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Scott Aaron Sands, Ph.D.

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Biography
2011
Mollie Holman Award
2012 - 2014
Post-Doctoral Fellowship

Overview
My research involves elucidating mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, with particular foci on ventilatory instability and sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. I am currently investigating the mechanisms responsible for the emergence of oscillations in breathing, and working to develop a clinically-applicable means to measure ventilatory instability and the other traits responsible for sleep apnea. I further aim to establish the mechanisms underlying several promising treatments for sleep apnea, that will ultimately provide ways to predict responders to treatment.

Bibliographic
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, Sands SA, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, Edwards BA, Eckert DJ, White DP, Wellman A. The Combination of Atomoxetine and Oxybutynin Greatly Reduces Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity. A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 May 15; 199(10):1267-1276. PMID: 30395486.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  2. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Azarbarzin A, Wellman A. Reply to Patel and Althouse: Robust Methods Are Needed to Evaluate the Pharmacologic Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 May 15; 199(10):1295-1296. PMID: 30807201.
    Citations:    
  3. Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Taranto-Montemurro L, Redline S, Wellman A. Hypoxic burden captures sleep apnoea-specific nocturnal hypoxaemia. Eur Heart J. 2019 May 09. PMID: 31071210.
    Citations:    
  4. Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, White DP, Redline S, Wellman A. The hypoxic burden: a novel sleep apnoea severity metric and a predictor of cardiovascular mortality-Reply to 'The hypoxic burden: also known as the desaturation severity parameter'. Eur Heart J. 2019 May 07. PMID: 31065680.
    Citations:    
  5. Alex RM, Panza GS, Hakim H, Badr MS, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Mateika JH. Exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia increases loop gain and the arousal threshold in participants with obstructive sleep apnoea. J Physiol. 2019 Apr 26. PMID: 31026056.
    Citations:    
  6. Edwards BA, Redline S, Sands SA, Owens RL. More than the Sum of the Respiratory Events: Personalized Medicine Approaches for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr 25. PMID: 31022356.
    Citations:    
  7. Mann DL, Terrill PI, Azarbarzin A, Mariani S, Franciosini A, Camassa A, Georgeson T, Marques M, Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, Redline S, Wellman A, Sands SA. Quantifying the Magnitude of Pharyngeal Obstruction During Sleep Using Airflow Shape. Eur Respir J. 2019 Apr 18. PMID: 31000679.
    Citations:    
  8. Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Stone KL, Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, Terrill PI, Ancoli-Israel S, Ensrud K, Purcell S, White DP, Redline S, Wellman A. The hypoxic burden of sleep apnoea predicts cardiovascular disease-related mortality: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study and the Sleep Heart Health Study. Eur Heart J. 2019 Apr 07; 40(14):1149-1157. PMID: 30376054.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  9. Butler MP, Emch JT, Rueschman M, Sands SA, Shea SA, Wellman A, Redline S. Apnea-Hypopnea Event Duration Predicts Mortality in Men and Women in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr 01; 199(7):903-912. PMID: 30336691.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  10. Li Y, Orr J, Jen R, Sands SA, DeYoung P, Smales E, Edwards B, Owens RL, Malhotra A. Is there a Threshold that Triggers Cortical Arousals in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2019 Feb 22. PMID: 30794310.
