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Jennifer Leaning, M.D.

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My academic focus has centered on exploring the ways in which civilians in war and crises can be protected from the extremes of suffering and assault. A related area of research and policy interest has been to define and apply the concept of human security in pre- and post-conflict settings. I have translated my evolving understanding of these issues into efforts at Harvard to build academic programs that will embed attention to the humanitarian impact of conflict and disaster in productive and stable systems of education and inquiry.

I have undertaken research on protection of civilians by drawing from the fields of human rights, international humanitarian law, and public health to construct a theoretical and policy framework that supports and amplifies the humanitarian enterprise. My basic findings are derived from empirical field investigations and population-based surveys as well as from archival and documentary research in the general area of the humanitarian impact of past major crises and the success or failure of previous efforts to provide humanitarian relief. My research suggests that it may be possible to reduce human suffering in acute and chronic crises by appropriate policy and operational attention to promotion of human dignity, technically and socially adept provision of relief and stability supports, and consistent adherence to international legal norms in war. Major categories of this research include:

a) the management of major disasters (with particular focus on acute medical and public health decision-making in domestic and international settings);
b) the population and environmental effects of the means and methods of war (with particular focus on grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, mass atrocities, genocide, landmines and unexploded ordnance, and weapons of mass destruction); and
c) the demography of forced migration (with particular attention to the 1947 Partition of India—the largest and least explored instance of forced migration in the 20th century—as well as investigations into more recent instances of population displacements in the Balkans, Darfur, and Democratic Republic of Congo).

My second main area of research and policy formulation is on human security. Here my efforts have centered on the definition and application of this concept in countries emerging from major disaster or conflict and in oppressive regimes where early warning of impending conflict may prove useful to the international community. My research and writing on this topic have advanced a psychologically grounded notion of human security, one that extends beyond the provision of core human needs and protection from acute harm to the creation of supports for home, community, and a sense of hope in the future. This work has proved useful to USAID in forming its development strategy for societies in transition and has served as the basis for my assessments of early warning in crisis settings and critiques I have advanced of post-conflict reconstruction in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The third area of my work has been to create educational programs and initiatives that will allow my colleagues and me to build an ongoing platform for training the next several generations of researchers, analysts, and practitioners in the field of humanitarian response. Over the past 15 years I have developed a number of new courses in disasters, war, and human rights and have established, with the engagement of others, a certificate training program at the Masters level in humanitarian studies (involving Harvard, MIT, and Tufts). My work with a broad range of civil society organizations and initiatives has given me access to and familiarity with humanitarian and development initiatives around the world. In this past year, with my colleague Michael VanRooyen as co-director, we have set up the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, a university-wide program that brings the faculties and students of Harvard University and the affiliated hospitals into a networked research and training approach to the field of war and disasters. My participation in leadership roles in a variety of programs within the University (Chair of the Executive Committee of the Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research Program at the Harvard School of Public Health, Education Director for the International Emergency Medicine and Health program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Senior Advisor for International and Policy Studies at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study) and in external settings domestically and internationally supports my negotiation across boundaries and disciplines to gather the best possible talent for taking this humanitarian training effort far into the future.

Enduring health impacts of the siege of Sarajevo
International, 06/15/04 - 08/15/04
Evaluation of the VCT program, HBC program, and sentinel surveillance survey at Kala and Mwange camps, Northern Province, Zambia
International/Summer, 06/23/03 - 08/31/03

Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Hamadeh RS, Kdouh O, Hammoud R, Leresche E, Leaning J. Working short and working long: can primary healthcare be protected as a public good in Lebanon today? Confl Health. 2021 Apr 07; 15(1):23. PMID: 33827637.
