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Last Name

profileRichard Martin Schwartzstein, M.D.

TitleEllen and Melvin Gordon Professor of Medical Education
InstitutionBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
AddressBeth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr
330 Brookline Ave
Boston MA 02215
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Other Positions
TitleDirector of the Academy
InstitutionHarvard Medical School

Collapse Biography 
Collapse awards and honors
1975Magna Cum Laude
1975Phi Beta Kappa
1975Philo Sherman Bennet Thesis Award, Honorable Mention
1998Excellence in Teaching Award, Outstanding Lecturer, Class of 2001
2001Class of 2004 Teaching Award, Best Lecturer, Integrated Human Physiology
2002Class of 2005 Teaching Award, Best Course Director
2002Class of 2005 Teaching Award, Best Course, Integrated Human Physiology
2002Class of 2005 Teaching Award, Best Syllabus, Integrated Human Physiology
2002Class of 2005, Teaching Award, Best Lecturer, Integrated Human Physiology
2002S. Robert Stone Award for Excellence in Teaching
2003Class of 2006, Excellence in Teaching Award
2003Harvard Medical School Prize for Excellence in Teaching (Years 1 and 2)
2004Class of 2007 Excellence in Teaching Award
2005Clinical Educator Award
2005Robert C Moellering Jr Award in recognition of excellence in teaching, research, and clinical care
2006Best Preclinical Teacher, Class Day Award
2007Robert J Glaser Distinguished Teaching Award
2008Best Preclincal Teacher, Class Day Award

Collapse Overview 
Collapse overview
For the past fifteen years, the focus of much of my clinical and administrative work, as well as my teaching and research has been respiratory physiology. Within this broad field, I have developed a particular interest and expertise in the area of the physiology and language of dyspnea. I have had the unique opportunity to integrate the three major facets of my professional academic life in such a way that each component offers insights that strengthen my capabilities in the other areas. By providing care for patients afflicted with respiratory discomfort, for example, I have gained knowledge that has led to the development and testing of research hypotheses that have broadened our understanding of the physiology of dyspnea, and of the interactions between chemoreceptors, upper airway, pulmonary and chest wall receptors in the generation and modulation of breathlessness. My research on the language of dyspnea, the terms used by patients to describe their breathing discomfort, has, in turn, made me a more astute clinician.Additionally, these clinical and research efforts have made me a far stronger teacher. In fulfilling my educational responsibilities, which range from directing the integrated human physiology course for first year medical students at Harvard to continuing education courses at the annual meetings of the American Thoracic Society, I am able to make the physiology “come alive,” to make it relevant based on my own experiences in the laboratory and at the bedside. It is immensely helpful when questioned by a student about ventilatory control, for example, to be able to say: “Yes, we studied that - what do you think the subjects did under these circumstances?” Because of the trend in recent years for biomedical research to become more focused on cellular biology, there has been a movement to segregate researchers from medical educators. For me, active work as a clinical investigator has been critical to enhancing my capabilities as a teacher and has allowed me to provide a model for students to consider as they contemplate their own career choices.

In the past several years, I have added a new dimension to my teaching activities. Healthcare in America is changing at a rapid pace as the pressures of limited resources and managed care become more prevalent. It is my belief that the training of new physicians must incorporate a solid understanding of healthcare financing along with traditional clinical skills if we are to prepare them for the future. Consequently, with funding provided by the Merck Foundation, I developed a three-year program in medical economics, cost-effective and evidence-based medicine for the medical housestaff at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and serve as a mentor for senior residents pursuing projects in healthcare economics. Again, I hope to demonstrate to interns and residents that one can be a quality clinician and researcher and still be cognizant of the pressures and demands of the society in which we live.

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Freret T, Rana J, Schwartzstein RM, Gooding HC. Twelve tips for implementation of "student-as-teacher" programs. Med Teach. 2017 Jun 09; 1-6. PMID: 28598708.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Hayes MM, Chatterjee S, Schwartzstein RM. Critical Thinking in Critical Care: Five Strategies to Improve Teaching and Learning in the Intensive Care Unit. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Apr; 14(4):569-575. PMID: 28157389.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Soffler MI, Rose A, Hayes MM, Banzett R, Schwartzstein RM. Treatment of Acute Dyspnea with Morphine to Avert Respiratory Failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Apr; 14(4):584-588. PMID: 28362540.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Schwartzstein RM. Good Teaching and Good Teachers: The Role of Medical Education Research. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Apr; 14(4):487-488. PMID: 28362537.
