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profileChristopher T. Walsh, Ph.D.

TitleHamilton Kuhn Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Emeritus
InstitutionHarvard Medical School
DepartmentEmeritus
AddressEmeritus- No Harvard Office send correspondence
To Home Address
45 Shattuck St
Boston MA 02115
Phone617/432-1715
Fax617/432-0438
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Collapse research activities and funding
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
R01AI042738     (WALSH, CHRISTOPHER T)Feb 1, 1998 - Jan 31, 2013
NIH/NIAID
Acinetobactin and C-Glucosylated Enterobactin Siderophores
Role: Principal Investigator

P41RR010888     (COSTELLO, CATHERINE E.)Jul 1, 1996 - Aug 9, 2012
NIH/NCRR
MASS SPECTROMETRY RESOURCE FOR BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

R01GM049338     (WALSH, CHRISTOPHER T)Apr 1, 1993 - Mar 31, 2014
NIH/NIGMS
Antibiotic Biosynthesis: Amino Acid Morphing
Role: Principal Investigator

P01GM047467     (WAGNER, GERHARD)May 1, 1992 - Apr 30, 2018
NIH/NIGMS
NMR and Computational Studies of Biomolecules
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

P01HL042443     (FURIE, BARBARA C)Apr 1, 1989 - Aug 31, 2005
NIH/NHLBI
MEMBRANE PROTEINS IN BLOOD COAGULATION
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Walsh CT. Are highly morphed peptide frameworks lurking silently in microbial genomes valuable as next generation antibiotic scaffolds? Nat Prod Rep. 2017 Jul 01; 34(7):687-693. PMID: 28513710.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Tran HL, Lexa KW, Julien O, Young TS, Walsh CT, Jacobson MP, Wells JA. Structure-Activity Relationship and Molecular Mechanics Reveal the Importance of Ring Entropy in the Biosynthesis and Activity of a Natural Product. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 Feb 22; 139(7):2541-2544. PMID: 28170244.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Walsh CT. At the Intersection of Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine. Annu Rev Biochem. 2017 Jun 20; 86:1-19. PMID: 28125288.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Tang MC, Zou Y, Watanabe K, Walsh CT, Tang Y. Oxidative Cyclization in Natural Product Biosynthesis. Chem Rev. 2017 Apr 26; 117(8):5226-5333. PMID: 27936626.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Walsh CT. Insights into the chemical logic and enzymatic machinery of NRPS assembly lines. Nat Prod Rep. 2016 Feb; 33(2):127-35. PMID: 26175103.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Medema MH, Kottmann R, Yilmaz P, Cummings M, Biggins JB, Blin K, de Bruijn I, Chooi YH, Claesen J, Coates RC, Cruz-Morales P, Duddela S, Düsterhus S, Edwards DJ, Fewer DP, Garg N, Geiger C, Gomez-Escribano JP, Greule A, Hadjithomas M, Haines AS, Helfrich EJ, Hillwig ML, Ishida K, Jones AC, Jones CS, Jungmann K, Kegler C, Kim HU, Kötter P, Krug D, Masschelein J, Melnik AV, Mantovani SM, Monroe EA, Moore M, Moss N, Nützmann HW, Pan G, Pati A, Petras D, Reen FJ, Rosconi F, Rui Z, Tian Z, Tobias NJ, Tsunematsu Y, Wiemann P, Wyckoff E, Yan X, Yim G, Yu F, Xie Y, Aigle B, Apel AK, Balibar CJ, Balskus EP, Barona-Gómez F, Bechthold A, Bode HB, Borriss R, Brady SF, Brakhage AA, Caffrey P, Cheng YQ, Clardy J, Cox RJ, De Mot R, Donadio S, Donia MS, van der Donk WA, Dorrestein PC, Doyle S, Driessen AJ, Ehling-Schulz M, Entian KD, Fischbach MA, Gerwick L, Gerwick WH, Gross H, Gust B, Hertweck C, Höfte M, Jensen SE, Ju J, Katz L, Kaysser L, Klassen JL, Keller NP, Kormanec J, Kuipers OP, Kuzuyama T, Kyrpides NC, Kwon HJ, Lautru S, Lavigne R, Lee CY, Linquan B, Liu X, Liu W, Luzhetskyy A, Mahmud T, Mast Y, Méndez C, Metsä-Ketelä M, Micklefield J, Mitchell DA, Moore BS, Moreira LM, Müller R, Neilan BA, Nett M, Nielsen J, O'Gara F, Oikawa H, Osbourn A, Osburne MS, Ostash B, Payne SM, Pernodet JL, Petricek M, Piel J, Ploux O, Raaijmakers JM, Salas JA, Schmitt EK, Scott B, Seipke RF, Shen B, Sherman DH, Sivonen K, Smanski MJ, Sosio M, Stegmann E, Süssmuth RD, Tahlan K, Thomas CM, Tang Y, Truman AW, Viaud M, Walton JD, Walsh CT, Weber T, van Wezel GP, Wilkinson B, Willey JM, Wohlleben W, Wright GD, Ziemert N, Zhang C, Zotchev SB, Breitling R, Takano E, Glöckner FO. Minimum Information about a Biosynthetic Gene cluster. Nat Chem Biol. 2015 Sep; 11(9):625-31. PMID: 26284661.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Walsh CT. A chemocentric view of the natural product inventory. Nat Chem Biol. 2015 Sep; 11(9):620-4. PMID: 26284660.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Tsodikov OV, Hou C, Walsh CT, Garneau-Tsodikova S. Crystal structure of O-methyltransferase CalO6 from the calicheamicin biosynthetic pathway: a case of challenging structure determination at low resolution. BMC Struct Biol. 2015 Jul 15; 15:13. PMID: 26170207; PMCID: PMC4501126.
  9. Li B, Wever WJ, Walsh CT, Bowers AA. Correction: Dithiolopyrrolones: biosynthesis, synthesis, and activity of a unique class of disulfide-containing antibiotics. Nat Prod Rep. 2015 Feb; 32(2):348-9. PMID: 25598489.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Walsh CT. Biological matching of chemical reactivity: pairing indole nucleophilicity with electrophilic isoprenoids. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Dec 19; 9(12):2718-28. PMID: 25303280.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Setser JW, Heemstra JR, Walsh CT, Drennan CL. Crystallographic evidence of drastic conformational changes in the active site of a flavin-dependent N-hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 2014 Sep 30; 53(38):6063-77. PMID: 25184411; PMCID: PMC4179590.
  12. Li B, Wever WJ, Walsh CT, Bowers AA. Dithiolopyrrolones: biosynthesis, synthesis, and activity of a unique class of disulfide-containing antibiotics. Nat Prod Rep. 2014 Jul; 31(7):905-23. PMID: 24835149; PMCID: PMC4132845.
  13. Walsh CT. Blurring the lines between ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide scaffolds. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Aug 15; 9(8):1653-61. PMID: 24883916.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Khosla C, Herschlag D, Cane DE, Walsh CT. Assembly line polyketide synthases: mechanistic insights and unsolved problems. Biochemistry. 2014 May 13; 53(18):2875-83. PMID: 24779441; PMCID: PMC4020578.
  15. Lim FY, Ames B, Walsh CT, Keller NP. Co-ordination between BrlA regulation and secretion of the oxidoreductase FmqD directs selective accumulation of fumiquinazoline C to conidial tissues in Aspergillus fumigatus. Cell Microbiol. 2014 Aug; 16(8):1267-83. PMID: 24612080; PMCID: PMC4114987.