    Citations: 1     
  2. Jabbour S, Leaning J, Nuwayhid I, Ager A, Cammett M, Dewachi O, Fouad FM, Giacaman R, Sapir DG, Hage G, Majed Z, Nasser R, Sparrow A, Spiegel P, Tarakji A, Whitson SL, Yassin N. 10 years of the Syrian conflict: a time to act and not merely to remember. Lancet. 2021 Apr 03; 397(10281):1245-1248. PMID: 33721564.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  3. Watt G, Giacaman R, Zurayk H, Bjertness E, Holmboe-Ottesen G, Ghattas H, Nuwayhid I, Leaning J, Yudkin JS, Elessi K, Sullivan R, Afifi R, Khader YS, Shannon HS. COVID-19 vaccines for Palestinians. Lancet. 2021 02 13; 397(10274):579. PMID: 33516283.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  4. Balsari S, Dresser C, Leaning J. Climate Change, Migration, and Civil Strife. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2020 12; 7(4):404-414. PMID: 33048318.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  5. Newnham EA, Dzidic PL, Mergelsberg ELP, Guragain B, Chan EYY, Kim Y, Leaning J, Kayano R, Wright M, Kaththiriarachchi L, Kato H, Osawa T, Gibbs L. The Asia Pacific Disaster Mental Health Network: Setting a Mental Health Agenda for the Region. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 08 24; 17(17). PMID: 32847057.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  6. Jawad M, Blanchet K, Leaning J. Revisiting public health response in times of war. J Public Health (Oxf). 2020 08 18; 42(3):e285-e286. PMID: 32633328.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  7. Leresche E, Truppa C, Martin C, Marnicio A, Rossi R, Zmeter C, Harb H, Hamadeh RS, Leaning J. Conducting operational research in humanitarian settings: is there a shared path for humanitarians, national public health authorities and academics? Confl Health. 2020; 14:25. PMID: 32435274.
    Citations: 1     
  8. Newnham EA, Gao X, Tearne J, Guragain B, Jiao F, Ghimire L, Chan EY, Leaning J. Adolescents' perspectives on the psychological effects of natural disasters in China and Nepal. Transcult Psychiatry. 2020 02; 57(1):197-211. PMID: 31852386.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  9. Truppa C, Leresche E, Fuller AF, Marnicio AS, Abisaab J, El Hayek N, Zmeter C, Toma WS, Harb H, Hamadeh RS, Leaning J. Utilization of primary health care services among Syrian refugee and Lebanese women targeted by the ICRC program in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study. Confl Health. 2019; 13:7. PMID: 30923560.
    Citations: 5     
  10. Bhatia A, Mahmud A, Fuller A, Shin R, Rahman A, Shatil T, Sultana M, Morshed KAM, Leaning J, Balsari S. The Rohingya in Cox's Bazar: When the Stateless Seek Refuge. Health Hum Rights. 2018 Dec; 20(2):105-122. PMID: 30568406.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  11. Kishore N, Marqués D, Mahmud A, Kiang MV, Rodriguez I, Fuller A, Ebner P, Sorensen C, Racy F, Lemery J, Maas L, Leaning J, Irizarry RA, Balsari S, Buckee CO. Mortality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 12; 379(2):162-170. PMID: 29809109.
    Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  12. Jabbour S, Fouad FM, Leaning J, McKay D, Nasser R, Rubenstein LS, Sparrow A, Spiegel P, Tarakji A, Waldman R, Hallam R, Mukwege D, Tayara G. Death and suffering in Eastern Ghouta, Syria: a call for action to protect civilians and health care. Lancet. 2018 03 03; 391(10123):815-817. PMID: 29496277.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  13. Mowafi H, Leaning J. Documenting deaths in the Syrian war. Lancet Glob Health. 2018 01; 6(1):e14-e15. PMID: 29226822.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  14. Newnham EA, Balsari S, Lam RPK, Kashyap S, Pham P, Chan EYY, Patrick K, Leaning J. Self-efficacy and barriers to disaster evacuation in Hong Kong. Int J Public Health. 2017 Dec; 62(9):1051-1058. PMID: 28932872.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  15. Kazi DS, Greenough PG, Madhok R, Heerboth A, Shaikh A, Leaning J, Balsari S. Using mobile technology to optimize disease surveillance and healthcare delivery at mass gatherings: a case study from India's Kumbh Mela. J Public Health (Oxf). 2017 09 01; 39(3):616-624. PMID: 27694349.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  16. Lam RPK, Balsari S, Hung KKC, Hsiao KH, Leung LP, Leaning J. How Do Doctors and Nurses in Emergency Departments in Hong Kong View Their Disaster Preparedness? A Cross-Sectional Territory-Wide Online Survey. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018 Jun; 12(3):329-336. PMID: 28829007.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  17. Lam RPK, Leung LP, Balsari S, Hsiao KH, Newnham E, Patrick K, Pham P, Leaning J. Urban disaster preparedness of Hong Kong residents: A territory-wide survey. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2017 Aug; 23:62-69. PMID: 32289012.
