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profileXandra Owens Breakefield, PH.D.

TitleProfessor of Neurology
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentNeurology
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
Neurogenetics Unit, CNY 6216
55 Fruit St
Boston MA 02114
Phone617/726-5728
Fax617/724-1537
vCardDownload vCard (login for email)

Collapse Mentoring 
Collapse completed student projects
BEAMing PCR Diagnostics of Tumor Exosomes
Summer, 07/06/09 - 09/01/10

Collapse Research 
Collapse research activities and funding
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
P01NS087997     (BREAKEFIELD, XANDRA OWENS)Jul 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
NIH/NINDS
Molecular etiology of early onset dystonia
Role: Principal Investigator

U19CA179563     (BREAKEFIELD, XANDRA OWENS)Sep 1, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
NIH/NCI
exRNA released by glioblastoma alters brain microenvironment
Role: Principal Investigator

R13NS083180     (BREAKEFIELD, XANDRA OWENS)May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2014
NIH/NINDS
American Society of Gene &Cell Therapy (ASGCT) 16th Annual Meeting
Role: Principal Investigator

R21CA156009     (BREAKEFIELD, XANDRA OWENS)Jan 1, 2011 - Dec 31, 2012
NIH/NCI
Serum exosome biomarkers for evaluation of glioma drug response
Role: Principal Investigator

R01CA141150     (BREAKEFIELD, XANDRA OWENS)Sep 1, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
NIH/NCI
Tumor exosomes as agents of genetic change
Role: Principal Investigator

