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Last Name

profileAlexander Peter Lin, PH.D.

TitleAssistant Professor of Radiology
InstitutionBrigham and Women's Hospital
AddressBrigham and Womens Hospital
Dept of Radiology
75 Francis St
Boston MA 02115
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Collapse Biography 
Collapse awards and honors
2014Young Mentor Award
2011Clinical Research Excellence Award
2011Partners in Excellence Team Award

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Dr. Lin is the director of the Center for Clinical Spectroscopy at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Assistant Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Lin is a graduate of the California Institute of Technology, where he completed his Masters degree in Bioengineering and his doctoral degree in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics. He began his training as a research associate in 1997 and was appointed Director of Clinical Services and Senior Scientist at the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit at the Huntington Medical Research Institutes in 2003. Since that time, he has been a visiting research associate at the Center of MR Research at the University of Illinois Chicago. From 2007 to 2009, Dr. Lin had a research fellowship at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. Dr. Lin arrived at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 2009.

Dr. Lin’s research interests include clinical applications of multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the brain, breast, and liver, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. He was awarded the Young Investigator’s Award in 2003 for his work in 13C spectroscopy in Alzheimer’s disease and an NHLBI Fellows Research Award for his work in strain mapping of the carotid arteries in 2007. He was recently awarded a Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program grant from the Department of Defense to study mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers returning from the Iraq/Afghanistan wars. In addition, he has ongoing collaborations with the Boston University Center for Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy to examine the long-term effects of repetitive head injury using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. He has co-authored more than three dozen peer-reviewed publications, five book chapters, and 75+ conference abstracts.

Finally, Dr. Alexander Lin has also been recognized through awards and media reports for his efforts in supporting mentorship, particularly of students of diversity through the laboratory’s involvement in the Student Success Jobs Program and Harvard Catalyst summer research studies. He actively mentors Harvard Medical School students and received a Young Mentor Award from Harvard Medical School. Further, he is involved in education and training in several international workshops for MR spectroscopy.

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Available: 07/25/17, Expires: 12/31/18

The Center for Clinical Spectroscopy develops cutting edge diagnostic tools using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. There are several ongoing projects involving magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the brain, including research on the effect of traumatic brain injury on football players and soldiers, some of which was recently featured in the media. Other projects include studies in brain cancer, schizophrenia, muscle metabolism, chronic pain, etc. Your role will be dependent on your interests and experience. Excellent opportunities to publish papers.

Collapse completed student projects
Player Position, Impact Severity, and Brain Chemistry in Retired National Football League Athletes
Summer, 06/09/14 - 08/15/14
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in mTBI and PTS
Summer, 06/08/15 - 08/14/15