    Citations: 4     
  18. Jabbour S, Leaning J, Nuwayhid I, Horton R, Das P. The Lancet-American University of Beirut Commission on Syria: a new role for global health in conflict and a call for papers. Lancet. 2016 12 17; 388(10063):2967-2968. PMID: 27998518.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  19. Mahmood SS, Wroe E, Fuller A, Leaning J. The Rohingya people of Myanmar: health, human rights, and identity. Lancet. 2017 05 06; 389(10081):1841-1850. PMID: 27916235.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  20. Balsari S, Greenough PG, Kazi D, Heerboth A, Dwivedi S, Leaning J. Public health aspects of the world's largest mass gathering: The 2013 Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, India. J Public Health Policy. 2016 Dec; 37(4):411-427. PMID: 28202925.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  21. Balsari S, Greenough PG, Kazi D, Heerboth A, Dwivedi S, Leaning J. Public health aspects of the world's largest mass gathering: The 2013 Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, India. J Public Health Policy. 2016 Sep 08. PMID: 27609523.
  22. Checchi F, Waldman RJ, Roberts LF, Ager A, Asgary R, Benner MT, Blanchet K, Burnham G, d'Harcourt E, Leaning J, Massaquoi MB, Mills EJ, Moresky RT, Patel P, Roberts B, Toole MJ, Woodruff B, Zwi AB. World Health Organization and emergency health: if not now, when? BMJ. 2016 Jan 28; 352:i469. PMID: 26821569.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  23. Yudkin JS, Leaning J. Politics, medical journals, the medical profession and the Israel lobby. BMJ. 2015 May 12; 350:h2377. PMID: 25985332.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  24. Moucheraud C, Worku A, Molla M, Finlay JE, Leaning J, Yamin A. Consequences of maternal mortality on infant and child survival: a 25-year longitudinal analysis in Butajira Ethiopia (1987-2011). Reprod Health. 2015 May 06; 12 Suppl 1:S4. PMID: 26001059.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Yamin AE, Bazile J, Knight L, Molla M, Maistrellis E, Leaning J. Tracing shadows: How gendered power relations shape the impacts of maternal death on living children in sub Saharan Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Jun; 135:143-50. PMID: 25965895.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  26. Balsari S, Abisaab J, Hamill K, Leaning J. Syrian refugee crisis: when aid is not enough. Lancet. 2015 Mar 14; 385(9972):942-3. PMID: 25748614.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  27. Chen L, Leaning J. Letter in support of Richard Horton. Lancet. 2014 Aug 23; 384(9944):e33. PMID: 25123777.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  28. Leaning J, Guha-Sapir D. Natural disasters, armed conflict, and public health. N Engl J Med. 2014 02 20; 370(8):783-4. PMID: 24552339.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  29. Ottersen OP, Dasgupta J, Blouin C, Buss P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Frenk J, Fukuda-Parr S, Gawanas BP, Giacaman R, Gyapong J, Leaning J, Marmot M, McNeill D, Mongella GI, Moyo N, Møgedal S, Ntsaluba A, Ooms G, Bjertness E, Lie AL, Moon S, Roalkvam S, Sandberg KI, Scheel IB. The political origins of health inequity: prospects for change. Lancet. 2014 Feb 15; 383(9917):630-67. PMID: 24524782.
    Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  30. Leaning J, Guha-Sapir D. Natural disasters, armed conflict, and public health. N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 07; 369(19):1836-42. PMID: 24195550.
    Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  31. Dougherty SM, Leaning J, Greenough PG, Burkle FM. Hunger strikers: ethical and legal dimensions of medical complicity in torture at Guantanamo Bay. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013 Dec; 28(6):616-24. PMID: 24073786.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  32. Yamin AE, Boulanger VM, Falb KL, Shuma J, Leaning J. Costs of inaction on maternal mortality: qualitative evidence of the impacts of maternal deaths on living children in Tanzania. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71674. PMID: 23990971.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  33. Bartels SA, Scott JA, Leaning J, Kelly JT, Joyce NR, Mukwege D, Vanrooyen MJ. Demographics and care-seeking behaviors of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2012 Dec; 6(4):393-401. PMID: 23241471.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  34. Bartels S, Kelly J, Scott J, Leaning J, Mukwege D, Joyce N, VanRooyen M. Militarized sexual violence in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. J Interpers Violence. 2013 Jan; 28(2):340-58. PMID: 22929338.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  35. Tsai AC, Eisa MA, Crosby SS, Sirkin S, Heisler M, Leaning J, Iacopino V. Medical evidence of human rights violations against non-Arabic-speaking civilians in Darfur: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(4):e1001198. PMID: 22509136.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  36. Betancourt TS, Salhi C, Buka S, Leaning J, Dunn G, Earls F. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict. Disasters. 2012 Oct; 36(4):635-55. PMID: 22443099.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  37. Bartels SA, Scott JA, Leaning J, Kelly JT, Mukwege D, Joyce NR, VanRooyen MJ. Sexual violence trends between 2004 and 2008 in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011 Dec; 26(6):408-13. PMID: 22559305.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  38. Leaning J, Lappi M. Fighting a war, sparing civilians. Lancet. 2011 Sep 03; 378(9794):857-9. PMID: 21890034.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  39. Leaning J, Spiegel P, Crisp J. Public health equity in refugee situations. Confl Health. 2011 May 16; 5:6. PMID: 21575218.
    Citations: 8     
  40. Leaning, Jennifer. Enforced Displacement of Civilian Populations in War: A Potential New Element in Crimes against Humanity. International Criminal Law Review. 2011; 11:445-462. View Publication.
  41. Leaning J. Key concepts in a rights-based approach to health. From the publisher. Health Hum Rights. 2010 Jun 15; 12(1):1-2. PMID: 20930249.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  42. Bartels SA, Scott JA, Mukwege D, Lipton RI, Vanrooyen MJ, Leaning J. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006. Confl Health. 2010 May 05; 4:9. PMID: 20444265.
    Citations: 20     
  43. Loane G, Leaning J, Schomig S, van Tulleken A, O'Laughlin K. Civilian protection and humanitarian assistance-report of the 2009 Civilian Protection Working Group. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009 Jul-Aug; 24 Suppl 2:s197-201. PMID: 19806540.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  44. Chalmers I, Leaning J, Shannon HS, Zurayk H. Lancet Steering Group on the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet. 2009 Mar 07; 373(9666):788-90. PMID: 19268357.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  45. Hill K, Seltzer W, Selzer W, Leaning J, Malik SJ, Russell SS. The demographic impact of Partition in the Punjab in 1947. Popul Stud (Camb). 2008 Jul; 62(2):155-70. PMID: 18587692.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  46. Leaning J. Disasters and humanitarian crises: a joint future for responders? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2008 Jul-Aug; 23(4):291-4. PMID: 18935939.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  47. Leaning J. The dilemma of neutrality. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007 Sep-Oct; 22(5):418-21. PMID: 18087911.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  48. Leaning J. Report of the Radcliffe Institute Expert Working Seminar Series on Post-Colonial Wars. 2007.
  49. Leaning J. ”The Crime of Genocide: The Case of Darfur.”. Pizer H, Beyer C, eds., Public Health and Human Rights: Evidence-Based Approaches. 2007.
  50. Leaning J. “Rape in Darfur: Estimates and Patterns 2003-2005.” Unpublished report to the International Criminal Court. 2007.
  51. Leaning J, Greenough P G, VanRooyen M. Report to the UN Office of the Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery. Unpublished report on evaluation methods that contributed to the final report issued by the Special Envoy. 2006.