    View in: PubMed
  5. O'Donnell CR, Lansing RW, Schwartzstein RM, Banzett R. The Effect of Aerosol Saline on Laboratory-Induced Dyspnea. Lung. 2017 Feb; 195(1):37-42. PMID: 28004181.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Simpkin AL, Schwartzstein RM. Tolerating Uncertainty - The Next Medical Revolution? N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 03; 375(18):1713-1715. PMID: 27806221.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Krupat E, Richards JB, Sullivan AM, Fleenor TJ, Schwartzstein RM. Assessing the Effectiveness of Case-Based Collaborative Learning via Randomized Controlled Trial. Acad Med. 2016 May; 91(5):723-9. PMID: 26606719.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Sullivan AM, Rock LK, Gadmer NM, Norwich DE, Schwartzstein RM. The Impact of Resident Training on Communication with Families in the Intensive Care Unit. Resident and Family Outcomes. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Apr; 13(4):512-21. PMID: 26989925.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Newman LR, Brodsky D, Jones RN, Schwartzstein RM, Atkins KM, Roberts DH. Frame-of-Reference Training: Establishing Reliable Assessment of Teaching Effectiveness. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2016; 36(3):206-10. PMID: 27583997.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Currow DC, Abernethy AP, Allcroft P, Banzett RB, Bausewein C, Booth S, Carrieri-Kohlman V, Davidson P, Disler R, Donesky D, Dudgeon D, Ekstrom M, Farquhar M, Higginson I, Janssen D, Jensen D, Jolley C, Krajnik M, Laveneziana P, McDonald C, Maddocks M, Morelot-Panzini C, Moxham J, Mularski RA, Noble S, O'Donnell D, Parshall MB, Pattinson K, Phillips J, Ross J, Schwartzstein RM, Similowski T, Simon ST, Smith T, Wells A, Yates P, Yorke J, Johnson MJ. The need to research refractory breathlessness. Eur Respir J. 2016 Jan; 47(1):342-3. PMID: 26721965.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Block BL, Bernard S, Schwartzstein RM. Hypo-Hypo: A Complex Metabolic Disorder. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Jan; 13(1):127-33. PMID: 26730868.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Huang GC, Tibbles CD, Newman LR, Schwartzstein RM. Consensus of the Millennium Conference on Teaching High Value Care. Teach Learn Med. 2016; 28(1):97-104. PMID: 26787090.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Banzett RB, Schwartzstein RM. Dyspnea: Don't Just Look, Ask! Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec 15; 192(12):1404-6. PMID: 26669467; PMCID: PMC4731724 [Available on 12/15/16].
  14. Schwartzstein RM. Getting the right medical students--nature versus nurture. N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 23; 372(17):1586-7. PMID: 25901425.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Smetana GW, Boiselle PM, Schwartzstein RM. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: grand rounds discussion from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Apr 21; 162(8):577-82. PMID: 25894026.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Clardy PF, Schwartzstein RM. Considering cognition. Current challenges and future directions in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Apr; 12(4):474-9. PMID: 25763886.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Banzett RB, O'Donnell CR, Guilfoyle TE, Parshall MB, Schwartzstein RM, Meek PM, Gracely RH, Lansing RW. Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile: an instrument for clinical and laboratory research. Eur Respir J. 2015 Jun; 45(6):1681-91. PMID: 25792641; PMCID: PMC4450151.
  18. McSparron JI, Ricotta DN, Moskowitz A, Volpicelli FM, Roberts DH, Schwartzstein RM, Huang GC. The PrOSTE: identifying key components of effective procedural teaching. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Feb; 12(2):230-4. PMID: 25564926.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Chen CA, Park RJ, Hegde JV, Jun T, Christman MP, Yoo SM, Yamasaki A, Berhanu A, Vohra-Khullar P, Remus K, Schwartzstein RM, Weinstein AR. How we used a patient visit tracker tool to advance experiential learning in systems-based practice and quality improvement in a medical student clinic. Med Teach. 2016; 38(1):36-40. PMID: 25401409.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Papp KK, Huang GC, Lauzon Clabo LM, Delva D, Fischer M, Konopasek L, Schwartzstein RM, Gusic M. Milestones of critical thinking: a developmental model for medicine and nursing. Acad Med. 2014 May; 89(5):715-20. PMID: 24667504.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Roberts DH, Schwartzstein RM, Weinberger SE. Career development for the clinician-educator. Optimizing impact and maximizing success. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Feb; 11(2):254-9. PMID: 24575995.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Huang GC, Newman LR, Schwartzstein RM. Critical thinking in health professions education: summary and consensus statements of the Millennium Conference 2011. Teach Learn Med. 2014; 26(1):95-102. PMID: 24405353.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Richards JB, Wilcox SR, Roberts DH, Schwartzstein RM. Twelve tips for overnight teaching. Med Teach. 2014 Mar; 36(3):196-200. PMID: 24164552.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Schwartzstein RM, Rosenfeld GC, Hilborn R, Oyewole SH, Mitchell K. Redesigning the MCAT exam: balancing multiple perspectives. Acad Med. 2013 May; 88(5):560-7. PMID: 23524933.