  16. Gerken T, Walsh CT. Cloning and sequencing of the chaetocin biosynthetic gene cluster. Chembiochem. 2013 Nov 25; 14(17):2256-8. PMID: 24123808.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Gao X, Jiang W, Jiménez-Osés G, Choi MS, Houk KN, Tang Y, Walsh CT. An iterative, bimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase that converts anthranilate and tryptophan into tetracyclic asperlicins. Chem Biol. 2013 Jul 25; 20(7):870-8. PMID: 23890005; PMCID: PMC3728708.
  18. Walsh CT, Wencewicz TA. Prospects for new antibiotics: a molecule-centered perspective. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2014 Jan; 67(1):7-22. PMID: 23756684.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Walsh CT, Haynes SW, Ames BD, Gao X, Tang Y. Short pathways to complexity generation: fungal peptidyl alkaloid multicyclic scaffolds from anthranilate building blocks. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Jul 19; 8(7):1366-82. PMID: 23659680; PMCID: PMC3796173.
  20. Walsh CT, O'Brien RV, Khosla C. Nonproteinogenic amino acid building blocks for nonribosomal peptide and hybrid polyketide scaffolds. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Jul 08; 52(28):7098-124. PMID: 23729217; PMCID: PMC4634941.
  21. Malcolmson SJ, Young TS, Ruby JG, Skewes-Cox P, Walsh CT. The posttranslational modification cascade to the thiopeptide berninamycin generates linear forms and altered macrocyclic scaffolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 21; 110(21):8483-8. PMID: 23650400; PMCID: PMC3666682.
  22. Jiang W, Cacho RA, Chiou G, Garg NK, Tang Y, Walsh CT. EcdGHK are three tailoring iron oxygenases for amino acid building blocks of the echinocandin scaffold. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Mar 20; 135(11):4457-66. PMID: 23451921; PMCID: PMC3628723.
  23. Haynes SW, Gao X, Tang Y, Walsh CT. Complexity generation in fungal peptidyl alkaloid biosynthesis: a two-enzyme pathway to the hexacyclic MDR export pump inhibitor ardeemin. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Apr 19; 8(4):741-8. PMID: 23330675; PMCID: PMC3631443.
  24. Parker JB, Walsh CT. Action and timing of BacC and BacD in the late stages of biosynthesis of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Biochemistry. 2013 Feb 05; 52(5):889-901. PMID: 23317005; PMCID: PMC3568925.
  25. Walsh CT, Wencewicz TA. Flavoenzymes: versatile catalysts in biosynthetic pathways. Nat Prod Rep. 2013 Jan; 30(1):175-200. PMID: 23051833; PMCID: PMC3518583.
  26. Arnison PG, Bibb MJ, Bierbaum G, Bowers AA, Bugni TS, Bulaj G, Camarero JA, Campopiano DJ, Challis GL, Clardy J, Cotter PD, Craik DJ, Dawson M, Dittmann E, Donadio S, Dorrestein PC, Entian KD, Fischbach MA, Garavelli JS, Göransson U, Gruber CW, Haft DH, Hemscheidt TK, Hertweck C, Hill C, Horswill AR, Jaspars M, Kelly WL, Klinman JP, Kuipers OP, Link AJ, Liu W, Marahiel MA, Mitchell DA, Moll GN, Moore BS, Müller R, Nair SK, Nes IF, Norris GE, Olivera BM, Onaka H, Patchett ML, Piel J, Reaney MJ, Rebuffat S, Ross RP, Sahl HG, Schmidt EW, Selsted ME, Severinov K, Shen B, Sivonen K, Smith L, Stein T, Süssmuth RD, Tagg JR, Tang GL, Truman AW, Vederas JC, Walsh CT, Walton JD, Wenzel SC, Willey JM, van der Donk WA. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products: overview and recommendations for a universal nomenclature. Nat Prod Rep. 2013 Jan; 30(1):108-60. PMID: 23165928; PMCID: PMC3954855.
  27. Young TS, Dorrestein PC, Walsh CT. Codon randomization for rapid exploration of chemical space in thiopeptide antibiotic variants. Chem Biol. 2012 Dec 21; 19(12):1600-10. PMID: 23261603; PMCID: PMC3530156.
  28. Li B, Forseth RR, Bowers AA, Schroeder FC, Walsh CT. A backup plan for self-protection: S-methylation of holomycin biosynthetic intermediates in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Chembiochem. 2012 Nov 26; 13(17):2521-6. PMID: 23097183; PMCID: PMC3573328.
  29. Haynes SW, Gao X, Tang Y, Walsh CT. Assembly of asperlicin peptidyl alkaloids from anthranilate and tryptophan: a two-enzyme pathway generates heptacyclic scaffold complexity in asperlicin E. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Oct 24; 134(42):17444-7. PMID: 23030663; PMCID: PMC3500603.
  30. Cacho RA, Jiang W, Chooi YH, Walsh CT, Tang Y. Identification and characterization of the echinocandin B biosynthetic gene cluster from Emericella rugulosa NRRL 11440. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Oct 10; 134(40):16781-90. PMID: 22998630; PMCID: PMC3482383.
  31. Gao X, Haynes SW, Ames BD, Wang P, Vien LP, Walsh CT, Tang Y. Cyclization of fungal nonribosomal peptides by a terminal condensation-like domain. Nat Chem Biol. 2012 Oct; 8(10):823-30. PMID: 22902615; PMCID: PMC3505271.
  32. Wencewicz TA, Walsh CT. Pseudomonas syringae self-protection from tabtoxinine-ß-lactam by ligase TblF and acetylase Ttr. Biochemistry. 2012 Oct 02; 51(39):7712-25. PMID: 22994681.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Parker JB, Walsh CT. Stereochemical outcome at four stereogenic centers during conversion of prephenate to tetrahydrotyrosine by BacABGF in the bacilysin pathway. Biochemistry. 2012 Jul 17; 51(28):5622-32. PMID: 22765234; PMCID: PMC3448026.
  34. Bowers AA, Acker MG, Young TS, Walsh CT. Generation of thiocillin ring size variants by prepeptide gene replacement and in vivo processing by Bacillus cereus. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Jun 27; 134(25):10313-6. PMID: 22686940; PMCID: PMC3387813.
  35. Neumann CS, Jiang W, Heemstra JR, Gontang EA, Kolter R, Walsh CT. Biosynthesis of piperazic acid via N5-hydroxy-ornithine in Kutzneria spp. 744. Chembiochem. 2012 May 07; 13(7):972-6. PMID: 22522643; PMCID: PMC3463134.
  36. Parker JB, Walsh CT. Olefin isomerization regiochemistries during tandem action of BacA and BacB on prephenate in bacilysin biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2012 Apr 17; 51(15):3241-51. PMID: 22483065; PMCID: PMC3331721.
  37. Walsh CT, Malcolmson SJ, Young TS. Three ring posttranslational circuses: insertion of oxazoles, thiazoles, and pyridines into protein-derived frameworks. ACS Chem Biol. 2012 Mar 16; 7(3):429-42. PMID: 22206579; PMCID: PMC3306484.
  38. Busche A, Gottstein D, Hein C, Ripin N, Pader I, Tufar P, Eisman EB, Gu L, Walsh CT, Sherman DH, Löhr F, Güntert P, Dötsch V. Characterization of molecular interactions between ACP and halogenase domains in the Curacin A polyketide synthase. ACS Chem Biol. 2012 Feb 17; 7(2):378-86. PMID: 22103656; PMCID: PMC3314377.
  39. Walsh CT, Haynes SW, Ames BD. Aminobenzoates as building blocks for natural product assembly lines. Nat Prod Rep. 2012 Jan; 29(1):37-59. PMID: 22064917.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Crawford JM, Mahlstedt SA, Malcolmson SJ, Clardy J, Walsh CT. Dihydrophenylalanine: a prephenate-derived Photorhabdus luminescens antibiotic and intermediate in dihydrostilbene biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2011 Sep 23; 18(9):1102-12. PMID: 21944749; PMCID: PMC3183431.