    Citations:    
  11. Wang H, Cade BE, Sofer T, Sands SA, Chen H, Browning SR, Stilp AM, Louie TL, Thornton TA, Johnson WC, Below JE, Conomos MP, Evans DS, Gharib SA, Guo X, Wood AC, Mei H, Yaffe K, Loredo JS, Ramos AR, Barrett-Connor E, Ancoli-Israel S, Zee PC, Arens R, Shah NA, Taylor KD, Tranah GJ, Stone KL, Hanis CL, Wilson JG, Gottlieb DJ, Patel SR, Rice K, Post WS, Rotter JI, Sunyaev SR, Cai J, Lin X, Purcell SM, Laurie CC, Saxena R, Redline S, Zhu X. Admixture mapping identifies novel loci for obstructive sleep apnea in Hispanic/Latino Americans. Hum Mol Genet. 2019 02 15; 28(4):675-687. PMID: 30403821.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  12. Nava-Guerra L, Edwards BA, Terrill PI, Sands SA, Amin RS, Kemp JS, Khoo MCK. Quantifying ventilatory control stability from spontaneous sigh responses during sleep: a comparison of two approaches. Physiol Meas. 2018 11 22; 39(11):114005. PMID: 30465721.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  13. Edwards BA, Nava-Guerra L, Kemp JS, Carroll JL, Khoo MC, Sands SA, Terrill PI, Landry SA, Amin RS. Assessing ventilatory instability using the response to spontaneous sighs during sleep in preterm infants. Sleep. 2018 Nov 01; 41(11). PMID: 30137560.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  14. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Terrill PI, Butler JP, Owens RL, Taranto-Montemurro L, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, Hess LB, Smales ET, de Melo CM, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A. Identifying obstructive sleep apnoea patients responsive to supplemental oxygen therapy. Eur Respir J. 2018 09; 52(3). PMID: 30139771.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  15. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Grace KP, Azarbarzin A, Messineo L, Salant R, White DP, Wellman DA. Neural memory of the genioglossus muscle during sleep is stage-dependent in healthy subjects and obstructive sleep apnoea patients. J Physiol. 2018 Nov; 596(21):5163-5173. PMID: 30022493.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  16. Deacon-Diaz NL, Sands SA, McEvoy RD, Catcheside PG. Daytime loop gain is elevated in obstructive sleep apnea but not reduced by CPAP treatment. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 Nov 01; 125(5):1490-1497. PMID: 30161007.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  17. Messineo L, Taranto-Montemurro L, Azarbarzin A, Oliveira Marques MD, Calianese N, White DP, Wellman A, Sands SA. Breath-holding as a means to estimate the loop gain contribution to obstructive sleep apnoea. J Physiol. 2018 Sep; 596(17):4043-4056. PMID: 29882226.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  18. Camassa A, Franciosini A, Sands SA, Zhi YX, Yadollahi A, Bianchi AM, Wellman A, Redline S, Azarbarzin A, Mariani S. Validating an Algorithm for Automatic Scoring of Inspiratory Flow Limitation Within a Range of Recording Settings. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2018 Jul; 2018:4788-4791. PMID: 30441417.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  19. Marques M, Genta PR, Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, White DP, Wellman A. Retropalatal and retroglossal airway compliance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018 12; 258:98-103. PMID: 29913264.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  20. Zinchuk A, Edwards BA, Jeon S, Koo BB, Concato J, Sands S, Wellman A, Yaggi HK. Prevalence, Associated Clinical Features, and Impact on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Use of a Low Respiratory Arousal Threshold Among Male United States Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 May 15; 14(5):809-817. PMID: 29734986.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  21. Orr JE, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Deyoung PN, Deacon N, Jen R, Li Y, Owens RL, Malhotra A. Measuring Loop Gain via Home Sleep Testing in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 May 15; 197(10):1353-1355. PMID: 29190428.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  22. Landry SA, Andara C, Terrill PI, Joosten SA, Leong P, Mann DL, Sands SA, Hamilton GS, Edwards BA. Ventilatory control sensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea is sleep stage dependent. Sleep. 2018 05 01; 41(5). PMID: 29741725.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  23. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Terrill PI, Taranto-Montemurro L, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, Hess LB, White DP, Wellman A. Phenotyping Pharyngeal Pathophysiology using Polysomnography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 May 01; 197(9):1187-1197. PMID: 29327943.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  24. Chen H, Cade BE, Gleason KJ, Bjonnes AC, Stilp AM, Sofer T, Conomos MP, Ancoli-Israel S, Arens R, Azarbarzin A, Bell GI, Below JE, Chun S, Evans DS, Ewert R, Frazier-Wood AC, Gharib SA, Haba-Rubio J, Hagen EW, Heinzer R, Hillman DR, Johnson WC, Kutalik Z, Lane JM, Larkin EK, Lee SK, Liang J, Loredo JS, Mukherjee S, Palmer LJ, Papanicolaou GJ, Penzel T, Peppard PE, Post WS, Ramos AR, Rice K, Rotter JI, Sands SA, Shah NA, Shin C, Stone KL, Stubbe B, Sul JH, Tafti M, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Thornton TA, Tranah GJ, Wang C, Wang H, Warby SC, Wellman DA, Zee PC, Hanis CL, Laurie CC, Gottlieb DJ, Patel SR, Zhu X, Sunyaev SR, Saxena R, Lin X, Redline S. Multiethnic Meta-Analysis Identifies RAI1 as a Possible Obstructive Sleep Apnea-related Quantitative Trait Locus in Men. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018 03; 58(3):391-401. PMID: 29077507.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Marques M, Genta PR, Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, White DP, Wellman A. Palatal prolapse as a signature of expiratory flow limitation and inspiratory palatal collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2018 02; 51(2). PMID: 29444914.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  26. Sands SA, Terrill PI, Edwards BA, Taranto Montemurro L, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, de Melo CM, Loring SH, Butler JP, White DP, Wellman A. Quantifying the Arousal Threshold Using Polysomnography in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2018 01 01; 41(1). PMID: 29228393.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  27. Messineo L, Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Oliveira Marques MD, Azabarzin A, Wellman DA. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia. Front Neurol. 2017; 8:718. PMID: 29312136.