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Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Miller MW, Lin AP, Wolf EJ, Miller DR. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neuroprogression in Chronic PTSD. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2018 Mar/Apr; 26(2):57-69. PMID: 29016379.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Zhou M, Zhou Y, Liao H, Rowland BC, Kong X, Arvold ND, Reardon DA, Wen PY, Lin AP, Huang RY. Diagnostic Accuracy of 2-Hydroxyglutarate Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Newly-Diagnosed Brain Mass and Suspected Recurrent Gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2018 Feb 09. PMID: 29438510.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Sollmann N, Echlin PS, Schultz V, Viher PV, Lyall AE, Tripodis Y, Kaufmann D, Hartl E, Kinzel P, Forwell LA, Johnson AM, Skopelja EN, Lepage C, Bouix S, Pasternak O, Lin AP, Shenton ME, Koerte IK. Sex differences in white matter alterations following repetitive subconcussive head impacts in collegiate ice hockey players. Neuroimage Clin. 2018; 17:642-649. PMID: 29204342.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Schultz V, Stern RA, Tripodis Y, Stamm J, Wrobel P, Lepage C, Weir I, Guenette JP, Chua A, Alosco ML, Baugh CM, Fritts NG, Martin BM, Chaisson CE, Coleman MJ, Lin AP, Pasternak O, Shenton ME, Koerte IK. Age at First Exposure to Repetitive Head Impacts Is Associated with Smaller Thalamic Volumes in Former Professional American Football Players. J Neurotrauma. 2018 Jan 15; 35(2):278-285. PMID: 28990457.
    View in: PubMed
  5. O'Donnell-Luria AH, Lin AP, Merugumala SK, Rohr F, Waisbren SE, Lynch R, Tchekmedyian V, Goldberg AD, Bellinger A, McFaline-Figueroa JR, Simon T, Gershanik EF, Levy BD, Cohen DE, Samuels MA, Berry GT, Frank NY. Brain MRS glutamine as a biomarker to guide therapy of hyperammonemic coma. Mol Genet Metab. 2017 05; 121(1):9-15. PMID: 28408159.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Waisbren SE, Prabhu SP, Greenstein P, Petty C, Schomer D, Anastasoaie V, Charette K, Rodriguez D, Merugumala S, Lin AP. Improved Measurement of Brain Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Related to Neuropsychological Functioning in Phenylketonuria. JIMD Rep. 2017; 34:77-86. PMID: 27677920.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Rowland BC, Liao H, Adan F, Mariano L, Irvine J, Lin AP. Correcting for Frequency Drift in Clinical Brain MR Spectroscopy. J Neuroimaging. 2017 01; 27(1):23-28. PMID: 27601075.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Koerte IK, Mayinger M, Muehlmann M, Kaufmann D, Lin AP, Steffinger D, Fisch B, Rauchmann BS, Immler S, Karch S, Heinen FR, Ertl-Wagner B, Reiser M, Stern RA, Zafonte R, Shenton ME. Cortical thinning in former professional soccer players. Brain Imaging Behav. 2016 Sep; 10(3):792-8. PMID: 26286826.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Koerte IK, Hufschmidt J, Muehlmann M, Tripodis Y, Stamm JM, Pasternak O, Giwerc MY, Coleman MJ, Baugh CM, Fritts NG, Heinen F, Lin A, Stern RA, Shenton ME. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Feb 15; 33(4):346-53. PMID: 26414478; PMCID: PMC4761807 [Available on 02/15/17].
  10. Rowland B, Merugumala SK, Liao H, Creager MA, Balschi J, Lin AP. Spectral improvement by fourier thresholding of in vivo dynamic spectroscopy data. Magn Reson Med. 2016 09; 76(3):978-85. PMID: 26445244.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Stamm JM, Koerte IK, Muehlmann M, Pasternak O, Bourlas AP, Baugh CM, Giwerc MY, Zhu A, Coleman MJ, Bouix S, Fritts NG, Martin BM, Chaisson C, McClean MD, Lin AP, Cantu RC, Tripodis Y, Stern RA, Shenton ME. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Nov 15; 32(22):1768-76. PMID: 26200068; PMCID: PMC4651044 [Available on 11/15/16].
  12. Wilde EA, Bouix S, Tate DF, Lin AP, Newsome MR, Taylor BA, Stone JR, Montier J, Gandy SE, Biekman B, Shenton ME, York G. Advanced neuroimaging applied to veterans and service personnel with traumatic brain injury: state of the art and potential benefits. Brain Imaging Behav. 2015 Sep; 9(3):367-402. PMID: 26350144.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Koerte IK, Lin AP, Muehlmann M, Merugumala S, Liao H, Starr T, Kaufmann D, Mayinger M, Steffinger D, Fisch B, Karch S, Heinen F, Ertl-Wagner B, Reiser M, Stern RA, Zafonte R, Shenton ME. Altered Neurochemistry in Former Professional Soccer Players without a History of Concussion. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Sep 01; 32(17):1287-93. PMID: 25843317; PMCID: PMC4545372.
  14. Koerte IK, Lin AP, Willems A, Muehlmann M, Hufschmidt J, Coleman MJ, Green I, Liao H, Tate DF, Wilde EA, Pasternak O, Bouix S, Rathi Y, Bigler ED, Stern RA, Shenton ME. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma. Brain Pathol. 2015 May; 25(3):318-49. PMID: 25904047.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Lin AP, Ramadan S, Stern RA, Box HC, Nowinski CJ, Ross BD, Mountford CE. Changes in the neurochemistry of athletes with repetitive brain trauma: preliminary results using localized correlated spectroscopy. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2015; 7(1):13. PMID: 25780390; PMCID: PMC4361214.