  41. Ames BD, Haynes SW, Gao X, Evans BS, Kelleher NL, Tang Y, Walsh CT. Complexity generation in fungal peptidyl alkaloid biosynthesis: oxidation of fumiquinazoline A to the heptacyclic hemiaminal fumiquinazoline C by the flavoenzyme Af12070 from Aspergillus fumigatus. Biochemistry. 2011 Oct 11; 50(40):8756-69. PMID: 21899262; PMCID: PMC3194008.
  42. Crawford JM, Portmann C, Kontnik R, Walsh CT, Clardy J. NRPS substrate promiscuity diversifies the xenematides. Org Lett. 2011 Oct 07; 13(19):5144-7. PMID: 21888371; PMCID: PMC3184645.
  43. Walsh CT, Zhang W. Chemical logic and enzymatic machinery for biological assembly of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics. ACS Chem Biol. 2011 Oct 21; 6(10):1000-7. PMID: 21851099; PMCID: PMC3199363.
  44. Wuest WM, Krahn D, Kaiser M, Walsh CT. Enzymatic timing and tailoring of macrolactamization in syringolin biosynthesis. Org Lett. 2011 Sep 02; 13(17):4518-21. PMID: 21812451; PMCID: PMC3163001.
  45. Young TS, Walsh CT. Identification of the thiazolyl peptide GE37468 gene cluster from Streptomyces ATCC 55365 and heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 09; 108(32):13053-8. PMID: 21788474; PMCID: PMC3156177.
  46. Zhang W, Ntai I, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. tRNA-dependent peptide bond formation by the transferase PacB in biosynthesis of the pacidamycin group of pentapeptidyl nucleoside antibiotics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 26; 108(30):12249-53. PMID: 21746899; PMCID: PMC3145694.
  47. Jiang W, Heemstra JR, Forseth RR, Neumann CS, Manaviazar S, Schroeder FC, Hale KJ, Walsh CT. Biosynthetic chlorination of the piperazate residue in kutzneride biosynthesis by KthP. Biochemistry. 2011 Jul 12; 50(27):6063-72. PMID: 21648411; PMCID: PMC3129693.
  48. Haynes SW, Ames BD, Gao X, Tang Y, Walsh CT. Unraveling terminal C-domain-mediated condensation in fungal biosynthesis of imidazoindolone metabolites. Biochemistry. 2011 Jun 28; 50(25):5668-79. PMID: 21591693; PMCID: PMC3119741.
  49. Zhang W, Ames BD, Walsh CT. Identification of phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase for meta-tyrosine biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2011 Jun 21; 50(24):5401-3. PMID: 21615132; PMCID: PMC3115494.
  50. Balskus EP, Case RJ, Walsh CT. The biosynthesis of cyanobacterial sunscreen scytonemin in intertidal microbial mat communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011 Aug; 77(2):322-32. PMID: 21501195; PMCID: PMC3134115.
  51. Li B, Walsh CT. Streptomyces clavuligerus HlmI is an intramolecular disulfide-forming dithiol oxidase in holomycin biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2011 May 31; 50(21):4615-22. PMID: 21504228; PMCID: PMC3101288.
  52. Hollenhorst MA, Ntai I, Badet B, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. A head-to-head comparison of eneamide and epoxyamide inhibitors of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from the dapdiamide biosynthetic pathway. Biochemistry. 2011 May 17; 50(19):3859-61. PMID: 21520904; PMCID: PMC3097904.
  53. Zhang W, Ntai I, Bolla ML, Malcolmson SJ, Kahne D, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Nine enzymes are required for assembly of the pacidamycin group of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Apr 13; 133(14):5240-3. PMID: 21417270; PMCID: PMC3071879.
  54. Gao X, Chooi YH, Ames BD, Wang P, Walsh CT, Tang Y. Fungal indole alkaloid biosynthesis: genetic and biochemical investigation of the tryptoquialanine pathway in Penicillium aethiopicum. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Mar 02; 133(8):2729-41. PMID: 21299212; PMCID: PMC3045477.
  55. Hollenhorst MA, Bumpus SB, Matthews ML, Bollinger JM, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. The nonribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme DdaD tethers N(ß)-fumaramoyl-l-2,3-diaminopropionate for Fe(II)/a-ketoglutarate-dependent epoxidation by DdaC during dapdiamide antibiotic biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Nov 10; 132(44):15773-81. PMID: 20945916; PMCID: PMC2974046.
  56. Zhang W, Heemstra JR, Walsh CT, Imker HJ. Activation of the pacidamycin PacL adenylation domain by MbtH-like proteins. Biochemistry. 2010 Nov 23; 49(46):9946-7. PMID: 20964365; PMCID: PMC2982891.
  57. Li B, Walsh CT. Identification of the gene cluster for the dithiolopyrrolone antibiotic holomycin in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 16; 107(46):19731-5. PMID: 21041678; PMCID: PMC2993409.
  58. Imker HJ, Krahn D, Clerc J, Kaiser M, Walsh CT. N-acylation during glidobactin biosynthesis by the tridomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase module GlbF. Chem Biol. 2010 Oct 29; 17(10):1077-83. PMID: 21035730; PMCID: PMC3062200.
  59. Mahlstedt S, Fielding EN, Moore BS, Walsh CT. Prephenate decarboxylases: a new prephenate-utilizing enzyme family that performs nonaromatizing decarboxylation en route to diverse secondary metabolites. Biochemistry. 2010 Oct 26; 49(42):9021-3. PMID: 20863139; PMCID: PMC2957524.
  60. Ames BD, Liu X, Walsh CT. Enzymatic processing of fumiquinazoline F: a tandem oxidative-acylation strategy for the generation of multicyclic scaffolds in fungal indole alkaloid biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2010 Oct 05; 49(39):8564-76. PMID: 20804163; PMCID: PMC3006076.
  61. Zhang W, Ostash B, Walsh CT. Identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the pacidamycin group of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Sep 28; 107(39):16828-33. PMID: 20826445; PMCID: PMC2947877.
  62. Bowers AA, Walsh CT, Acker MG. Genetic interception and structural characterization of thiopeptide cyclization precursors from Bacillus cereus. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Sep 08; 132(35):12182-4. PMID: 20707374; PMCID: PMC2932885.
  63. Balskus EP, Walsh CT. The genetic and molecular basis for sunscreen biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Science. 2010 Sep 24; 329(5999):1653-6. PMID: 20813918; PMCID: PMC3116657.
  64. Walsh CT. Catalysis at the intersection of biology, chemistry, and medicine. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 24; 285(39):29681-9. PMID: 20595393; PMCID: PMC2943271.
  65. Walsh CT, Acker MG, Bowers AA. Thiazolyl peptide antibiotic biosynthesis: a cascade of post-translational modifications on ribosomal nascent proteins. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 03; 285(36):27525-31. PMID: 20522549; PMCID: PMC2934618.
  66. Bowers AA, Acker MG, Koglin A, Walsh CT. Manipulation of thiocillin variants by prepeptide gene replacement: structure, conformation, and activity of heterocycle substitution mutants. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Jun 02; 132(21):7519-27. PMID: 20455532; PMCID: PMC2882596.
  67. Zhang W, Bolla ML, Kahne D, Walsh CT. A three enzyme pathway for 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone formation and incorporation in natural product biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 May 12; 132(18):6402-11. PMID: 20394362; PMCID: PMC2866186.
  68. Ames BD, Walsh CT. Anthranilate-activating modules from fungal nonribosomal peptide assembly lines. Biochemistry. 2010 Apr 20; 49(15):3351-65. PMID: 20225828; PMCID: PMC2854178.