  52. Hill K, Seltzer W, Leaning J, Malik SJ, Russell SS. The Demographic Impact of Partition: The Punjab in 1947. Weatherhead Center Working Paper. 2006.
  53. Greenough, G, Bartels S, Cavey A, Chan J, Cranmer H, Kendrick D, Lappi M, Leaning J, Robinson C, Singh M, VanRooyen M, Vu A. American Red Cross & Public Health: The Response to Hurricane Katrina and Beyond. Report to ARC Disaster Health Services. 2006; Mar. Operation DR # 865. 2006.
  54. VanRooyen M, Leaning J. After the tsunami--facing the public health challenges. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 03; 352(5):435-8. PMID: 15689579.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  55. Walker P, Wisner B, Leaning J, Minear L. Smoke and mirrors: deficiencies in disaster funding. BMJ. 2005 Jan 29; 330(7485):247-50. PMID: 15677661.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  56. Orfaly RA, Biddinger PD, Burstein JL, Leaning J. Integration of academia and practice in preparedness training: the Harvard School of Public Health experience. Public Health Rep. 2005; 120 Suppl 1:48-51. PMID: 16025706.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  57. Leaning J, VanRooyen M. An assessment of mortality studies in Darfur, 2004-2005. Humanitarian Exchange. 2005; 30:23-6..
  58. Heffernan J, Leaning J, VanRooyen M, et al. . Assault on survival in Darfur: A call for security, justice, and restitution. 2005.
  59. Leaning J. Genocide in Darfur. Apfel J and Fein H, eds. Casebook on Genocide. 2005.
  60. Lautze S, Leaning J, Raven-Roberts A, Kent R, Mazurana D. Assistance, protection, and governance networks in complex emergencies. Lancet. 2004 Dec 11-17; 364(9451):2134-41. PMID: 15589312.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  61. Leaning J. Diagnosing genocide--the case of Darfur. N Engl J Med. 2004 Aug 19; 351(8):735-8. PMID: 15317882.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  62. Young H, Taylor A, Way SA, Leaning J. Linking rights and standards: the process of developing "rights-based" minimum standards on food security, nutrition and food aid. Disasters. 2004 Jun; 28(2):142-59. PMID: 15186361.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  63. Physicians for Human Rights calls for intervention to save lives in Sudan: Field team compiles indicators of genocide. 2004.
  64. Leaning J., Arie S, Stites E. . Human Security in Crisis and Transition. Praxis: The Fletcher Journal of International Development. 2004; 19:5-30.
  65. Gingerich T, Leaning J. The Use of Rape as a Weapon of War in the Conflict in Darfur, Sudan. 2004.
  66. Stabinski L, Pelley K, Jacob ST, Long JM, Leaning J. Reframing HIV and AIDS. BMJ. 2003 Nov 08; 327(7423):1101-3. PMID: 14604936.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  67. Leaning J. Public Health, War and Terrorism. Harvard Health Policy Review. 2003; 4(1):51-55.
  68. Leaning J. . Human Rights and Conflict. Health and Human Rights. 2003; 6(2):151-60.
  69. Lautze S, Aklilu Y, Raven-Roberts A, Young H, Kebede G Leaning J. Risk and vulnerability in Ethiopia: Learning from the past, responding to the present, preparing for the future. A report for United States Agency for International Development. 2003.
  70. Viverette MA, Leaning J, Steeg SK, Gebbie KM, Litchveld M. Who will keep the public healthy? Assuring a legally prepared workforce. J Law Med Ethics. 2003; 31(4 Suppl):81-3. PMID: 14968636.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  71. Leaning J. Was the Afghan conflict a just war? BMJ. 2002 Feb 09; 324(7333):353-5. PMID: 11834567.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  72. Leaning J. Letter from Afghanistan. BMJ. 2002 Feb 09; 324(7333):360. PMID: 11834570.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  73. Leaning J. Physicians and war (web supplement). 2002.
  74. Leaning J. Health and human rights. The BMA's latest handbook on human rights challenges us all. BMJ. 2001 Jun 16; 322(7300):1435-6. PMID: 11408284.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  75. Leaning J. Ethics of research in refugee populations. Lancet. 2001 May 05; 357(9266):1432-3. PMID: 11356466.
    Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  76. Leaning J. Kosovo Case Study. Crimes of War. 2001.
  77. Holleufer G, Briton N, Leaning J. Report on People in War. Overview and country reports prepared for the International Committee of the Red Cross. 2001.
  78. Leaning J, Arie S. Human security: A framework for analysis in settings of crisis and transition. Working Paper Series 11/8. 2001.
  79. Leaning J. Environment and health: 5. Impact of war. CMAJ. 2000 Oct 31; 163(9):1157-61. PMID: 11079063.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  80. Leaning J. Report to MSF Holland. Recommendations for Incorporating Attention to Human Rights in MSF Rapid Health Assessment Manual. François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health. 2000.
  81. Leaning J. Medicine and international humanitarian law. Law provides norms that must guide doctors in war and peace. BMJ. 1999 Aug 14; 319(7207):393-4. PMID: 10445905.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    
  82. Bruderlein C, Leaning J. New challenges for humanitarian protection. BMJ. 1999 Aug 14; 319(7207):430-5. PMID: 10445928.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  83. Leaning J, Vollen L, Palmer C. Physicians for Human Rights documents systematic abuse against ethnic Albanian physicians and patients. Lancet. 1999 Mar 13; 353(9156):921-2. PMID: 10094001.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  84. Iacopino V, Frank MW, Keller AS, Fink SL, Pallin DJ, Waldman R, Ford D, Burkhalter H, Ayotte B, Cohen A, Barron RA, Leaning J, Keough ME. War crimes in Kosovo: A population-based assessment of human rights violations against Kosovar Albanians. 1999.
  85. Leaning J, Briggs S, Chen LC, eds. . Humanitarian crises: The medical and public health response. 1999.
  86. Leaning J. Human rights and medical education. BMJ. 1997 Nov 29; 315(7120):1390-1. PMID: 9418078.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  87. Wiebers DO, Elzanowski A, Gikas PW, Leaning J, White RD. Monkey business in space. Nature. 1997 Oct 09; 389(6651):537. PMID: 9335482.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  88. Leaning J, Sollom R. State of human rights discourse in Russia. 1997.
  89. Leaning J, Sollom R, Austin K. Human rights abuses in the Great Lakes region. Boston. 1997.
  90. Leaning J. War crimes and medical science. BMJ. 1996 Dec 07; 313(7070):1413-5. PMID: 8973217.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  91. Wiebers DO, Barron RA, Leaning J, Ascione FR. Ethics and animal issues in US medical education. Med Educ. 1994 Nov; 28(6):517-23. PMID: 7862014.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  92. Wiebers DO, Leaning J, White RD. Animal protection and medical science. Lancet. 1994 Apr 09; 343(8902):902-4. PMID: 7908363.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  93. Leaning J. . Questions coming late in the day. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Special Issue: Human health and the environment. 1994; 14:321-26.
  94. Smith R, Leaning J. Medicine and global survival. BMJ. 1993 Sep 18; 307(6906):693-4. PMID: 8401085.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  95. Barron RA, Leaning J, Rumack BH. The catastrophe reaction syndrome: trauma in Tbilisi. Int J Law Psychiatry. 1993 Summer-Fall; 16(3-4):403-26. PMID: 8125680.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  96. Leaning J. German doctors and their secrets. N Y Times Web. 1993 Feb 06; 21. PMID: 11646301.
    Citations: 1     Translation:Humans
  97. Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services; Durch JS, Lohr KN, eds. (As a committee member, I contributed particularly to chapters 3, 6, and 7). Emergency medical services for children. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC. 1993.
  98. Pierce C, Geiger HJ, Leaning J, Kirschner R, Hiltermann J. . Human rights on hold: A report on emergency measures and access to health care in the Occupied Territories 1990-1992. 1993.