    Citations:    
  28. de Melo CM, Taranto-Montemurro L, Butler JP, White DP, Loring SH, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, Berger PJ, Wellman A, Sands SA. Stable Breathing in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated With Increased Effort but Not Lowered Metabolic Rate. Sleep. 2017 10 01; 40(10). PMID: 28977669.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  29. Azarbarzin A, Marques M, Sands SA, Op de Beeck S, Genta PR, Taranto-Montemurro L, de Melo CM, Messineo L, Vanderveken OM, White DP, Wellman A. Predicting epiglottic collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2017 09; 50(3). PMID: 28931660.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  30. Li Y, Ye J, Han D, Cao X, Ding X, Zhang Y, Xu W, Orr J, Jen R, Sands S, Malhotra A, Owens R. Physiology-Based Modeling May Predict Surgical Treatment Outcome for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 Sep 15; 13(9):1029-1037. PMID: 28818154.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  31. Joosten SA, Landry SA, Sands SA, Terrill PI, Mann D, Andara C, Skuza E, Turton A, Berger P, Hamilton GS, Edwards BA. Dynamic loop gain increases upon adopting the supine body position during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Respirology. 2017 11; 22(8):1662-1669. PMID: 28730724.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  32. Mann DL, Edwards BA, Joosten SA, Hamilton GS, Landry S, Sands SA, Wilson SJ, Terrill PI. The relationship between partial upper-airway obstruction and inter-breath transition period during sleep. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2017 10; 244:32-40. PMID: 28676331.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  33. Joosten SA, Leong P, Landry SA, Sands SA, Terrill PI, Mann D, Turton A, Rangaswamy J, Andara C, Burgess G, Mansfield D, Hamilton GS, Edwards BA. Loop Gain Predicts the Response to Upper Airway Surgery in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2017 07 01; 40(7). PMID: 28531336.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  34. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, de Melo CM, Edwards BA, Eckert DJ, Messineo L, White DP, Wellman A. Effect of 4-Aminopyridine on Genioglossus Muscle Activity during Sleep in Healthy Adults. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Jul; 14(7):1177-1183. PMID: 28387543.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  35. Genta PR, Sands SA, Butler JP, Loring SH, Katz ES, Demko BG, Kezirian EJ, White DP, Wellman A. Airflow Shape Is Associated With the Pharyngeal Structure Causing OSA. Chest. 2017 09; 152(3):537-546. PMID: 28651794.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  36. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Eckert DJ, White DP, Wellman A. Reply: Is the Muscle the Only Potential Target of Desipramine in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 06 15; 195(12):1678-1679. PMID: 28186830.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  37. Landry SA, Joosten SA, Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Sands SA, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A, Hamilton GS, Edwards BA. Therapeutic CPAP Level Predicts Upper Airway Collapsibility in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2017 06 01; 40(6). PMID: 28419320.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  38. Landry SA, Joosten SA, Sands SA, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A, Hamilton GS, Edwards BA. Response to a combination of oxygen and a hypnotic as treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea is predicted by a patient's therapeutic CPAP requirement. Respirology. 2017 08; 22(6):1219-1224. PMID: 28409851.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  39. Lee RWW, Sutherland K, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Chan TO, S S Ng S, Hui DS, Cistulli PA. Differences in respiratory arousal threshold in Caucasian and Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Respirology. 2017 07; 22(5):1015-1021. PMID: 28303676.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  40. Marques M, Genta PR, Sands SA, Azarbazin A, de Melo C, Taranto-Montemurro L, White DP, Wellman A. Effect of Sleeping Position on Upper Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Determined by the Pharyngeal Structure Causing Collapse. Sleep. 2017 03 01; 40(3). PMID: 28329099.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  41. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, de Melo C, Eckert DJ, White DP, Wellman A. Effects of Tiagabine on Slow Wave Sleep and Arousal Threshold in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2017 Feb 01; 40(2). PMID: 28364504.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  42. Sands SA, Mebrate Y, Edwards BA, Nemati S, Manisty CH, Desai AS, Wellman A, Willson K, Francis DP, Butler JP, Malhotra A. Resonance as the Mechanism of Daytime Periodic Breathing in Patients with Heart Failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 01 15; 195(2):237-246. PMID: 27559818.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  43. Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Taranto-Montemurro L, Oliveira Marques MD, Genta PR, Edwards BA, Butler J, White DP, Wellman A. Estimation of Pharyngeal Collapsibility During Sleep by Peak Inspiratory Airflow. Sleep. 2017 Jan 01; 40(1). PMID: 28364460.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  44. Edwards BA, Andara C, Landry S, Sands SA, Joosten SA, Owens RL, White DP, Hamilton GS, Wellman A. Upper-Airway Collapsibility and Loop Gain Predict the Response to Oral Appliance Therapy in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 12 01; 194(11):1413-1422. PMID: 27181367.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  45. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, de Melo C, Eckert DJ, White DP, Wellman A. Effects of Tiagabine on Slow Wave Sleep and Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2016 Nov 28. PMID: 27923429.