  69. Neumann CS, Walsh CT, Kay RR. A flavin-dependent halogenase catalyzes the chlorination step in the biosynthesis of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factor 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 30; 107(13):5798-803. PMID: 20231486; PMCID: PMC2851905.
  70. Walsh CT, Fischbach MA. Natural products version 2.0: connecting genes to molecules. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Mar 03; 132(8):2469-93. PMID: 20121095; PMCID: PMC2828520.
  71. Mahlstedt SA, Walsh CT. Investigation of anticapsin biosynthesis reveals a four-enzyme pathway to tetrahydrotyrosine in Bacillus subtilis. Biochemistry. 2010 Feb 09; 49(5):912-23. PMID: 20052993; PMCID: PMC2819075.
  72. Imker HJ, Walsh CT, Wuest WM. SylC catalyzes ureido-bond formation during biosynthesis of the proteasome inhibitor syringolin A. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Dec 30; 131(51):18263-5. PMID: 19968303; PMCID: PMC2800832.
  73. Acker MG, Bowers AA, Walsh CT. Generation of thiocillin variants by prepeptide gene replacement and in vivo processing by Bacillus cereus. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Dec 09; 131(48):17563-5. PMID: 19911780; PMCID: PMC2787705.
  74. Liu X, Walsh CT. Characterization of cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis: substrate promiscuity and site directed mutagenesis studies. Biochemistry. 2009 Nov 24; 48(46):11032-44. PMID: 19877600; PMCID: PMC2783589.
  75. Hollenhorst MA, Clardy J, Walsh CT. The ATP-dependent amide ligases DdaG and DdaF assemble the fumaramoyl-dipeptide scaffold of the dapdiamide antibiotics. Biochemistry. 2009 Nov 03; 48(43):10467-72. PMID: 19807062; PMCID: PMC2783456.
  76. Frueh DP, Leed A, Arthanari H, Koglin A, Walsh CT, Wagner G. Time-shared HSQC-NOESY for accurate distance constraints measured at high-field in (15)N-(13)C-ILV methyl labeled proteins. J Biomol NMR. 2009 Nov; 45(3):311-8. PMID: 19728110; PMCID: PMC2778061.
  77. Heemstra JR, Walsh CT, Sattely ES. Enzymatic tailoring of ornithine in the biosynthesis of the Rhizobium cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore vicibactin. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Oct 28; 131(42):15317-29. PMID: 19778043; PMCID: PMC2783850.
  78. Gómez García I, Stevenson CE, Usón I, Freel Meyers CL, Walsh CT, Lawson DM. The crystal structure of the novobiocin biosynthetic enzyme NovP: the first representative structure for the TylF O-methyltransferase superfamily. J Mol Biol. 2010 Jan 15; 395(2):390-407. PMID: 19857499; PMCID: PMC2813333.
  79. Balskus EP, Walsh CT. An enzymatic cyclopentyl[b]indole formation involved in scytonemin biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Oct 21; 131(41):14648-9. PMID: 19780555; PMCID: PMC2766776.
  80. Matthews ML, Neumann CS, Miles LA, Grove TL, Booker SJ, Krebs C, Walsh CT, Bollinger JM. Substrate positioning controls the partition between halogenation and hydroxylation in the aliphatic halogenase, SyrB2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 20; 106(42):17723-8. PMID: 19815524; PMCID: PMC2764930.
  81. Strieker M, Nolan EM, Walsh CT, Marahiel MA. Stereospecific synthesis of threo- and erythro-beta-hydroxyglutamic acid during kutzneride biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Sep 23; 131(37):13523-30. PMID: 19722489; PMCID: PMC2745491.
  82. Frueh DP, Arthanari H, Koglin A, Walsh CT, Wagner G. A double TROSY hNCAnH experiment for efficient assignment of large and challenging proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Sep 16; 131(36):12880-1. PMID: 19702261; PMCID: PMC2749991.
  83. Liu X, Walsh CT. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis in Aspergillus sp.: characterization of a reductase-like R* domain in cyclopiazonate synthetase that forms and releases cyclo-acetoacetyl-L-tryptophan. Biochemistry. 2009 Sep 15; 48(36):8746-57. PMID: 19663400; PMCID: PMC2752376.
  84. Walsh CT, Wright GD. Antimicrobials. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009 Oct; 12(5):473-5. PMID: 19733112.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Fischbach MA, Walsh CT. Antibiotics for emerging pathogens. Science. 2009 Aug 28; 325(5944):1089-93. PMID: 19713519; PMCID: PMC2802854.
  86. Walsh CT, Fischbach MA. New ways to squash superbugs. Sci Am. 2009 Jul; 301(1):44-51. PMID: 19555023.
    View in: PubMed
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  192. Howard-Jones AR, Walsh CT. Enzymatic generation of the chromopyrrolic acid scaffold of rebeccamycin by the tandem action of RebO and RebD. Biochemistry. 2005 Dec 06; 44(48):15652-63. PMID: 16313168.
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  195. Aron ZD, Dorrestein PC, Blackhall JR, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Characterization of a new tailoring domain in polyketide biogenesis: the amine transferase domain of MycA in the mycosubtilin gene cluster. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Nov 02; 127(43):14986-7. PMID: 16248612.
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  196. Balibar CJ, Vaillancourt FH, Walsh CT. Generation of D amino acid residues in assembly of arthrofactin by dual condensation/epimerization domains. Chem Biol. 2005 Nov; 12(11):1189-200. PMID: 16298298.
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  200. Kelly WL, Hillson NJ, Walsh CT. Excision of the epothilone synthetase B cyclization domain and demonstration of in trans condensation/cyclodehydration activity. Biochemistry. 2005 Oct 11; 44(40):13385-93. PMID: 16201763.
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  201. Dorrestein PC, Yeh E, Garneau-Tsodikova S, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Dichlorination of a pyrrolyl-S-carrier protein by FADH2-dependent halogenase PltA during pyoluteorin biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 27; 102(39):13843-8. PMID: 16162666; PMCID: PMC1236592.
  202. Yin J, Lin AJ, Buckett PD, Wessling-Resnick M, Golan DE, Walsh CT. Single-cell FRET imaging of transferrin receptor trafficking dynamics by Sfp-catalyzed, site-specific protein labeling. Chem Biol. 2005 Sep; 12(9):999-1006. PMID: 16183024; PMCID: PMC2494879.
  203. Vaillancourt FH, Yeh E, Vosburg DA, O'Connor SE, Walsh CT. Cryptic chlorination by a non-haem iron enzyme during cyclopropyl amino acid biosynthesis. Nature. 2005 Aug 25; 436(7054):1191-4. PMID: 16121186.
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  204. Lin H, Fischbach MA, Liu DR, Walsh CT. In vitro characterization of salmochelin and enterobactin trilactone hydrolases IroD, IroE, and Fes. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Aug 10; 127(31):11075-84. PMID: 16076215; PMCID: PMC2536649.
  205. Oberthür M, Leimkuhler C, Kruger RG, Lu W, Walsh CT, Kahne D. A systematic investigation of the synthetic utility of glycopeptide glycosyltransferases. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Aug 03; 127(30):10747-52. PMID: 16045364.
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  207. Vaillancourt FH, Yin J, Walsh CT. SyrB2 in syringomycin E biosynthesis is a nonheme FeII alpha-ketoglutarate- and O2-dependent halogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 19; 102(29):10111-6. PMID: 16002467; PMCID: PMC1177402.
  208. Lu W, Leimkuhler C, Gatto GJ, Kruger RG, Oberthür M, Kahne D, Walsh CT. AknT is an activating protein for the glycosyltransferase AknS in L-aminodeoxysugar transfer to the aglycone of aclacinomycin A. Chem Biol. 2005 May; 12(5):527-34. PMID: 15911373.