  99. Siu AL, McGlynn EA, Morgenstern H, Beers MH, Carlisle DM, Keeler EB, Beloff J, Curtin K, Leaning J, Perry BC, et al. Choosing quality of care measures based on the expected impact of improved care on health. Health Serv Res. 1992 Dec; 27(5):619-50. PMID: 1464537.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  100. Wasson J, Hays R, Rubenstein L, Nelson E, Leaning J, Johnson D, Keller A, Landgraf J, Rosenkrans C. The short-term effect of patient health status assessment in a health maintenance organization. Qual Life Res. 1992 Apr; 1(2):99-106. PMID: 1301124.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  101. deWaal A, Leaning J. . No mercy in Mogadishu: The human cost of the conflict and the struggle for relief. 1992.
  102. Siu AL, McGlynn EA, Beers MA, Morgenstern H, Carlisle DM, Keeler EB, Brook RH, Beloff J, Curtin K, Leaning J, Perry BC, Seller HP, Weiswasser W, Wiesenthal A. . Choosing quality-of-care measures based on the expected impact of improved quality of care for the major causes of mortality and morbidity. RAND Corporation joint report series. 1992.
  103. Wilkinson JM, Sansby S, Leaning J. After-hours telephone triage. Recruitment, training and retention of personnel. HMO Pract. 1991 May-Jun; 5(3):90-4. PMID: 10111918.
    Citations: 1     
  104. Leaning J, Wilkinson J, Sansby S. Clinical triage at Harvard Community Health Plan. HMO Pract. 1991 May-Jun; 5(3):84-9. PMID: 10111917.
  105. Leaning J, Lewis D. The future of FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). JEMS. 1991 Mar; 16(3):11-5. PMID: 10110187.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  106. Leaning J, Barron RA, Rumack BH. . Bloody Sunday: Trauma in Tbilisi. The events of April 9, 1989 and their aftermath. 1990.
  107. Cassel CK, Leaning J. Chernobyl: learning from experience. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jul 27; 321(4):254-5. PMID: 2747761.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  108. Leaning J. Physicians, triage, and nuclear war. Lancet. 1988 Jul 30; 2(8605):269-70. PMID: 2899247.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  109. Daley WE, Leaning J, Braen GR. Prehospital emergency services and health maintenance organizations: an HMO perspective. J Emerg Med. 1988 Jul-Aug; 6(4):333-8. PMID: 3225437.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  110. Geiger HJ, Leaning J, Shapiro L, Simon B. . Casualties of conflict: Report on the medical fact-finding mission to the West Bank and Gaza. 1988.
  111. McCally M, Forrow L, Leaning J. Medicine and nuclear war: a model curriculum. 1988.
  112. Daley W, Leaning J, Braen R. . HMO telephone triage and emergency medicine. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 1988; 6:333-38.
  113. Geiger HJ, Leaning J. Nuclear winter and the longer-term consequences of nuclear war. Prev Med. 1987 May; 16(3):308-18. PMID: 3588570.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  114. Leaning J. . Health consequences of radiation exposure and issues of emergency evacuation. Report for the Attorney General. 1987.
  115. Leaning J, Leaf A. Public health aspects of nuclear war. Annu Rev Public Health. 1986; 7:411-39. PMID: 3718652.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  116. Daley W, Leaning J, et al. . Emergency telephone triage manual. Harvard Community Health Plan Emergency Service. 1986.
  117. Link JL. . Emergency response to nuclear accident/attack. Journal of the World Association of Emergency and Disaster Medicine. 1985; 1:385-95.
  118. Leaning J, Keyes L, eds. . The counterfeit ark: Crisis relocation for nuclear war. 1984.
  119. Link JL. Report of site visit to Salem Hospital Emergency Service. Submitted to Salem Hospital Board of Directors. 1978.
  120. Link JL. Emergency management of asthma [videocassette]. 1978.
  121. Leaning J. Post-exposure treatment for rabies. Nurs Times. 1977 Mar 17; 73(11):377-8. PMID: 854416.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  122. Link JL, et al. . The Mid﷓South Health Plan. Report to the Board of Directors of the Mid-Southside Health Planning Organization and to the Office of Economic Opportunity. 1971.
  123. Link JL. Evaluation of pre-test population questionnaire administered in rural Taiwan. U.S. Agency for International Development. 1969.
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