evidence against a continuum. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989 Dec; 50(12):450-2. PMID: 2600062.
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  189. Pitman RK. Post-traumatic stress disorder, hormones, and memory. Biol Psychiatry. 1989 Jul; 26(3):221-3. PMID: 2545287.
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  190. Pitman RK. Animal models of compulsive behavior. Biol Psychiatry. 1989 Jun; 26(2):189-98. PMID: 2660914.
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  191. Pitman RK, Altman B, Macklin ML. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in wounded Vietnam veterans. Am J Psychiatry. 1989 May; 146(5):667-9. PMID: 2785348.
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  192. van der Kolk BA, Greenberg MS, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Endogenous opioids, stress induced analgesia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1989; 25(3):417-21. PMID: 2626517.
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  193. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Steketee GS. Psychophysiological investigations of posttraumatic stress disorder imagery. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1989; 25(3):426-31. PMID: 2626518.
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  194. Pitman RK, Jenike MA. Coprolalia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a missing link. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1988 May; 176(5):311-3. PMID: 3163360.
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  195. Pitman RK, Orr SP, Forgue DF, de Jong JB, Claiborn JM. Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder imagery in Vietnam combat veterans. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987 Nov; 44(11):970-5. PMID: 3675137.
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  196. Pitman RK, Green RC, Jenike MA, Mesulam MM. Clinical comparison of Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1987 Sep; 144(9):1166-71. PMID: 3477103.
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  197. Pitman RK. A cybernetic model of obsessive-compulsive psychopathology. Compr Psychiatry. 1987 Jul-Aug; 28(4):334-43. PMID: 3608467.
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  198. Orr SP, Pitman RK. Electrodermal psychophysiology of anxiety disorder: orienting response and spontaneous fluctuations. Biol Psychiatry. 1987 May; 22(5):653-6. PMID: 3580440.
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  199. Pitman RK. Pierre Janet on obsessive-compulsive disorder (1903). Review and commentary. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987 Mar; 44(3):226-32. PMID: 3827518.
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  200. Pitman RK, Kolb B, Orr SP, Singh MM. Ethological study of facial behavior in nonparanoid and paranoid schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1987 Jan; 144(1):99-102. PMID: 3799849.
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  201. Pitman RK, Orr SP. Test of the conditioning model of neurosis: differential aversive conditioning of angry and neutral facial expressions in anxiety disorder patients. J Abnorm Psychol. 1986 Aug; 95(3):208-13. PMID: 3745641.
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  202. Singh MM, Becker RE, Pitman RK, Nasrallah HA, Lal H. Sustained improvement in tardive dyskinesia with diazepam: indirect evidence for corticolimbic involvement. Brain Res Bull. 1983 Aug; 11(2):179-85. PMID: 6313141.
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  203. Kolada SJ, Pitman RK. Eye-head synkinesia in schizophrenic adults during a repetitive visual search task. Biol Psychiatry. 1983 Jun; 18(6):675-84. PMID: 6871301.
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  204. Pitman RK. Tourette's syndrome and ethology. Am J Psychiatry. 1983 May; 140(5):652. PMID: 6573854.
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  205. Singh MM, Becker RE, Pitman RK, Nasrallah HA, Lal H, Dufresne RL, Weber SS, McCalley-Whitters M. Diazepam-induced changes in tardive dyskinesia: suggestions for a new conceptual model. Biol Psychiatry. 1982 Jun; 17(6):729-42. PMID: 6125219.
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  206. Pitman RK. Neurological etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorders? Am J Psychiatry. 1982 Jan; 139(1):139-40. PMID: 7055270.
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  207. Singh MM, Kay SR, Pitman RK. Aggression control and structuring of social relations among recently admitted schizophrenics. Psychiatry Res. 1981 Oct; 5(2):157-69. PMID: 6945611.
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  208. Singh MM, Kay SR, Pitman RK. Territorial behavior of schizophrenics. A phylogenetic approach. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1981 Aug; 169(8):503-12. PMID: 6114984.
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  209. Pitman RK, Moffett PS. Somatization disorder (Briquet's syndrome) in a male veteran. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1981 Jul; 169(7):462-6. PMID: 7241113.
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  210. Pitman RK. The adaptive role of maladaptive neurosis: an evolutionary misconception. Biol Psychiatry. 1981 Feb; 16(2):207-8. PMID: 7225486.
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  211. Pitman RK. A political implication of drug-induced supersensitivity. Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Aug; 137(8):993. PMID: 6106398.
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  212. Pitman RK. Differential bonding and the triune brain. Am J Psychiatry. 1979 Jul; 136(7):997-8. PMID: 453381.
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  213. Pitman RK. Letter: More on dominance, Freud, and sex. Am J Psychiatry. 1975 May; 132(5):568-9. PMID: 1119630.
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  214. Pitman RK. Letter: Dominance and sexual behavior related to psychoanalytic literature. Am J Psychiatry. 1974 Nov; 131(11):1289. PMID: 4419907.
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