    View in: PubMed
  25. O'Donnell CR, Schwartzstein RM, Lansing RW, Guilfoyle T, Elkin D, Banzett RB. Dyspnea affective response: comparing COPD patients with healthy volunteers and laboratory model with activities of daily living. BMC Pulm Med. 2013 Apr 27; 13:27. PMID: 23621986; PMCID: PMC3663820.
  26. Veronese C, Richards JB, Pernar L, Sullivan AM, Schwartzstein RM. A randomized pilot study of the use of concept maps to enhance problem-based learning among first-year medical students. Med Teach. 2013 Sep; 35(9):e1478-84. PMID: 23617466.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Richards J, Schwartzstein R, Irish J, Almeida J, Roberts D. Clinical physiology grand rounds. Clin Teach. 2013 Apr; 10(2):88-93. PMID: 23480109.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Haspel RL, Bhargava P, Gilmore H, Kane S, Powers A, Sepehr A, Weinstein AR, Schwartzstein RM, Roberts DH. Successful implementation of a longitudinal, integrated pathology curriculum during the third year of medical school. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012 Nov; 136(11):1430-6. PMID: 23106589.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Schwartzstein RM. Response. Chest. 2012 Aug 1; 142(2):547. PMID: 22871784.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Kelly SP, Tibbles C, Barnett SR, Schwartzstein RM. The "hidden costs" of graduate medical education in the United States. J Grad Med Educ. 2012 Jun; 4(2):267-8. PMID: 23730458; PMCID: PMC3399629.
  31. Newman LR, Brodsky DD, Roberts DH, Pelletier SR, Johansson A, Vollmer CM, Atkins KM, Schwartzstein RM. Developing expert-derived rating standards for the peer assessment of lectures. Acad Med. 2012 Mar; 87(3):356-63. PMID: 22281550.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Parshall MB, Schwartzstein RM, Adams L, Banzett RB, Manning HL, Bourbeau J, Calverley PM, Gift AG, Harver A, Lareau SC, Mahler DA, Meek PM, O'Donnell DE. An official American Thoracic Society statement: update on the mechanisms, assessment, and management of dyspnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb 15; 185(4):435-52. PMID: 22336677.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Roberts DH, Newman LR, Schwartzstein RM. Twelve tips for facilitating Millennials' learning. Med Teach. 2012; 34(4):274-8. PMID: 22288944.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Meek PM, Banzett R, Parsall MB, Gracely RH, Schwartzstein RM, Lansing R. Reliability and validity of the multidimensional dyspnea profile. Chest. 2012 Jun; 141(6):1546-1553. PMID: 22267681; PMCID: PMC3367480.
  35. Womble HM, Schwartzstein RM, Johnston RP, Roberts DH. Effect of therapeutic hyperoxia on maximal oxygen consumption and perioperative risk stratification in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung. 2012 Jun; 190(3):263-9. PMID: 22249909.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Schwartzstein RM, Parker MJ. Rising PaCO(2) in the ICU: using a physiologic approach to avoid cognitive biases. Chest. 2011 Dec; 140(6):1638-1642. PMID: 22147823.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Banzett RB, Adams L, O'Donnell CR, Gilman SA, Lansing RW, Schwartzstein RM. Using laboratory models to test treatment: morphine reduces dyspnea and hypercapnic ventilatory response. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct 15; 184(8):920-7. PMID: 21778294; PMCID: PMC3208656.
  38. Johansson AC, Durning SJ, Gruppen LD, Olson ME, Schwartzstein RM, Higgins PA. Perspective: medical education research and the institutional review board: reexamining the process. Acad Med. 2011 Jul; 86(7):809-17. PMID: 21617512.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Friedlander MJ, Andrews L, Armstrong EG, Aschenbrenner C, Kass JS, Ogden P, Schwartzstein R, Viggiano TR. What can medical education learn from the neurobiology of learning? Acad Med. 2011 Apr; 86(4):415-20. PMID: 21346504.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Huang GC, Newman LR, Tess AV, Schwartzstein RM. Teaching patient safety: conference proceedings and consensus statements of the Millennium Conference 2009. Teach Learn Med. 2011 Apr; 23(2):172-8. PMID: 21516606.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Roberts DH, Kane EM, Jones DB, Almeida JM, Bell SK, Weinstein AR, Schwartzstein RM. Teaching medical students about obesity: a pilot program to address an unmet need through longitudinal relationships with bariatric surgery patients. Surg Innov. 2011 Jun; 18(2):176-83. PMID: 21343171; PMCID: PMC3372903.