    Citations:    
  46. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Eckert DJ, Landry S, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A. The Combination of Supplemental Oxygen and a Hypnotic Markedly Improves Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with a Mild to Moderate Upper Airway Collapsibility. Sleep. 2016 Nov 01; 39(11):1973-1983. PMID: 27634790.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  47. Sands SA, LeVine SM. Substrate reduction therapy for Krabbe's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2016 11; 94(11):1261-72. PMID: 27638608.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  48. Li Y, Owens RL, Sands S, Orr J, Moraes W, DeYoung P, Smales E, Jen R, Malhotra A. The Effect of Donepezil on Arousal Threshold and Apnea-Hypopnea Index. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 11; 13(11):2012-2018. PMID: 27442715.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  49. Orr JE, Malhotra A, Sands SA. Pathogenesis of central and complex sleep apnoea. Respirology. 2017 01; 22(1):43-52. PMID: 27797160.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  50. Taranto-Montemurro L, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Azarbarzin A, Marques M, de Melo C, Eckert DJ, White DP, Wellman A. Desipramine improves upper airway collapsibility and reduces OSA severity in patients with minimal muscle compensation. Eur Respir J. 2016 11; 48(5):1340-1350. PMID: 27799387.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  51. Taranto-Montemurro L, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Marques M, Eckert DJ, White DP, Wellman A. Desipramine Increases Genioglossus Activity and Reduces Upper Airway Collapsibility during Non-REM Sleep in Healthy Subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 10 01; 194(7):878-885. PMID: 26967681.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  52. Sands SA, Leung-Toung R, Wang Y, Connelly J, LeVine SM. Enhanced Histochemical Detection of Iron in Paraffin Sections of Mouse Central Nervous System Tissue: Application in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. ASN Neuro. 2016 Oct; 8(5). PMID: 27683879.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  53. Azarbarzin A, Sands SA, Taranto-Montemurro L, Oliveira Marques MD, Genta PR, Edwards BA, Butler J, White DP, Wellman A. Estimation of pharyngeal collapsibility during sleep by peak inspiratory airflow. Sleep. 2016 Sep 09. PMID: 27634788.
    Citations:    
  54. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Kee K, Stuart-Andrews C, Skuza EM, Roebuck T, Turton A, Hamilton GS, Naughton MT, Berger PJ. Control theory prediction of resolved Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure. Eur Respir J. 2016 11; 48(5):1351-1359. PMID: 27587554.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  55. Beitler JR, Sands SA, Loring SH, Owens RL, Malhotra A, Spragg RG, Matthay MA, Thompson BT, Talmor D. Quantifying unintended exposure to high tidal volumes from breath stacking dyssynchrony in ARDS: the BREATHE criteria. Intensive Care Med. 2016 Sep; 42(9):1427-36. PMID: 27342819.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  56. Sands SA, Owens RL, Malhotra A. New Approaches to Diagnosing Sleep-Disordered Breathing. Sleep Med Clin. 2016 Jun; 11(2):143-52. PMID: 27236052.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  57. Sands SA, Owens RL. Congestive Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea. Sleep Med Clin. 2016 Mar; 11(1):127-42. PMID: 26972039.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  58. Genta PR, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Loring SH, White DP, Wellman A. Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2016 Feb 01; 39(2):337-43. PMID: 26446124.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  59. Sands SA, Tsau S, LeVine SM. The habenula and iron metabolism in cerebral mouse models of multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Oct 08; 606:204-8. PMID: 26362814.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  60. Stanchina M, Robinson K, Corrao W, Donat W, Sands S, Malhotra A. Clinical Use of Loop Gain Measures to Determine Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Efficacy in Patients with Complex Sleep Apnea. A Pilot Study. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Sep; 12(9):1351-7. PMID: 26214564.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  61. Sands SA, Owens RL. Congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea. Crit Care Clin. 2015 Jul; 31(3):473-95. PMID: 26118916.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  62. Malhotra A, Patil S, Sands S, Ayas N. Central sleep apnoea in congestive heart failure. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Jul; 3(7):507-8. PMID: 26074186.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  63. Owens RL, Edwards BA, Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Sands SA, Malhotra A, White DP, Loring SH, Butler JP, Wellman A. An Integrative Model of Physiological Traits Can be Used to Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Response to Non Positive Airway Pressure Therapy. Sleep. 2015 Jun 01; 38(6):961-70. PMID: 25515107.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  64. Samarasinghe TD, Sands SA, Skuza EM, Joshi MS, Nold-Petry CA, Berger PJ. The effect of prenatal maternal infection on respiratory function in mouse offspring: evidence for enhanced chemosensitivity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Aug 01; 119(3):299-307. PMID: 26023231.