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  209. Gatto GJ, McLoughlin SM, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Elucidating the substrate specificity and condensation domain activity of FkbP, the FK520 pipecolate-incorporating enzyme. Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 26; 44(16):5993-6002. PMID: 15835888.
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  210. Pacholec M, Freel Meyers CL, Oberthür M, Kahne D, Walsh CT. Characterization of the aminocoumarin ligase SimL from the simocyclinone pathway and tandem incubation with NovM,P,N from the novobiocin pathway. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 29; 44(12):4949-56. PMID: 15779922.
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  211. Yeh E, Garneau S, Walsh CT. Robust in vitro activity of RebF and RebH, a two-component reductase/halogenase, generating 7-chlorotryptophan during rebeccamycin biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 15; 102(11):3960-5. PMID: 15743914; PMCID: PMC554827.
  212. Garneau S, Dorrestein PC, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Characterization of the formation of the pyrrole moiety during clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 01; 44(8):2770-80. PMID: 15723521.
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  217. Schneider TL, Walsh CT. Portability of oxidase domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules. Biochemistry. 2004 Dec 21; 43(50):15946-55. PMID: 15595851.
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  218. Clardy J, Walsh C. Lessons from natural molecules. Nature. 2004 Dec 16; 432(7019):829-37. PMID: 15602548.
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  219. Fischbach MA, Lin H, Liu DR, Walsh CT. In vitro characterization of IroB, a pathogen-associated C-glycosyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18; 102(3):571-6. PMID: 15598734; PMCID: PMC545562.
  220. Lin H, Thayer DA, Wong CH, Walsh CT. Macrolactamization of glycosylated peptide thioesters by the thioesterase domain of tyrocidine synthetase. Chem Biol. 2004 Dec; 11(12):1635-42. PMID: 15610847.
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  221. Freel Meyers CL, Oberthür M, Heide L, Kahne D, Walsh CT. Assembly of dimeric variants of coumermycins by tandem action of the four biosynthetic enzymes CouL, CouM, CouP, and NovN. Biochemistry. 2004 Nov 30; 43(47):15022-36. PMID: 15554710.
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  223. Yeh E, Lin H, Clugston SL, Kohli RM, Walsh CT. Enhanced macrocyclizing activity of the thioesterase from tyrocidine synthetase in presence of nonionic detergent. Chem Biol. 2004 Nov; 11(11):1573-82. PMID: 15556008.
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  224. Gardner CR, Walsh CT, Almarsson O. Drugs as materials: valuing physical form in drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 Nov; 3(11):926-34. PMID: 15520815.
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  226. Yin J, Liu F, Schinke M, Daly C, Walsh CT. Phagemid encoded small molecules for high throughput screening of chemical libraries. J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Oct 27; 126(42):13570-1. PMID: 15493886.
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  227. Reimmann C, Patel HM, Walsh CT, Haas D. PchC thioesterase optimizes nonribosomal biosynthesis of the peptide siderophore pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2004 Oct; 186(19):6367-73. PMID: 15375116; PMCID: PMC516611.
  228. Hillson NJ, Balibar CJ, Walsh CT. Catalytically inactive condensation domain C1 is responsible for the dimerization of the VibF subunit of vibriobactin synthetase. Biochemistry. 2004 Sep 07; 43(35):11344-51. PMID: 15366944.
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  229. Yeh E, Kohli RM, Bruner SD, Walsh CT. Type II thioesterase restores activity of a NRPS module stalled with an aminoacyl-S-enzyme that cannot be elongated. Chembiochem. 2004 Sep 06; 5(9):1290-3. PMID: 15368584.
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  230. Tseng CC, Vaillancourt FH, Bruner SD, Walsh CT. DpgC is a metal- and cofactor-free 3,5-dihydroxyphenylacetyl-CoA 1,2-dioxygenase in the vancomycin biosynthetic pathway. Chem Biol. 2004 Sep; 11(9):1195-203. PMID: 15380180.
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  231. Lee HY, Chung HS, Hang C, Khosla C, Walsh CT, Kahne D, Walker S. Reconstitution and characterization of a new desosaminyl transferase, EryCIII, from the erythromycin biosynthetic pathway. J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Aug 18; 126(32):9924-5. PMID: 15303858.
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  234. Merkel AB, Major LL, Errey JC, Burkart MD, Field RA, Walsh CT, Naismith JH. The position of a key tyrosine in dTDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-5-epimerase (EvaD) alters the substrate profile for this RmlC-like enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 30; 279(31):32684-91. PMID: 15159413.
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  235. Mulichak AM, Lu W, Losey HC, Walsh CT, Garavito RM. Crystal structure of vancosaminyltransferase GtfD from the vancomycin biosynthetic pathway: interactions with acceptor and nucleotide ligands. Biochemistry. 2004 May 11; 43(18):5170-80. PMID: 15122882.
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  236. Lu W, Leimkuhler C, Oberthür M, Kahne D, Walsh CT. AknK is an L-2-deoxyfucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline aclacinomycin A. Biochemistry. 2004 Apr 20; 43(15):4548-58. PMID: 15078101.
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  237. Walsh CT. Polyketide and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics: modularity and versatility. Science. 2004 Mar 19; 303(5665):1805-10. PMID: 15031493.
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  238. Lu W, Oberthür M, Leimkuhler C, Tao J, Kahne D, Walsh CT. Characterization of a regiospecific epivancosaminyl transferase GtfA and enzymatic reconstitution of the antibiotic chloroeremomycin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 30; 101(13):4390-5. PMID: 15070728; PMCID: PMC384757.
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  240. Tseng CC, McLoughlin SM, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Role of the active site cysteine of DpgA, a bacterial type III polyketide synthase. Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 03; 43(4):970-80. PMID: 14744141.
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  241. Sieber SA, Tao J, Walsh CT, Marahiel MA. Peptidyl thiophenols as substrates for nonribosomal peptide cyclases. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004 Jan 16; 43(4):493-8. PMID: 14735544.
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  242. Couch R, O'Connor SE, Seidle H, Walsh CT, Parry R. Characterization of CmaA, an adenylation-thiolation didomain enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coronatine. J Bacteriol. 2004 Jan; 186(1):35-42. PMID: 14679222; PMCID: PMC303444.
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  244. Mazur MT, Walsh CT, Kelleher NL. Site-specific observation of acyl intermediate processing in thiotemplate biosynthesis by fourier transform mass spectrometry: the polyketide module of yersiniabactin synthetase. Biochemistry. 2003 Nov 25; 42(46):13393-400. PMID: 14621984.
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  245. Admiraal SJ, Khosla C, Walsh CT. A Switch for the transfer of substrate between nonribosomal peptide and polyketide modules of the rifamycin synthetase assembly line. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Nov 12; 125(45):13664-5. PMID: 14599196.
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  246. Pfeifer BA, Wang CC, Walsh CT, Khosla C. Biosynthesis of Yersiniabactin, a complex polyketide-nonribosomal peptide, using Escherichia coli as a heterologous host. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Nov; 69(11):6698-702. PMID: 14602630; PMCID: PMC262314.
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  250. Patel HM, Tao J, Walsh CT. Epimerization of an L-cysteinyl to a D-cysteinyl residue during thiazoline ring formation in siderophore chain elongation by pyochelin synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochemistry. 2003 Sep 09; 42(35):10514-27. PMID: 12950179.
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  251. Tao J, Hu S, Pacholec M, Walsh CT. Synthesis of proposed oxidation-cyclization-methylation intermediates of the coumarin antibiotic biosynthetic pathway. Org Lett. 2003 Sep 04; 5(18):3233-6. PMID: 12943395.