  42. Simone MJ, Roberts DH, Irish JT, Neeman N, Schulze JE, Lipsitz LA, Schwartzstein R, Aronson MD, Tan ZS. An educational intervention for providers to promote bone health in high-risk older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Feb; 59(2):291-6. PMID: 21288231.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Harver A, Schwartzstein RM, Kotses H, Humphries CT, Schmaling KB, Mullin ML. Descriptors of breathlessness in children with persistent asthma. Chest. 2011 Apr; 139(4):832-838. PMID: 21183610; PMCID: PMC3071274.
  44. Smith CC, Huang GC, Newman LR, Clardy PF, Feller-Kopman D, Cho M, Ennacheril T, Schwartzstein RM. Simulation training and its effect on long-term resident performance in central venous catheterization. Simul Healthc. 2010 Jun; 5(3):146-51. PMID: 20651476.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Fincher RM, White CB, Huang G, Schwartzstein R. Toward hypothesis-driven medical education research: task force report from the Millennium Conference 2007 on educational research. Acad Med. 2010 May; 85(5):821-8. PMID: 20520035.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Huang G, Newman L, Anderson MB, Schwartzstein R. Conference proceedings and consensus statements of the millennium conference 2007: a collaborative approach to educational research. Teach Learn Med. 2010 Jan; 22(1):50-5. PMID: 20391284.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Newman LR, Lown BA, Jones RN, Johansson A, Schwartzstein RM. Developing a peer assessment of lecturing instrument: lessons learned. Acad Med. 2009 Aug; 84(8):1104-10. PMID: 19638781.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Huang GC, Newman LR, Schwartzstein RM, Clardy PF, Feller-Kopman D, Irish JT, Smith CC. Procedural competence in internal medicine residents: validity of a central venous catheter insertion assessment instrument. Acad Med. 2009 Aug; 84(8):1127-34. PMID: 19638784.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Schwartzstein RM, Gold DR. Dyspnea in overweight children: is it asthma? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 123(6):1319-20. PMID: 19501234.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Krupat E, Pelletier S, Alexander EK, Hirsh D, Ogur B, Schwartzstein R. Can changes in the principal clinical year prevent the erosion of students' patient-centered beliefs? Acad Med. 2009 May; 84(5):582-6. PMID: 19704190.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Schwartzstein RM, Parker MJ. Interactive physiology grand rounds: introduction to the series. Chest. 2009 Jan; 135(1):6-8. PMID: 19136400.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Feller-Kopman D, Parker MJ, Schwartzstein RM. Assessment of pleural pressure in the evaluation of pleural effusions. Chest. 2009 Jan; 135(1):201-209. PMID: 19136407.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Schwartzstein RM, Huang GC, Coughlin CM. Development and implementation of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical education at an academic medical center. Acad Med. 2008 Jun; 83(6):550-9. PMID: 18520458.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Bell SK, Krupat E, Fazio SB, Roberts DH, Schwartzstein RM. Longitudinal pedagogy: a successful response to the fragmentation of the third-year medical student clerkship experience. Acad Med. 2008 May; 83(5):467-75. PMID: 18448900.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Banzett RB, Pedersen SH, Schwartzstein RM, Lansing RW. The affective dimension of laboratory dyspnea: air hunger is more unpleasant than work/effort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jun 15; 177(12):1384-90. PMID: 18369200; PMCID: PMC2427058.
  56. Rock LK, Schwartzstein RM. Mechanisms of dyspnea in chronic lung disease. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2007 Aug; 1(2):102-8. PMID: 18685350.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Huang GC, Gordon JA, Schwartzstein RM. Millennium conference 2005 on medical simulation: a summary report. Simul Healthc. 2007; 2(2):88-95. PMID: 19088612.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Loring SH, Townsend SR, Gallagher DC, Matus HL, Tegins EO, Feller-Kopman D, Schwartzstein RM. Expiratory abdominal rounding in acute dyspnea suggests congestive heart failure. Lung. 2006 Nov-Dec; 184(6):324-9. PMID: 17096181.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Moosavi SH, Binks AP, Lansing RW, Topulos GP, Banzett RB, Schwartzstein RM. Effect of inhaled furosemide on air hunger induced in healthy humans. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007 Apr 16; 156(1):1-8. PMID: 16935035.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Pinto DS, Blair BM, Schwartzstein RM, Smith CC. Clinical problem-solving. A sailor's heartbreak. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 01; 353(9):934-9. PMID: 16135839.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Krivopal M, Shlobin OA, Schwartzstein RM. Utility of daily routine portable chest radiographs in mechanically ventilated patients in the medical ICU. Chest. 2003 May; 123(5):1607-14. PMID: 12740281.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Bloch-Salisbury E, Binks AP, Banzett RB, Schwartzstein RM. Mechanical chest-wall vibration does not relieve air hunger. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003 Mar 28; 134(3):177-90. PMID: 12660098.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Schwartzstein RM, Harver A. . Clinical Research on Dyspnea. 2003.