  16. Mountford C, Quadrelli S, Lin A, Ramadan S. Six fucose-a(1-2) sugars and a-fucose assigned in the human brain using in vivo two-dimensional MRS. NMR Biomed. 2015 Mar; 28(3):291-6. PMID: 25534141.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Oz G, Alger JR, Barker PB, Bartha R, Bizzi A, Boesch C, Bolan PJ, Brindle KM, Cudalbu C, Dinçer A, Dydak U, Emir UE, Frahm J, González RG, Gruber S, Gruetter R, Gupta RK, Heerschap A, Henning A, Hetherington HP, Howe FA, Hüppi PS, Hurd RE, Kantarci K, Klomp DW, Kreis R, Kruiskamp MJ, Leach MO, Lin AP, Luijten PR, Marjanska M, Maudsley AA, Meyerhoff DJ, Mountford CE, Nelson SJ, Pamir MN, Pan JW, Peet AC, Poptani H, Posse S, Pouwels PJ, Ratai EM, Ross BD, Scheenen TW, Schuster C, Smith IC, Soher BJ, Tkác I, Vigneron DB, Kauppinen RA. Clinical proton MR spectroscopy in central nervous system disorders. Radiology. 2014 Mar; 270(3):658-79. PMID: 24568703; PMCID: PMC4263653.
  18. Ng TS, Lin AP, Koerte IK, Pasternak O, Liao H, Merugumala S, Bouix S, Shenton ME. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2014; 6(1):10. PMID: 25031630; PMCID: PMC3978843.
  19. Rathi Y, Ning L, Michailovich O, Liao H, Gagoski B, Grant PE, Shenton ME, Stern R, Westin CF, Lin A. Maximum entropy estimation of glutamate and glutamine in MR spectroscopic imaging. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2014; 17(Pt 2):749-56. PMID: 25485447; PMCID: PMC4386877.
  20. Ramadan S, Lin A, Stanwell P. Glutamate and glutamine: a review of in vivo MRS in the human brain. NMR Biomed. 2013 Dec; 26(12):1630-46. PMID: 24123328; PMCID: PMC3849600.
  21. Lin A, Tran T, Bluml S, Merugumala S, Liao HJ, Ross BD. Guidelines for acquiring and reporting clinical neurospectroscopy. Semin Neurol. 2012 Sep; 32(4):432-53. PMID: 23361487.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Ramadan S, Baltzer PA, Lin A, Stanwell P, Box H, Kaiser WA, Mountford CE. L-COSY of breast cancer at 3T. Eur J Radiol. 2012 Sep; 81 Suppl 1:S129-31. PMID: 23083559.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Lin AP, Liao HJ, Merugumala SK, Prabhu SP, Meehan WP, Ross BD. Metabolic imaging of mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Jun; 6(2):208-23. PMID: 22684770.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Baugh CM, Stamm JM, Riley DO, Gavett BE, Shenton ME, Lin A, Nowinski CJ, Cantu RC, McKee AC, Stern RA. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: neurodegeneration following repetitive concussive and subconcussive brain trauma. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Jun; 6(2):244-54. PMID: 22552850.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Shenton ME, Hamoda HM, Schneiderman JS, Bouix S, Pasternak O, Rathi Y, Vu MA, Purohit MP, Helmer K, Koerte I, Lin AP, Westin CF, Kikinis R, Kubicki M, Stern RA, Zafonte R. A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Jun; 6(2):137-92. PMID: 22438191; PMCID: PMC3803157.
  26. Gavett BE, Cantu RC, Shenton M, Lin AP, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Stern RA. Clinical appraisal of chronic traumatic encephalopathy: current perspectives and future directions. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011 Dec; 24(6):525-31. PMID: 22045219.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Ramadan S, Andronesi OC, Stanwell P, Lin AP, Sorensen AG, Mountford CE. Use of in vivo two-dimensional MR spectroscopy to compare the biochemistry of the human brain to that of glioblastoma. Radiology. 2011 May; 259(2):540-9. PMID: 21357517; PMCID: PMC3079117.
  28. Gruber RP, Lin AY, Richards T. Nasal strips for evaluating and classifying valvular nasal obstruction. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011 Apr; 35(2):211-5. PMID: 21082181; PMCID: PMC3068252.
  29. Stanwell P, Siddall P, Keshava N, Cocuzzo D, Ramadan S, Lin A, Herbert D, Craig A, Tran Y, Middleton J, Gautam S, Cousins M, Mountford C. Neuro magnetic resonance spectroscopy using wavelet decomposition and statistical testing identifies biochemical changes in people with spinal cord injury and pain. Neuroimage. 2010 Nov 01; 53(2):544-52. PMID: 20600973.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Mountford CE, Stanwell P, Lin A, Ramadan S, Ross B. Neurospectroscopy: the past, present and future. Chem Rev. 2010 May 12; 110(5):3060-86. PMID: 20387805.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Perman WH, Bhattacharya P, Leupold J, Lin AP, Harris KC, Norton VA, Hövener JB, Ross BD. Fast volumetric spatial-spectral MR imaging of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled compounds using multiple echo 3D bSSFP. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 May; 28(4):459-65. PMID: 20171034; PMCID: PMC2860036.