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  65. Joosten SA, Sands SA, Edwards BA, Hamza K, Turton A, Lau KK, Crossett M, Berger PJ, Hamilton GS. Evaluation of the role of lung volume and airway size and shape in supine-predominant obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Respirology. 2015 Jul; 20(5):819-27. PMID: 25939705.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  66. Edwards BA, Eckert DJ, McSharry DG, Sands SA, Desai A, Kehlmann G, Bakker JP, Genta PR, Owens RL, White DP, Wellman A, Malhotra A. Clinical predictors of the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Dec 01; 190(11):1293-300. PMID: 25321848.
    Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  67. Wellman A, Genta PR, Owens RL, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Loring SH, White DP, Jackson AC, Pedersen OF, Butler JP. Test of the Starling resistor model in the human upper airway during sleep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Dec 15; 117(12):1478-85. PMID: 25324514.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  68. Terrill PI, Edwards BA, Nemati S, Butler JP, Owens RL, Eckert DJ, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A, Sands SA. Quantifying the ventilatory control contribution to sleep apnoea using polysomnography. Eur Respir J. 2015 Feb; 45(2):408-18. PMID: 25323235.
    Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  69. Sands SA, Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Edwards BA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Schwab RJ, Loring SH, Malhotra A, White DP, Wellman A. Enhanced upper-airway muscle responsiveness is a distinct feature of overweight/obese individuals without sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct 15; 190(8):930-7. PMID: 25191791.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  70. Sands SA, Tsau S, Yankee TM, Parker BL, Ericsson AC, LeVine SM. The effect of omeprazole on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice. BMC Res Notes. 2014 Sep 04; 7:605. PMID: 25190469.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  71. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, White DP, Genta PR, Butler JP, Malhotra A, Wellman A. Effects of hyperoxia and hypoxia on the physiological traits responsible for obstructive sleep apnoea. J Physiol. 2014 Oct 15; 592(20):4523-35. PMID: 25085887.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  72. Genta PR, Owens RL, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Eckert DJ, Butler JP, Loring SH, Malhotra A, Jackson AC, White DP, Wellman A. Influence of pharyngeal muscle activity on inspiratory negative effort dependence in the human upper airway. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2014 Sep 15; 201:55-9. PMID: 25020212.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  73. Edwards BA, Wellman A, Sands SA, Owens RL, Eckert DJ, White DP, Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea in older adults is a distinctly different physiological phenotype. Sleep. 2014 Jul 01; 37(7):1227-36. PMID: 25061251.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  74. Vlahandonis A, Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Nixon GM, Walter LM, Horne RS. Response to, ‘‘The unnormalized spectral indices of heart rate variability should be presented in conjunction with normalized versions of the same variables’’. Sleep Med. 2014 Jul; 15(7):843-4. PMID: 24933085.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  75. Hamilton GS, Edwards BA, Sands SA. Reply 2. Respirology. 2014 Jul; 19(5):768. PMID: 24889395.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  76. Sands SA, Williams R, Marshall S, LeVine SM. Perivascular iron deposits are associated with protein nitration in cerebral experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neurosci Lett. 2014 Oct 17; 582:133-8. PMID: 24846416.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  77. Owens RL, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Butler JP, Eckert DJ, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A. The classical Starling resistor model often does not predict inspiratory airflow patterns in the human upper airway. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Apr 15; 116(8):1105-12. PMID: 24458746.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  78. Sands SA, Owens RL. Does my bed partner have OSA? There's an app for that! J Clin Sleep Med. 2014 Jan 15; 10(1):79-80. PMID: 24426824.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  79. Javaheri S, Sands SA, Edwards BA. Acetazolamide attenuates Hunter-Cheyne-Stokes breathing but augments the hypercapnic ventilatory response in patients with heart failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Jan; 11(1):80-6. PMID: 24251826.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  80. Hamilton GS, Edwards BA, Sands SA. Does pressure affect performance? Continuous positive airway pressure for sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure. Respirology. 2014 Jan; 19(1):3-4. PMID: 24372631.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  81. Jacobson JD, Ellerbeck KA, Kelly KA, Fleming KK, Jamison TR, Coffey CW, Smith CM, Reese RM, Sands SA. Evidence for alterations in stimulatory G proteins and oxytocin levels in children with autism. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Feb; 40:159-69. PMID: 24485488.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  82. Deyoung PN, Bakker JP, Sands SA, Batool-Anwar S, Connolly JG, Butler JP, Malhotra A. Acoustic pharyngometry measurement of minimal cross-sectional airway area is a significant independent predictor of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013 Nov 15; 9(11):1161-4. PMID: 24235897.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  83. Vlahandonis A, Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Walter LM, Horne RS. Long-term changes in heart rate variability in elementary school-aged children with sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2014 Jan; 15(1):76-82. PMID: 24274998.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  84. Vlahandonis A, Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Walter LM, Horne RS. Long-term changes in blood pressure control in elementary school-aged children with sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2014 Jan; 15(1):83-90. PMID: 24239497.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  85. Kelly VJ, Sands SA, Harris RS, Venegas JG, Brown NJ, Stuart-Andrews CR, King GG, Thompson BR. Respiratory system reactance is an independent determinant of asthma control. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013 Nov 01; 115(9):1360-9. PMID: 23990243.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  86. Edwards BA, Malhotra A, Sands SA. Adapting our approach to treatment-emergent central sleep apnea. Sleep. 2013 Aug 01; 36(8):1121-2. PMID: 23904668.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  87. Walter LM, Yiallourou SR, Vlahandonis A, Sands SA, Johnson CA, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Trinder J, Walker AM, Horne RS. Impaired blood pressure control in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med. 2013 Sep; 14(9):858-66. PMID: 23768837.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  88. Plataki M, Sands SA, Malhotra A. Clinical consequences of altered chemoreflex control. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013 Nov 01; 189(2):354-63. PMID: 23681082.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  89. Jacobson JD, Turpin AL, Sands SA. Allergic manifestations and cutaneous histamine responses in patients with McCune Albright syndrome. World Allergy Organ J. 2013 May 01; 6(1):9. PMID: 23663565.
    Citations:    
  90. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Naughton MT, Hamilton GS, Berger PJ. Reply: surprisingly powerful effect of continuous positive airway pressure on ventilatory instability in a pediatric patient with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Mar 01; 187(5):553-4. PMID: 23577352.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  91. Edwards BA, Connolly JG, Campana LM, Sands SA, Trinder JA, White DP, Wellman A, Malhotra A. Acetazolamide attenuates the ventilatory response to arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2013 Feb 01; 36(2):281-5. PMID: 23372276.
    Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  92. Wellman A, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Nemati S, Butler J, Passaglia CL, Jackson AC, Malhotra A, White DP. A simplified method for determining phenotypic traits in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013 Apr; 114(7):911-22. PMID: 23349453.
    Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  93. Yiallourou SR, Witcombe NB, Sands SA, Walker AM, Horne RS. The development of autonomic cardiovascular control is altered by preterm birth. Early Hum Dev. 2013 Mar; 89(3):145-52. PMID: 23058299.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  94. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Berger PJ. Postnatal maturation of breathing stability and loop gain: the role of carotid chemoreceptor development. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013 Jan 01; 185(1):144-55. PMID: 22705011.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  95. Owens RL, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Butler JP, Eckert DJ, White DP, Malhotra A, Wellman A. Upper airway collapsibility and patterns of flow limitation at constant end-expiratory lung volume. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Sep 01; 113(5):691-9. PMID: 22628372.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  96. Kelly VJ, Brown NJ, Sands SA, Borg BM, King GG, Thompson BR. Effect of airway smooth muscle tone on airway distensibility measured by the forced oscillation technique in adults with asthma. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 May; 112(9):1494-503. PMID: 22362406.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  97. Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Walker AM, Horne RS. Maturation of heart rate and blood pressure variability during sleep in term-born infants. Sleep. 2012 Feb 01; 35(2):177-86. PMID: 22294807.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  98. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Eckert DJ, White DP, Butler JP, Owens RL, Malhotra A, Wellman A. Acetazolamide improves loop gain but not the other physiological traits causing obstructive sleep apnoea. J Physiol. 2012 Mar 01; 590(5):1199-211. PMID: 22219335.
    Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  99. Joosten SA, Hamza K, Sands S, Turton A, Berger P, Hamilton G. Phenotypes of patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea as confirmed by cluster analysis. Respirology. 2012 Jan; 17(1):99-107. PMID: 21848707.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  100. Stuart-Andrews CR, Kelly VJ, Sands SA, Lewis AJ, Ellis MJ, Thompson BR. Automated detection of the phase III slope during inert gas washout testing. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Mar; 112(6):1073-81. PMID: 22174406.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  101. Witcombe NB, Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Walker AM, Horne RS. Preterm birth alters the maturation of baroreflex sensitivity in sleeping infants. Pediatrics. 2012 Jan; 129(1):e89-96. PMID: 22157139.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  102. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Kee K, Turton A, Skuza EM, Roebuck T, O'Driscoll DM, Hamilton GS, Naughton MT, Berger PJ. Loop gain as a means to predict a positive airway pressure suppression of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Nov 01; 184(9):1067-75. PMID: 21816941.
    Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  103. Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Walker AM, Horne RS. Baroreflex sensitivity during sleep in infants: impact of sleeping position and sleep state. Sleep. 2011 Jun 01; 34(6):725-32. PMID: 21629360.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  104. Nemati S, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Berger PJ, Wellman A, Verghese GC, Malhotra A, Butler JP. Model-based characterization of ventilatory stability using spontaneous breathing. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Jul; 111(1):55-67. PMID: 21474696.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  105. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Kelly VJ, Skuza EM, Davidson MR, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. Mechanism underlying accelerated arterial oxygen desaturation during recurrent apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Oct 01; 182(7):961-9. PMID: 20522790.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  106. Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Walker AM, Horne RS. Postnatal development of baroreflex sensitivity in infancy. J Physiol. 2010 Jun 15; 588(Pt 12):2193-203. PMID: 20421281.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  107. Sands SA, Kelly VJ, Edwards BA, Davidson MR, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. A dynamic model for assessing the impact of diffusing capacity on arterial oxygenation during apnea. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010 May 31; 171(3):193-200. PMID: 20385258.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  108. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Kelly VJ, Davidson MR, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. A model investigation of the impact of ventilation-perfusion mismatch on oxygenation during apnea in preterm infants. J Theor Biol. 2010 Jun 07; 264(3):657-62. PMID: 20362590.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  109. Sands SA, Edwards BA, Kelly VJ, Davidson MR, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. A model analysis of arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in preterm infants. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 Dec; 5(12):e1000588. PMID: 19997495.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  110. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Skuza EM, Brodecky V, Stockx EM, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. Maturation of respiratory control and the propensity for breathing instability in a sheep model. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Nov; 107(5):1463-71. PMID: 19745191.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  111. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Feeney C, Skuza EM, Brodecky V, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. Continuous positive airway pressure reduces loop gain and resolves periodic central apneas in the lamb. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Sep 30; 168(3):239-49. PMID: 19616133.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  112. Edwards BA, Sands SA, Skuza EM, Stockx EM, Brodecky V, Wilkinson MH, Berger PJ. Increased peripheral chemosensitivity via dopaminergic manipulation promotes respiratory instability in lambs. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008 Dec 31; 164(3):419-28. PMID: 18824144.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  113. Wilkinson MH, Skuza EM, Rennie GC, Sands SA, Yiallourou SR, Horne RS, Berger PJ. Postnatal development of periodic breathing cycle duration in term and preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2007 Sep; 62(3):331-6. PMID: 17622961.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  114. Sands SA, McCarson KE, Enna SJ. Differential regulation of GABA B receptor subunit expression and function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr; 305(1):191-6. PMID: 12649368.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  115. Sands SA, Reisman SA, Enna SJ. Effects of stress and tranylcypromine on amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and GABA(B) receptor function in rat brain. Life Sci. 2003 Jan 17; 72(9):1085-92. PMID: 12495786.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  116. Chronwall BM, Sands SA, Cummings KC, Schwartz JP. Glial somatostatin-14 expression in the rat pituitary intermediate lobe: a possible neurotrophic function during development? Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000 Nov; 18(7):685-92. PMID: 10978847.