  64. Schwartzstein RM, Feller-Kopman D. . Shortness of breath. In Braunwald E, Goldman L eds. Primary Care Cardiology. 2003; 101-115.
  65. Moosavi SH Binks AP Lansing RW Topulos GP Banzett RB Schwartzstein RM. Furosemide inhalation reduces air hunger sensitivity in healthy individuals. . Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2002; 165:B20.
  66. Schwartzstein, RM. The language of dyspnea. Eur Respir Rev. 2002; 12(82):28-30.
  67. Binks AP, Moosavi SH, Banzett RB, Schwartzstein RM. "Tightness" sensation of asthma does not arise from the work of breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jan 01; 165(1):78-82. PMID: 11779734.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Manning HL, Schwartzstein RM. Respiratory sensations in asthma: physiological and clinical implications. J Asthma. 2001 Sep; 38(6):447-60. PMID: 11642411.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Binks AP, Bloch-Salisbury E, Banzett RB, Schwartzstein RM. Oscillation of the lung by chest-wall vibration. Respir Physiol. 2001 Jul; 126(3):245-9. PMID: 11403786.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Feller-Kopman D, Schwartzstein R. The role of hypoventilation and ventilation-perfusion redistribution in oxygen-induced hypercapnia during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Jun; 163(7):1755. PMID: 11401898.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Schwartzstein RM. Evaluation of the patient with chronic dyspnea: Clinical application of pathophysiologic principles. Prim Care Case Reviews. 2001; 3:201-209.
  72. Chevalier B, Schwartzstein R. The role of the methacholine inhalation challenge: Avoiding a misdiagnosis of asthma. J Respir Disease. 2001; 22:153-160.
  73. Harver A, Mahler DA, Schwartzstein RM, Baird JC. Descriptors of breathlessness in healthy individuals: distinct and separable constructs. Chest. 2000 Sep; 118(3):679-90. PMID: 10988189.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Moy ML, Woodrow Weiss J, Sparrow D, Israel E, Schwartzstein RM. Quality of dyspnea in bronchoconstriction differs from external resistive loads. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Aug; 162(2 Pt 1):451-5. PMID: 10934069.
    View in: PubMed
  75. In Rippe JM ed. Lifestyle Medicine. A 61 year-old man with rapidly progressive dyspnea. Clinical-pathologic conference. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343:642-649.
  76. Harver A, Mahler DA, Schwartzstein RM, Baird JC. . Descriptors of breathlessness in healthy subjects: Distinct and separable constructs. Chest. 2000; 118:679-690.
  77. Harver A, Mahler DA, Schwartzstein RM. Use of a descriptor model for prospective diagnosis of dyspnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000; 161:A705.
  78. Schwartzstein RM. Respiratory symptoms. In Rippe JM ed. Lifestyle Medicine. 2000; 433-445.
  79. Binks A, Moosavi S, Banzett R, Schwartzstein R. Perception of “tightness” in asthma persists during passive ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000; 161:A858.
  80. Chevalier B, Schwartzstein, RM. Hyperventilation syndrome: Insights into a puzzling disorder. J Respir Dis. 2000; 21:569-574.
  81. Baron Rebecca M, Schwartzstein RM. . Diseases of the chest wall. 2000.
  82. Hein KD, Wechsler ME, Schwartzstein RM, Morris DJ. The adult respiratory distress syndrome after dextran infusion as an antithrombotic agent in free TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999 May; 103(6):1706-8. PMID: 10323708.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Harty HR, Corfield DR, Schwartzstein RM, Adams L. External thoracic restriction, respiratory sensation, and ventilation during exercise in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999 Apr; 86(4):1142-50. PMID: 10194195.
    View in: PubMed
  84. Schwartzstein RM. . Physiology of Dsypnea. 1999.
  85. Meek P, Schwartzstein RM, co-chairs. . Dyspnea: Mechanisms, Assessment and Management. ATS Consensus Statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999; 159:321-340.
  86. Schwartzstein, RM. Clinical approach to the patient with dyspnea. 1999.
  87. Schwartzstein RM, Manning HL. Mechanisms of dyspnea. In Cherniack N, Altose M, Homma I eds. Rehabilitation of the Patient with Respiratory Disease. 1999; 191-203.
  88. Manning HL, Schwartzstein RM. Breathlessness and the control of breathing. In Altose MD, Kawakami Y eds. Control of Breathing in Health and Disease. 1999; 105-135.
  89. Schwartzstein, RM. Are you fluent in the language of dyspnea?. J Crit Illness. 1999; 14:435-441.
  90. Moy ML, Lantin ML, Harver A, Schwartzstein RM. Language of dyspnea in assessment of patients with acute asthma treated with nebulized albuterol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Sep; 158(3):749-53. PMID: 9731000.