  32. Tran T, Ross B, Lin A. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neurological diagnosis. Neurol Clin. 2009 Feb; 27(1):21-60, xiii. PMID: 19055974.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Xu V, Chan H, Lin AP, Sailasuta N, Valencerina S, Tran T, Hovener J, Ross BD. MR spectroscopy in diagnosis and neurological decision-making. Semin Neurol. 2008 Sep; 28(4):407-22. PMID: 18843570.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Lin AP, Bennett E, Wisk LE, Gharib M, Fraser SE, Wen H. Circumferential strain in the wall of the common carotid artery: comparing displacement-encoded and cine MRI in volunteers. Magn Reson Med. 2008 Jul; 60(1):8-13. PMID: 18581403; PMCID: PMC2886512.
  35. Haseler LJ, Lin A, Hoff J, Richardson RS. Oxygen availability and PCr recovery rate in untrained human calf muscle: evidence of metabolic limitation in normoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Nov; 293(5):R2046-51. PMID: 17715186.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Bhattacharya P, Chekmenev EY, Perman WH, Harris KC, Lin AP, Norton VA, Tan CT, Ross BD, Weitekamp DP. Towards hyperpolarized (13)C-succinate imaging of brain cancer. J Magn Reson. 2007 May; 186(1):150-5. PMID: 17303454; PMCID: PMC2657725.
  37. Lin AP, Tran TT, Ross BD. Impact of evidence-based medicine on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 2006 Jun; 19(4):476-83. PMID: 16763969.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Harris K, Lin A, Bhattacharya P, Tran T, Wong W, Ross B. Regulation of NAA-synthesis in the human brain in vivo: Canavan's disease, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006; 576:263-73; discussion 361-3. PMID: 16802718.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Lin AP. Acquiring Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Clinical Practice, Eds. C. Mountford and G.A. Webb. 2006.
  40. Bhattacharya P, Harris K, Lin AP, Mansson M, Norton VA, Perman WH, Weitekamp DP, Ross BD. Ultra-fast three dimensional imaging of hyperpolarized 13C in vivo. MAGMA. 2005 Nov; 18(5):245-56. PMID: 16320090.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Lin A, Ross BD, Harris K, Wong W. Efficacy of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neurological diagnosis and neurotherapeutic decision making. NeuroRx. 2005 Apr; 2(2):197-214. PMID: 15897945; PMCID: PMC1064986.
  42. England B, Lee A, Tran T, Faw H, Yang P, Lin A, Colletti P, Roth F, Ross BD. Magnetic resonance criteria for future trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2005; 7(5):827-34. PMID: 16353444.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Haseler LJ, Lin AP, Richardson RS. Skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in sedentary humans: 31P-MRS assessment of O2 supply and demand limitations. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Sep; 97(3):1077-81. PMID: 15133010.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Ross B, Lin A, Harris K, Bhattacharya P, Schweinsburg B. Clinical experience with 13C MRS in vivo. NMR Biomed. 2003 Oct-Nov; 16(6-7):358-69. PMID: 14679500.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Lin AP, Shic F, Enriquez C, Ross BD. Reduced glutamate neurotransmission in patients with Alzheimer's disease -- an in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. MAGMA. 2003 Feb; 16(1):29-42. PMID: 12695884.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Cecil KM, Lin A, Ross BD, Egelhoff JC. Methylsulfonylmethane observed by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a 5-year-old child with developmental disorder: effects of dietary supplementation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2002 Sep-Oct; 26(5):818-20. PMID: 12439321.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Pandit S, Lin A, Gahbauer H, Libertin CR, Erdogan B. MR spectroscopy in neurocysticercosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001 Nov-Dec; 25(6):950-2. PMID: 11711809.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Lin A, Nguy CH, Shic F, Ross BD. Accumulation of methylsulfonylmethane in the human brain: identification by multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Sep 15; 123(2-3):169-77. PMID: 11641045.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Lin AP, Ross BD. Short-echo time proton MR spectroscopy in the presence of gadolinium. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001 Sep-Oct; 25(5):705-12. PMID: 11584229.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Ross BD, Hoang TQ, Blüml S, Dubowitz D, Kopyov OV, Jacques DB, Lin A, Seymour K, Tan J. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human fetal neural transplants. NMR Biomed. 1999 Jun; 12(4):221-36. PMID: 10421914.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Lin A, Bluml S, Mamelak AN. Efficacy of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in clinical decision making for patients with suspected malignant brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 1999; 45(1):69-81. PMID: 10728912.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Ross BD, Bluml S, Seymour KJ, Tan J, Hwang JH, Lin A. . Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, eds Grant DM and Harris RK. Systemically Induced Encephalopathies: Newer Clinical Applications of MRS. 1999.
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