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  252. O'Connor SE, Walsh CT, Liu F. Biosynthesis of epothilone intermediates with alternate starter units: engineering polyketide-nonribosomal interfaces. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2003 Aug 25; 42(33):3917-21. PMID: 12949868.
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  253. Schneider TL, Shen B, Walsh CT. Oxidase domains in epothilone and bleomycin biosynthesis: thiazoline to thiazole oxidation during chain elongation. Biochemistry. 2003 Aug 19; 42(32):9722-30. PMID: 12911314.
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  255. Watanabe K, Rude MA, Walsh CT, Khosla C. Engineered biosynthesis of an ansamycin polyketide precursor in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 19; 100(17):9774-8. PMID: 12888623; PMCID: PMC187841.
  256. Jakimowicz P, Freel Meyers CL, Walsh CT, Buttner MJ, Lawson DM. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies on the putative dTDP sugar epimerase NovW from the novobiocin biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces spheroides. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Aug; 59(Pt 8):1507-9. PMID: 12876368.
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  257. Mulichak AM, Losey HC, Lu W, Wawrzak Z, Walsh CT, Garavito RM. Structure of the TDP-epi-vancosaminyltransferase GtfA from the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 05; 100(16):9238-43. PMID: 12874381; PMCID: PMC170902.
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  263. Pojer F, Wemakor E, Kammerer B, Chen H, Walsh CT, Li SM, Heide L. CloQ, a prenyltransferase involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 04; 100(5):2316-21. PMID: 12618544; PMCID: PMC151338.
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  265. Roche ED, Walsh CT. Dissection of the EntF condensation domain boundary and active site residues in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 11; 42(5):1334-44. PMID: 12564937.
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  267. Hillson NJ, Walsh CT. Dimeric structure of the six-domain VibF subunit of vibriobactin synthetase: mutant domain activity regain and ultracentrifugation studies. Biochemistry. 2003 Jan 28; 42(3):766-75. PMID: 12534289.
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  270. Tseng CC, Bruner SD, Kohli RM, Marahiel MA, Walsh CT, Sieber SA. Characterization of the surfactin synthetase C-terminal thioesterase domain as a cyclic depsipeptide synthase. Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 12; 41(45):13350-9. PMID: 12416979.
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  289. Chen H, Hubbard BK, O'Connor SE, Walsh CT. Formation of beta-hydroxy histidine in the biosynthesis of nikkomycin antibiotics. Chem Biol. 2002 Jan; 9(1):103-12. PMID: 11841943.
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  290. Chen H, Tseng CC, Hubbard BK, Walsh CT. Glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis: enzymatic assembly of the dedicated amino acid monomer (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 18; 98(26):14901-6. PMID: 11752437; PMCID: PMC64956.
  291. Luo L, Burkart MD, Stachelhaus T, Walsh CT. Substrate recognition and selection by the initiation module PheATE of gramicidin S synthetase. J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Nov 14; 123(45):11208-18. PMID: 11697963.
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  292. Chen H, Thomas MG, O'Connor SE, Hubbard BK, Burkart MD, Walsh CT. Aminoacyl-S-enzyme intermediates in beta-hydroxylations and alpha,beta-desaturations of amino acids in peptide antibiotics. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 02; 40(39):11651-9. PMID: 11570865.
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  293. Walsh CT, Chen H, Keating TA, Hubbard BK, Losey HC, Luo L, Marshall CG, Miller DA, Patel HM. Tailoring enzymes that modify nonribosomal peptides during and after chain elongation on NRPS assembly lines. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2001 Oct; 5(5):525-34. PMID: 11578925.
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  294. Yuan W, Jia Y, Tian J, Snell KD, Müh U, Sinskey AJ, Lambalot RH, Walsh CT, Stubbe J. Class I and III polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases from Ralstonia eutropha and Allochromatium vinosum: characterization and substrate specificity studies. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001 Oct 01; 394(1):87-98. PMID: 11566031.
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  295. Marshall CG, Burkart MD, Keating TA, Walsh CT. Heterocycle formation in vibriobactin biosynthesis: alternative substrate utilization and identification of a condensed intermediate. Biochemistry. 2001 Sep 04; 40(35):10655-63. PMID: 11524010.
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  296. Chen H, O'Connor S, Cane DE, Walsh CT. Epothilone biosynthesis: assembly of the methylthiazolylcarboxy starter unit on the EpoB subunit. Chem Biol. 2001 Sep; 8(9):899-912. PMID: 11564558.
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  297. Miller DA, Walsh CT, Luo L. C-methyltransferase and cyclization domain activity at the intraprotein PK/NRP switch point of yersiniabactin synthetase. J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Aug 29; 123(34):8434-5. PMID: 11516308.
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  298. Forbes AJ, Mazur MT, Patel HM, Walsh CT, Kelleher NL. Toward efficient analysis of >70 kDa proteins with 100% sequence coverage. Proteomics. 2001 Aug; 1(8):927-33. PMID: 11683509.
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  299. Patel HM, Walsh CT. In vitro reconstitution of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonribosomal peptide synthesis of pyochelin: characterization of backbone tailoring thiazoline reductase and N-methyltransferase activities. Biochemistry. 2001 Jul 31; 40(30):9023-31. PMID: 11467965.
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  300. Chiu HT, Hubbard BK, Shah AN, Eide J, Fredenburg RA, Walsh CT, Khosla C. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the complestatin biosynthetic gene cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 17; 98(15):8548-53. PMID: 11447274; PMCID: PMC37473.
  301. Mulichak AM, Losey HC, Walsh CT, Garavito RM. Structure of the UDP-glucosyltransferase GtfB that modifies the heptapeptide aglycone in the biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics. Structure. 2001 Jul 03; 9(7):547-57. PMID: 11470430.
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  302. Zamble DB, Miller DA, Heddle JG, Maxwell A, Walsh CT, Hollfelder F. In vitro characterization of DNA gyrase inhibition by microcin B17 analogs with altered bisheterocyclic sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 03; 98(14):7712-7. PMID: 11427730; PMCID: PMC35407.
  303. Kohli RM, Trauger JW, Schwarzer D, Marahiel MA, Walsh CT. Generality of peptide cyclization catalyzed by isolated thioesterase domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Biochemistry. 2001 Jun 19; 40(24):7099-108. PMID: 11401555.
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  304. Trauger JW, Kohli RM, Walsh CT. Cyclization of backbone-substituted peptides catalyzed by the thioesterase domain from the tyrocidine nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Biochemistry. 2001 Jun 19; 40(24):7092-8. PMID: 11401554.
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  305. Admiraal SJ, Walsh CT, Khosla C. The loading module of rifamycin synthetase is an adenylation-thiolation didomain with substrate tolerance for substituted benzoates. Biochemistry. 2001 May 22; 40(20):6116-23. PMID: 11352749.
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  306. Luo L, Walsh CT. Kinetic analysis of three activated phenylalanyl intermediates generated by the initiation module PheATE of gramicidin S synthetase. Biochemistry. 2001 May 08; 40(18):5329-37. PMID: 11330995.
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  307. Losey HC, Peczuh MW, Chen Z, Eggert US, Dong SD, Pelczer I, Kahne D, Walsh CT. Tandem action of glycosyltransferases in the maturation of vancomycin and teicoplanin aglycones: novel glycopeptides. Biochemistry. 2001 Apr 17; 40(15):4745-55. PMID: 11294642.
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  308. Heddle JG, Blance SJ, Zamble DB, Hollfelder F, Miller DA, Wentzell LM, Walsh CT, Maxwell A. The antibiotic microcin B17 is a DNA gyrase poison: characterisation of the mode of inhibition. J Mol Biol. 2001 Apr 13; 307(5):1223-34. PMID: 11292337.