    View in: PubMed
  91. Schwartzstein, RM. The language of dyspnea. In: Mahler DA ed. Dyspnea. 1998; 35-62.
  92. Schwartzstein RM, Thibault GE. . Shortness of breath. In Braunwald E, Goldman L eds. Primary Care Cardiology. 1998; 98-111.
  93. Manning HL, Schwartzstein RM. . The pathophysiology of dyspnea. In Mahler DA ed. Dyspnea. 1998; 63-96.
  94. Feller-Kopman DJ, Schwartzstein RM. . The use of oxygen in patients with hypercapnia. 1998.
  95. Burstein JL, Pozner CN, Schwartzstein RM. Error rate for residents performing on-line medical control. Acad Emerg Med. 1998; 5:A221.
  96. Malhotra A, Schwartzstein, RM. Oxygen toxicity. 1998.
  97. Burns MJ, Schwartzstein RM. . Enhanced elimination of poisons. 1998.
  98. Davis MA, Greene J, Hart D, Keefe E, Carr K, Schwartzstein RM. Predicting the need for hospital admission in the emergency department: Sensitivity and specificity of prospective assessment by triage nurses. Acad Emerg Med. 1998; 5:A221.
  99. Burns MJ, Schwartzstein RM. . Poison decontamination. 1998.
  100. Burns MJ, Schwartzstein RM. General approach to the poisoned patient. 1998.
  101. Cristiano LM, Schwartzstein RM. Effect of chest wall vibration on dyspnea during hypercapnia and exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 May; 155(5):1552-9. PMID: 9154856.
    View in: PubMed
  102. Banzett RB, Shea SA, Brown R, Schwartzstein R, Lansing R, Guz A. Perception of inflation of a single lung lobe in humans. Respir Physiol. 1997 Feb; 107(2):125-36. PMID: 9108626.
    View in: PubMed
  103. Schwartzstein RM, Weis A, D’Agostino M. Dyspnea in patients with FEV1<1L: Improved exercise capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1997; 155:A368.
  104. Harver A, Mahler DA, Schwartzstein RM. The language of breathlessness: Validation in a non-clinical sample. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1997; 155:A200.
  105. Mahler DA, Harver A, Lentine T, Scott JA, Beck K, Schwartzstein RM. Descriptors of breathlessness in cardiorespiratory diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Nov; 154(5):1357-63. PMID: 8912748.
    View in: PubMed
  106. Lieberman SL, Schwartzstein RM, Harrington RM, Garshick E, Brown R. Role of the spinal cord in ventilatory and sensory response to hypercapnia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996; 153:A119.
  107. Harty HR, Corfield DR, Schwartzstein RM, Adams L. Chest strapping as a model of restrictive lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996; 153:A1 17.
  108. Schwartzstein, RM. Are you fluent in the language of dyspnea?. J Resp Dis. 1996; 17:322-328.
  109. Schwartzstein RM, Cristiano L. Quality of respiratory sensation. In: Adams L, Guz A eds. Respiratory Sensation. 1996; 125-154.
  110. Manning HL, Schwartzstein RM. Pathophysiology of dyspnea. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 07; 333(23):1547-53. PMID: 7477171.
    View in: PubMed
  111. Moy ML, Harver A, Lantin ML, Schwartzstein RM. Relationship between dyspnea and bronchodilator response in acute asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 151:A409.
  112. Harver A, Mahler DA, Schwartzstein RM. The Language of breathlessness: Reliability and reproducibility in COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 151:A547.
  113. Course Syllabus, Pulmonary Physiology, Integrated Human Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 1995.
  114. Harver A, Mahler DA, Schwartzstein RM, Beck K, Chambers JB. The language of breathlessness: A prospective evaluation. . Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1994; 149:A284.
  115. Cristiano LM, Klenz J, Shao A, Mourad 1, Brown R, Schwartzstein RM. Rib cage innervation is not necessary for perception of chest tightness during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1994; 149:A1085.
  116. Scott JA, Mahler DA, Harver A, Beck K, Schwartzstein RM. . Descriptors of breathless-ness in interstitial lung disease. Chest. 1994; 151:A547.
  117. Cristiano LM, Shao A, Schwartzstein RM. Chest wall vibration does not reduce the sense of effort and chest tightness associated with methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1994; 149:A1085.
  118. Scott JA, Mahler DA, Harver A, Beck K, Schwartzstein RM. Descriptors of breathless-ness in interstitial lung disease. Chest. 1994; 106:156S.
  119. Lieberman SL, Mourad 1, Brown R, Schwartzstein RM. Spinal cord injury diminishes both the ventilatory response and air hunger due to steady state hypercapnia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993; 145:A630.