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  117. Sands SA, Strong R, Corbitt J, Morilak DA. Effects of acute restraint stress on tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in locus coeruleus of Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000 Jan 10; 75(1):1-7. PMID: 10648882.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  118. Sands SA, Guerra V, Morilak DA. Changes in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in the rat locus coeruleus following acute or chronic treatment with valproic acid. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Jan; 22(1):27-35. PMID: 10633488.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  119. Sands SA, Morilak DA. Expression of alpha1D adrenergic receptor messenger RNA in oxytocin- and corticotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons in the rat paraventricular nucleus. Neuroscience. 1999; 91(2):639-49. PMID: 10366021.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  120. Chronwall BM, Hasan DS, Sands SA. Axonal plasticity in the rat pituitary intermediate lobe following chronic D2 receptor modulation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 897:415-9. PMID: 10676467.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  121. Sands SA, van Gorp WG, Finlay JL. Pilot neuropsychological findings from a treatment regimen consisting of intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow rescue for young children with newly diagnosed malignant brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst. 1998 Oct; 14(10):587-9. PMID: 9840384.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  122. Chronwall BM, Sands SA, Cummings KC, Hagler KE, Norberg M, Morris SJ, Gary KA. Differential innervation of individual melanotropes suggests a role for nonsynaptic inhibitory regulation of the developing and adult rat pituitary intermediate lobe. Synapse. 1998 Mar; 28(3):227-43. PMID: 9488508.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  123. Sands SA, de Blas AL, Chronwall BM. Dopamine D2 receptor effects on GABA(A) receptor expression may modify melanotrope peptide release. Peptides. 1998; 19(2):397-401. PMID: 9493875.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  124. Sands SA, Dickerson DS, Morris SJ, Chronwall BM. Dopamine D2 receptor stimulation alters G-protein expression in rat pituitary intermediate lobe melanotropes. Endocrine. 1997 Jun; 6(3):325-33. PMID: 9368690.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  125. Sands SA, Chronwall BM. G-protein expression in melanotropes changes coincident with innervation of the developing rat pituitary intermediate lobe. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1997 Jun; 15(3):329-41. PMID: 9253657.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  126. Sands SA, Le Mon D, Chronwall BM. Lactation and salt loading similarly alter neuropeptide Y, but differentially alter somatostatin, in separate sets of rat neural lobe axons. Peptides. 1997; 18(7):1045-50. PMID: 9357064.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  127. Beatty DM, Sands SA, Morris SJ, Chronwall BM. Types and activities of voltage-operated calcium channels change during development of rat pituitary neurointermediate lobe. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1996 Aug; 14(5):597-612. PMID: 8930691.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  128. Chronwall BM, Sands SA, Dickerson DS, Sibley DR, Gary KA. Melanotrope dopamine D2 receptor isoform expression in the developing rat pituitary. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1996 Apr; 14(2):77-86. PMID: 8735782.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  129. Sands SA, Chronwall BM. GFAP expression induced by dopamine D(2) receptor agonists in the rat pituitary intermediate lobe. Endocrine. 1996 Feb; 4(1):35-42. PMID: 21153289.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  130. Chronwall BM, Sands SA, Li Z, Shah GV. Calcitonin-like peptide containing gonadotrophs are juxtaposed to cup-shaped lactotrophs. Endocrine. 1996 Feb; 4(1):27-33. PMID: 21153288.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  131. Gary KA, Sands SA, Chronwall BM. Glial-like cells of the rat pituitary intermediate lobe change morphology and shift from vimentin to GFAP expression during development. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1995 Oct; 13(6):555-65. PMID: 8553890.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  132. Sands SA, Gary KA, Chronwall BM. Transient expression of S-100 by melanotropes of the rat pituitary intermediate lobe during development. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1995 Oct; 13(6):567-76. PMID: 8553891.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  133. Nyquist-Battie C, Cochran PK, Sands SA, Chronwall BM. Development of neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive innervation in postnatal rat heart. Peptides. 1994; 15(8):1461-9. PMID: 7700848.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  134. Ratey JJ, Sorgi P, O'Driscoll GA, Sands S, Daehler ML, Fletcher JR, Kadish W, Spruiell G, Polakoff S, Lindem KJ, et al. Nadolol to treat aggression and psychiatric symptomatology in chronic psychiatric inpatients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992 Feb; 53(2):41-6. PMID: 1347291.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  135. Dafny N, Marchand J, McClung R, Salamy J, Sands S, Wachtendorf H, Burks TF. Effects of morphine on sensory-evoked responses recorded from central gray, reticular formation, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, dorsal raphe, locus ceruleus, and pineal body. J Neurosci Res. 1980; 5(5):399-412. PMID: 7441794.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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Funded by the NIH/NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, grant number UL1TR001102, and through institutional support from Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.