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  309. Chen H, Walsh CT. Coumarin formation in novobiocin biosynthesis: beta-hydroxylation of the aminoacyl enzyme tyrosyl-S-NovH by a cytochrome P450 NovI. Chem Biol. 2001 Apr; 8(4):301-12. PMID: 11325587.
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  310. Keating TA, Ehmann DE, Kohli RM, Marshall CG, Trauger JW, Walsh CT. Chain termination steps in nonribosomal peptide synthetase assembly lines: directed acyl-S-enzyme breakdown in antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis. Chembiochem. 2001 Feb 02; 2(2):99-107. PMID: 11828432.
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  311. Reimmann C, Patel HM, Serino L, Barone M, Walsh CT, Haas D. Essential PchG-dependent reduction in pyochelin biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2001 Feb; 183(3):813-20. PMID: 11208777; PMCID: PMC94946.
  312. Suo Z, Tseng CC, Walsh CT. Purification, priming, and catalytic acylation of carrier protein domains in the polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptidyl synthetase modules of the HMWP1 subunit of yersiniabactin synthetase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 02; 98(1):99-104. PMID: 11134531; PMCID: PMC14551.
  313. Zamble DB, McClure CP, Penner-Hahn JE, Walsh CT. The McbB component of microcin B17 synthetase is a zinc metalloprotein. Biochemistry. 2000 Dec 26; 39(51):16190-9. PMID: 11123948.
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  314. Keating TA, Marshall CG, Walsh CT. Reconstitution and characterization of the Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin synthetase from VibB, VibE, VibF, and VibH. Biochemistry. 2000 Dec 19; 39(50):15522-30. PMID: 11112538.
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  315. Keating TA, Marshall CG, Walsh CT. Vibriobactin biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae: VibH is an amide synthase homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domains. Biochemistry. 2000 Dec 19; 39(50):15513-21. PMID: 11112537.
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  316. Hubbard BK, Thomas MG, Walsh CT. Biosynthesis of L-p-hydroxyphenylglycine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid constituent of peptide antibiotics. Chem Biol. 2000 Dec; 7(12):931-42. PMID: 11137816.
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  317. Chen H, Thomas MG, Hubbard BK, Losey HC, Walsh CT, Burkart MD. Deoxysugars in glycopeptide antibiotics: enzymatic synthesis of TDP-L-epivancosamine in chloroeremomycin biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 24; 97(22):11942-7. PMID: 11035791; PMCID: PMC17274.
  318. Ehmann DE, Trauger JW, Stachelhaus T, Walsh CT. Aminoacyl-SNACs as small-molecule substrates for the condensation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Chem Biol. 2000 Oct; 7(10):765-72. PMID: 11033080.
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  319. Trauger JW, Kohli RM, Mootz HD, Marahiel MA, Walsh CT. Peptide cyclization catalysed by the thioesterase domain of tyrocidine synthetase. Nature. 2000 Sep 14; 407(6801):215-8. PMID: 11001063.
    View in: PubMed
  320. Healy VL, Mullins LS, Li X, Hall SE, Raushel FM, Walsh CT. D-Ala-D-X ligases: evaluation of D-alanyl phosphate intermediate by MIX, PIX and rapid quench studies. Chem Biol. 2000 Jul; 7(7):505-14. PMID: 10903933.
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  321. Stachelhaus T, Walsh CT. Mutational analysis of the epimerization domain in the initiation module PheATE of gramicidin S synthetase. Biochemistry. 2000 May 16; 39(19):5775-87. PMID: 10801328.
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  322. Kuzin AP, Sun T, Jorczak-Baillass J, Healy VL, Walsh CT, Knox JR. Enzymes of vancomycin resistance: the structure of D-alanine-D-lactate ligase of naturally resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Structure. 2000 May 15; 8(5):463-70. PMID: 10801495.
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  323. Healy VL, Lessard IA, Roper DI, Knox JR, Walsh CT. Vancomycin resistance in enterococci: reprogramming of the D-ala-D-Ala ligases in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2000 May; 7(5):R109-19. PMID: 10801476.
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  324. Keating TA, Miller DA, Walsh CT. Expression, purification, and characterization of HMWP2, a 229 kDa, six domain protein subunit of Yersiniabactin synthetase. Biochemistry. 2000 Apr 25; 39(16):4729-39. PMID: 10769129.
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  325. Trauger JW, Walsh CT. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the first module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase for chloroeremomycin, a vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 28; 97(7):3112-7. PMID: 10716695; PMCID: PMC16201.
  326. Ehmann DE, Shaw-Reid CA, Losey HC, Walsh CT. The EntF and EntE adenylation domains of Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase: sequestration and selectivity in acyl-AMP transfers to thiolation domain cosubstrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 14; 97(6):2509-14. PMID: 10688898; PMCID: PMC15959.
  327. Keating TA, Suo Z, Ehmann DE, Walsh CT. Selectivity of the yersiniabactin synthetase adenylation domain in the two-step process of amino acid activation and transfer to a holo-carrier protein domain. Biochemistry. 2000 Mar 07; 39(9):2297-306. PMID: 10694396.
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  328. Flugel RS, Hwangbo Y, Lambalot RH, Cronan JE, Walsh CT. Holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase and phosphopantetheinyl transfer in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 14; 275(2):959-68. PMID: 10625633.
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  329. Suo Z, Walsh CT, Miller DA. Tandem heterocyclization activity of the multidomain 230 kDa HMWP2 subunit of yersinia pestis yersiniabactin synthetase: interaction of the 1-1382 and 1383-2035 fragments Biochemistry. 1999 Dec 21; 38(51):17000. PMID: 10606536.
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  330. Cane DE, Walsh CT. The parallel and convergent universes of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Chem Biol. 1999 Dec; 6(12):R319-25. PMID: 10631508.
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  331. Kelleher NL, Hendrickson CL, Walsh CT. Posttranslational heterocyclization of cysteine and serine residues in the antibiotic microcin B17: distributivity and directionality. Biochemistry. 1999 Nov 23; 38(47):15623-30. PMID: 10569947.
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  332. Quadri LE, Keating TA, Patel HM, Walsh CT. Assembly of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonribosomal peptide siderophore pyochelin: In vitro reconstitution of aryl-4, 2-bisthiazoline synthetase activity from PchD, PchE, and PchF. Biochemistry. 1999 Nov 09; 38(45):14941-54. PMID: 10555976.
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  333. Roy RS, Allen O, Walsh CT. Expressed protein ligation to probe regiospecificity of heterocyclization in the peptide antibiotic microcin B17. Chem Biol. 1999 Nov; 6(11):789-99. PMID: 10574779.
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  334. Lessard IA, Healy VL, Park IS, Walsh CT. Determinants for differential effects on D-Ala-D-lactate vs D-Ala-D-Ala formation by the VanA ligase from vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 19; 38(42):14006-22. PMID: 10529248.
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  335. Suo Z, Walsh CT, Miller DA. Tandem heterocyclization activity of the multidomain 230 kDa HMWP2 subunit of Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin synthetase: interaction of the 1-1382 and 1383-2035 fragments. Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 19; 38(42):14023-35. PMID: 10529249.
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  336. Keating TA, Walsh CT. Initiation, elongation, and termination strategies in polyketide and polypeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1999 Oct; 3(5):598-606. PMID: 10508662.
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  337. Kelleher NL, Zubarev RA, Bush K, Furie B, Furie BC, McLafferty FW, Walsh CT. Localization of labile posttranslational modifications by electron capture dissociation: the case of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Anal Chem. 1999 Oct 01; 71(19):4250-3. PMID: 10517147.
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  338. Shaw-Reid CA, Kelleher NL, Losey HC, Gehring AM, Berg C, Walsh CT. Assembly line enzymology by multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases: the thioesterase domain of E. coli EntF catalyzes both elongation and cyclolactonization. Chem Biol. 1999 Jun; 6(6):385-400. PMID: 10375542.