  120. Demediuk BH, Manning H, Lilly J, Fencl V, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW, Schwartzstein RM. Dissociation between dyspnea and respiratory effort. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Nov; 146(5 Pt 1):1222-5. PMID: 1443874.
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  121. Manning HL, Shea SA, Schwartzstein RM, Lansing RW, Brown R, Banzett RB. Reduced tidal volume increases 'air hunger' at fixed PCO2 in ventilated quadriplegics. Respir Physiol. 1992 Oct; 90(1):19-30. PMID: 1455095.
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  122. Basner RC, Ringler J, Garpestad E, Schwartzstein RM, Sparrow D, Weinberger SE, Lilly J, Weiss JW. Upper airway anesthesia delays arousal from airway occlusion induced during human NREM sleep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992 Aug; 73(2):642-8. PMID: 1399992.
    View in: PubMed
  123. Manning HL, Brown R, Scharf SM, Leith DE, Weiss JW, Weinberger SE, Schwartzstein RM. Ventilatory and P0.1 response to hypercapnia in quadriplegia. Respir Physiol. 1992 Jul; 89(1):97-112. PMID: 1518990.
    View in: PubMed
  124. Schwartzstein RM. Asthma: to run or not to run? Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Apr; 145(4 Pt 1):739-40. PMID: 1554193.
    View in: PubMed
  125. schwartzstein, RM, Zadai CC. Can exercise help in COPD? Your Patient and Fitness. 1992; 6:5-9.
  126. Garpestad E, Basner RC, Ringler J, Lilly J, Schwartzstein R, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Phenylephrine-induced hypertension acutely decreases genioglossus EMG activity in awake humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992 Jan; 72(1):110-5. PMID: 1537703.
    View in: PubMed
  127. Schwartzstein, RM. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In: May HL, ed. Emergency Medicine. 1992; 171-176.
  128. Schwartzstein RM. . Pulmonary reactions to monosodium glutamate. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1992; 3:228-232.
  129. Schwartzstein R, Carpenter E, Brughera A, Sparrow D, O'Donnell C, Banzeft R. Quality of breathlessness during bronchoconstriction with different inhalational agents. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992; 145:A630.
  130. Simon PM, Basner RC, Weinberger SE, Fencl V, Weiss JW, Schwartzstein RM. Oral mucosal stimulation modulates intensity of breathlessness induced in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Aug; 144(2):419-22. PMID: 1859070.
    View in: PubMed
  131. Manning HL, Basner R, Ringler J, Rand C, Fencl V, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW, Schwartzstein RM. Effect of chest wall vibration on breathlessness in normal subjects. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991 Jul; 71(1):175-81. PMID: 1917740.
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  132. Basner RC, Ringler J, Schwartzstein RM, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Phasic electromyographic activity of the genioglossus increases in normals during slow-wave sleep. Respir Physiol. 1991 Feb; 83(2):189-200. PMID: 2068416.
    View in: PubMed
  133. Garpestad E, Basner R, Ringler J, Lilly J, Schwartzstein R, Weinberger S, Weiss JW. Elevations of blood pressure decrease genioglossus activity in awake normals. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991; 141:A669.
  134. Schwartzstein R, Lilly J, Israel E, Basner R, Sparrow D, Weinberger S, Weiss JW. Breathlessness of asthma differs from that of external resistive loads. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991; 142:A596.
  135. Schwartzstein, RM. Airway effects of MSG in subjects with chronic stable asthma. Food Australia. 1991; 43:S11-S14.
  136. Basner R, Lilly J, Garpestad E, Schwartzstein R, Weiss JW. Differential activity of levator and tensor veli palati related to breathing route. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991; 142:A791.
  137. Ringler J, Basner RC, Shannon R, Schwartzstein R, Manning H, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Hypoxemia alone does not explain blood pressure elevations after obstructive apneas. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1990 Dec; 69(6):2143-8. PMID: 2077012.
    View in: PubMed
  138. Simon PM, Schwartzstein RM, Weiss JW, Fencl V, Teghtsoonian M, Weinberger SE. Distinguishable types of dyspnea in patients with shortness of breath. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990 Nov; 142(5):1009-14. PMID: 2240820.
    View in: PubMed
  139. Basner RC, Ringler J, Berkowitz S, Schwartzstein RM, Weinberger SE, Sparrow D, Weiss JW. Effect of inspired air temperature on genioglossus activity during nose breathing in awake humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1990 Sep; 69(3):1098-103. PMID: 2123177.
    View in: PubMed
  140. Schwartzstein RM, Manning HL, Weiss JW, Weinberger SE. Dyspnea: a sensory experience. Lung. 1990; 168(4):185-99. PMID: 2122135.
    View in: PubMed
  141. Schwartzstein RM, Manning H, Weiss JW, Weinberger SE. Dyspnea - A sensory experience. Lung. 1990; 140:168-185.
  142. Ringler J, Basner R, Shannon S, Berkowitz S, Schwartzstein R, Manning H, Weinberger S, Weiss JW. Hypoxemia alone does not account for blood pressure perturbations during obstructive apneas. J Appl Physiol. 1990; 144:419-422.
  143. Basner R, Ringler J, Garpestad E, Schwartzstein R, Weinberger S, Weiss JW. Upper airway anesthesia prolongs the time to arousal from airway occlusion induced during NREM sleep. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990; 141:A127.
  144. Weinberger SE, Schwartzstein RM, Weiss JW. Hypercapnia. N Engl J Med. 1989 Nov 02; 321(18):1223-31. PMID: 2677729.
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  145. Simon PM, Schwartzstein RM, Weiss JW, Lahive K, Fencl V, Teghtsoonian M, Weinberger SE. Distinguishable sensations of breathlessness induced in normal volunteers. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Oct; 140(4):1021-7. PMID: 2508520.
    View in: PubMed
  146. Schwartzstein RM, Simon PM, Weiss JW, Fencl V, Weinberger SE. Breathlessness induced by dissociation between ventilation and chemical drive. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 May; 139(5):1231-7. PMID: 2523682.
    View in: PubMed
  147. Basner RC, Simon PM, Schwartzstein RM, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Breathing route influences upper airway muscle activity in awake normal adults. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1989 Apr; 66(4):1766-71. PMID: 2732169.
    View in: PubMed
  148. Basner R, Ringler J, Schwartzstein R, Weinberger S, Weiss JW. Phasic genioglossus activity increases during slow wave sleep in normals. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989; 139:A449.
  149. Kariya ST, Stern RS, Schwartzstein RM, Frank H, Brown RS. Pulmonary hemorrhage associated with bullous pemphigoid of the lung. Am J Med. 1989 Jan; 86(1):127-8. PMID: 2642656.
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  150. Simon PM, Pope A, Lahive K, Steinbrook RA, Schwartzstein RM, Weiss JW, Fencl V, Weinberger SE. Naloxone does not alter response to hypercapnia or resistive loading in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Jan; 139(1):134-8. PMID: 2643373.
    View in: PubMed
  151. Manning H, Schwartzstein R, Brown R. Dissociation between chemoresponsiveness and ventilatory muscle performance in acute quadriplegia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989; 139:A624.
  152. Schwartzstein RM:. Hilar adenopathy. In: Aronson MD, Delbanco TL eds. Manual of Clinical Evaluation. 1988; 251-256.
  153. Schwartzstein RM, Weiss ST. Bronchial hygiene techniques: Sympathomimetic bronchodilators, anticholinergics, and cromolyn sodium. In: Stoller JK, Kacmaizek R eds. Current Respiratory Therapy. 1988; 47-51.
  154. Schwartzstein RM, La Hive K, Pope A, Steinbrook RA, Leith DE, Weiss JW, Fencl V, Weinberger SE. Detection of hypercapnia by normal subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 1987 Sep; 73(3):333-5. PMID: 3115668.
    View in: PubMed
  155. Schwartzstein RM, Lahive K, Pope A, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Cold facial stimulation reduces breathlessness induced in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Jul; 136(1):58-61. PMID: 3605841.
    View in: PubMed
  156. Schwartzstein RM, Kelleher M, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW, Drazen JM. Airway effects of monosodium glutamate in subjects with chronic stable asthma. J Asthma. 1987; 24(3):167-72. PMID: 3505530.
    View in: PubMed
  157. Schwartzstein RM, Fanta CH. Calcium-channel blockers in the management of patients with both cardiac disease and obstructive lung disease. Int Med. 1987; 8:156-167.
  158. Schwartzstein RS, Fanta CH. Orally administered nifedipine in chronic stable asthma. Comparison with an orally administered sympathomimetic. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986 Aug; 134(2):262-5. PMID: 3740651.
    View in: PubMed
  159. Schwartzstein RM, Leith D, Scharf S, Brown R. Ventilatory muscle training: Targeted vs. untargeted breathing. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986; 133:A191.
  160. Schwartzstein RM, Fanta CH. Oral nifedipine in chronic stable asthma. Am Rev Respir Disease. 1986; 134:262-265.
  161. Schwartzstein RM, Weinberger SE. Use and interpretation of pulmonary function tests. Medical Times. 1985; 113:75-85.
  162. Schwartzstein RM, Leith D, Scharf S, Brown R. C02 response in chronic quadriplegics. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985; 131:A337.
  163. Schwartzstein RM, Hartmann T. Left ventricular aneurysmectomy: An evaluation of twenty-seven patients. J NBIMC. 1974; 24:43-47.
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