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  339. Sinha Roy R, Kelleher NL, Milne JC, Walsh CT. In vivo processing and antibiotic activity of microcin B17 analogs with varying ring content and altered bisheterocyclic sites. Chem Biol. 1999 May; 6(5):305-18. PMID: 10322125.
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  340. Belshaw PJ, Walsh CT, Stachelhaus T. Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Science. 1999 Apr 16; 284(5413):486-9. PMID: 10205056.
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  341. Milne JC, Roy RS, Eliot AC, Kelleher NL, Wokhlu A, Nickels B, Walsh CT. Cofactor requirements and reconstitution of microcin B17 synthetase: a multienzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of oxazoles and thiazoles in the antibiotic microcin B17. Biochemistry. 1999 Apr 13; 38(15):4768-81. PMID: 10200165.
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  342. Roy RS, Gehring AM, Milne JC, Belshaw PJ, Walsh CT. Thiazole and oxazole peptides: biosynthesis and molecular machinery. Nat Prod Rep. 1999 Apr; 16(2):249-63. PMID: 10331285.
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  343. Lessard IA, Walsh CT. Mutational analysis of active-site residues of the enterococcal D-ala-D-Ala dipeptidase VanX and comparison with Escherichia coli D-ala-D-Ala ligase and D-ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase VanY. Chem Biol. 1999 Mar; 6(3):177-87. PMID: 10074467.
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  344. Gehring AM, Mori I, Perry RD, Walsh CT. The nonribosomal peptide synthetase HMWP2 forms a thiazoline ring during biogenesis of yersiniabactin, an iron-chelating virulence factor of yersinia pestis Biochemistry. 1998 Dec 01; 37(48):17104. PMID: 9836605.
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  345. Quadri LE, Sello J, Keating TA, Weinreb PH, Walsh CT. Identification of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene cluster encoding the biosynthetic enzymes for assembly of the virulence-conferring siderophore mycobactin. Chem Biol. 1998 Nov; 5(11):631-45. PMID: 9831524.
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  346. Cane DE, Walsh CT, Khosla C. Harnessing the biosynthetic code: combinations, permutations, and mutations. Science. 1998 Oct 02; 282(5386):63-8. PMID: 9756477.
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  347. Gehring AM, DeMoll E, Fetherston JD, Mori I, Mayhew GF, Blattner FR, Walsh CT, Perry RD. Iron acquisition in plague: modular logic in enzymatic biogenesis of yersiniabactin by Yersinia pestis. Chem Biol. 1998 Oct; 5(10):573-86. PMID: 9818149.
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  348. Silva JC, Haldimann A, Prahalad MK, Walsh CT, Wanner BL. In vivo characterization of the type A and B vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) VanRS two-component systems in Escherichia coli: a nonpathogenic model for studying the VRE signal transduction pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 29; 95(20):11951-6. PMID: 9751771; PMCID: PMC21746.
  349. Milne JC, Eliot AC, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. ATP/GTP hydrolysis is required for oxazole and thiazole biosynthesis in the peptide antibiotic microcin B17. Biochemistry. 1998 Sep 22; 37(38):13250-61. PMID: 9748332.
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  350. Lessard IA, Pratt SD, McCafferty DG, Bussiere DE, Hutchins C, Wanner BL, Katz L, Walsh CT. Homologs of the vancomycin resistance D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase VanX in Streptomyces toyocaensis, Escherichia coli and Synechocystis: attributes of catalytic efficiency, stereoselectivity and regulation with implications for function. Chem Biol. 1998 Sep; 5(9):489-504. PMID: 9751644.
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  351. Gehring AM, Mori I, Perry RD, Walsh CT. The nonribosomal peptide synthetase HMWP2 forms a thiazoline ring during biogenesis of yersiniabactin, an iron-chelating virulence factor of Yersinia pestis. Biochemistry. 1998 Aug 18; 37(33):11637-50. PMID: 9709002.
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  352. Tetaud E, Manai F, Barrett MP, Nadeau K, Walsh CT, Fairlamb AH. Cloning and characterization of the two enzymes responsible for trypanothione biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 31; 273(31):19383-90. PMID: 9677355.
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  353. Belshaw PJ, Roy RS, Kelleher NL, Walsh CT. Kinetics and regioselectivity of peptide-to-heterocycle conversions by microcin B17 synthetase. Chem Biol. 1998 Jul; 5(7):373-84. PMID: 9662507.
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  354. Roy RS, Kim S, Baleja JD, Walsh CT. Role of the microcin B17 propeptide in substrate recognition: solution structure and mutational analysis of McbA1-26. Chem Biol. 1998 Apr; 5(4):217-28. PMID: 9545435.
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  355. Ritsema T, Gehring AM, Stuitje AR, van der Drift KM, Dandal I, Lambalot RH, Walsh CT, Thomas-Oates JE, Lugtenberg BJ, Spaink HP. Functional analysis of an interspecies chimera of acyl carrier proteins indicates a specialized domain for protein recognition. Mol Gen Genet. 1998 Apr; 257(6):641-8. PMID: 9604887.
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  356. Healy VL, Park IS, Walsh CT. Active-site mutants of the VanC2 D-alanyl-D-serine ligase, characteristic of one vancomycin-resistant bacterial phenotype, revert towards wild-type D-alanyl-D-alanine ligases. Chem Biol. 1998 Apr; 5(4):197-207. PMID: 9545431.
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  357. Sinha Roy R, Belshaw PJ, Walsh CT. Mutational analysis of posttranslational heterocycle biosynthesis in the gyrase inhibitor microcin B17: distance dependence from propeptide and tolerance for substitution in a GSCG cyclizable sequence. Biochemistry. 1998 Mar 24; 37(12):4125-36. PMID: 9521734.
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  358. Gehring AM, Mori I, Walsh CT. Reconstitution and characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase from EntB, EntE, and EntF. Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 24; 37(8):2648-59. PMID: 9485415.
    View in: PubMed
  359. Weinreb PH, Quadri LE, Walsh CT, Zuber P. Stoichiometry and specificity of in vitro phosphopantetheinylation and aminoacylation of the valine-activating module of surfactin synthetase. Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 10; 37(6):1575-84. PMID: 9484228.
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  360. Quadri LE, Weinreb PH, Lei M, Nakano MM, Zuber P, Walsh CT. Characterization of Sfp, a Bacillus subtilis phosphopantetheinyl transferase for peptidyl carrier protein domains in peptide synthetases. Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 10; 37(6):1585-95. PMID: 9484229.
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  361. Lin CH, Chen S, Kwon DS, Coward JK, Walsh CT. Aldehyde and phosphinate analogs of glutathione and glutathionylspermidine: potent, selective binding inhibitors of the E. coli bifunctional glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase. Chem Biol. 1997 Nov; 4(11):859-66. PMID: 9384533.
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  362. Benkovic SJ, Walsh CT. Research highlights at the chemistry/biology interface Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1997 Oct; 1(3):289-91. PMID: 9667881.
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  363. Walsh CT, Gehring AM, Weinreb PH, Quadri LE, Flugel RS. Post-translational modification of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1997 Oct; 1(3):309-15. PMID: 9667867.
    View in: PubMed
  364. Payne G, Stolz LA, Pei D, Band H, Shoelson SE, Walsh CT. The phosphopeptide-binding specificity of Src family SH2 domains. Chem Biol. 1994 Oct; 1(2):99-105. PMID: 9383377.
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  365. C. Walsh. Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms. 1979.
  366. Walsh CT, Spector LB. The glucose-glucose 6-phosphate exchange catalyzed by yeast hexokinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1971 Jul; 145(1):1-5. PMID: 5123138.
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