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. György B, Sage C, Indzhykulian AA, Scheffer DI, Brisson AR, Tan S, Wu X, Volak A, Mu D, Tamvakologos PI, Li Y, Fitzpatrick Z, Ericsson M, Breakefield XO, Corey DP, Maguire CA. Rescue of Hearing by Gene Delivery to Inner-Ear Hair Cells Using Exosome-Associated AAV. Mol Ther. 2017 Feb 01; 25(2):379-391. PMID: 28082074.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Maas SL, Breakefield XO, Weaver AM. Extracellular Vesicles: Unique Intercellular Delivery Vehicles. Trends Cell Biol. 2017 Mar; 27(3):172-188. PMID: 27979573.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Schubert M, Breakefield X, Federoff H, Frederickson RM, Lowenstein PR. Gene Delivery to the Nervous System: NINDS Workshop on Gene Delivery to the Nervous System Washington, DC, 12-13 November 2007. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr; 16(4):640-646. PMID: 28178462.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Breakefield XO. The ASGCT in 2012: Charting a Path to Bring Novel Biologic Therapies to the Clinic. Mol Ther. 2012 Jul; 20(7):1289-1290. PMID: 28178492.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Tannous BA, Chiocca EA, Jacobs AH, Corey DP, Breakefield XO. Tannous et al. Respond. Mol Ther. 2009 Aug; 17(8):1311-1312. PMID: 28160907.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Soares VY, Atai NA, Fujita T, Dilwali S, Sivaraman S, Landegger LD, Hochberg FH, Oliveira CA, Bahmad F, Breakefield XO, Stankovic KM. Extracellular vesicles derived from human vestibular schwannomas associated with poor hearing damage cochlear cells. Neuro Oncol. 2016 Nov; 18(11):1498-1507. PMID: 27194145.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Abels ER, Breakefield XO. Introduction to Extracellular Vesicles: Biogenesis, RNA Cargo Selection, Content, Release, and Uptake. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Apr; 36(3):301-12. PMID: 27053351.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Zappulli V, Friis KP, Fitzpatrick Z, Maguire CA, Breakefield XO. Extracellular vesicles and intercellular communication within the nervous system. J Clin Invest. 2016 Apr 01; 126(4):1198-207. PMID: 27035811; PMCID: PMC4811121 [Available on 04/01/17].
  9. Hall J, Prabhakar S, Balaj L, Lai CP, Cerione RA, Breakefield XO. Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins via Extracellular Vesicles: Review and Potential Treatments for Parkinson's Disease, Glioma, and Schwannoma. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Apr; 36(3):417-27. PMID: 27017608; PMCID: PMC4860146 [Available on 04/01/17].
  10. Ricklefs F, Mineo M, Rooj AK, Nakano I, Charest A, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO, Chiocca EA, Godlewski J, Bronisz A. Extracellular Vesicles from High-Grade Glioma Exchange Diverse Pro-oncogenic Signals That Maintain Intratumoral Heterogeneity. Cancer Res. 2016 May 15; 76(10):2876-81. PMID: 27013191; PMCID: PMC4873326 [Available on 05/15/17].
  11. Lööv C, Scherzer CR, Hyman BT, Breakefield XO, Ingelsson M. a-Synuclein in Extracellular Vesicles: Functional Implications and Diagnostic Opportunities. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Apr; 36(3):437-48. PMID: 26993503.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Pucci F, Garris C, Lai CP, Newton A, Pfirschke C, Engblom C, Alvarez D, Sprachman M, Evavold C, Magnuson A, von Andrian UH, Glatz K, Breakefield XO, Mempel TR, Weissleder R, Pittet MJ. SCS macrophages suppress melanoma by restricting tumor-derived vesicle-B cell interactions. Science. 2016 Apr 08; 352(6282):242-6. PMID: 26989197; PMCID: PMC4960636.
  13. Zhang X, Abels ER, Redzic JS, Margulis J, Finkbeiner S, Breakefield XO. Potential Transfer of Polyglutamine and CAG-Repeat RNA in Extracellular Vesicles in Huntington's Disease: Background and Evaluation in Cell Culture. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Apr; 36(3):459-70. PMID: 26951563.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Choudhury SR, Hudry E, Maguire CA, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Grandi P. Viral vectors for therapy of neurologic diseases. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jul 01; 120:63-80. PMID: 26905292.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Ito N, Hendriks WT, Dhakal J, Vaine CA, Liu C, Shin D, Shin K, Wakabayashi-Ito N, Dy M, Multhaupt-Buell T, Sharma N, Breakefield XO, Bragg DC. Decreased N-TAF1 expression in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patient-specific neural stem cells. Dis Model Mech. 2016 Apr; 9(4):451-62. PMID: 26769797; PMCID: PMC4852502.
  16. van der Vos KE, Abels ER, Zhang X, Lai C, Carrizosa E, Oakley D, Prabhakar S, Mardini O, Crommentuijn MH, Skog J, Krichevsky AM, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Mempel TR, El Khoury J, Hickman SE, Breakefield XO. Directly visualized glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles transfer RNA to microglia/macrophages in the brain. Neuro Oncol. 2016 Jan; 18(1):58-69. PMID: 26433199.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Laurent LC, Abdel-Mageed AB, Adelson PD, Arango J, Balaj L, Breakefield X, Carlson E, Carter BS, Majem B, Chen CC, Cocucci E, Danielson K, Courtright A, Das S, Abd Elmageed ZY, Enderle D, Ezrin A, Ferrer M, Freedman J, Galas D, Gandhi R, Huentelman MJ, Van Keuren-Jensen K, Kalani Y, Kim Y, Krichevsky AM, Lai C, Lal-Nag M, Laurent CD, Leonardo T, Li F, Malenica I, Mondal D, Nejad P, Patel T, Raffai RL, Rubio R, Skog J, Spetzler R, Sun J, Tanriverdi K, Vickers K, Wang L, Wang Y, Wei Z, Weiner HL, Wong D, Yan IK, Yeri A, Gould S. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015; 4:26533. PMID: 26320937; PMCID: PMC4553263.
  18. Zaborowski MP, Balaj L, Breakefield XO, Lai CP. Extracellular Vesicles: Composition, Biological Relevance, and Methods of Study. Bioscience. 2015 Aug 01; 65(8):783-797. PMID: 26955082.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Prabhakar S, Zhang X, Goto J, Han S, Lai C, Bronson R, Sena-Esteves M, Ramesh V, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Kwiatkowski DJ, Breakefield XO. Survival benefit and phenotypic improvement by hamartin gene therapy in a tuberous sclerosis mouse brain model. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Oct; 82:22-31. PMID: 26019056.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Balaj L, Atai NA, Chen W, Mu D, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO, Skog J, Maguire CA. Heparin affinity purification of extracellular vesicles. Sci Rep. 2015 May 19; 5:10266. PMID: 25988257; PMCID: PMC4437317.
  21. Lai CP, Kim EY, Badr CE, Weissleder R, Mempel TR, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO. Visualization and tracking of tumour extracellular vesicle delivery and RNA translation using multiplexed reporters. Nat Commun. 2015 May 13; 6:7029. PMID: 25967391; PMCID: PMC4435621.
  22. Shao H, Chung J, Lee K, Balaj L, Min C, Carter BS, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Lee H, Weissleder R. Chip-based analysis of exosomal mRNA mediating drug resistance in glioblastoma. Nat Commun. 2015 May 11; 6:6999. PMID: 25959588; PMCID: PMC4430127.
  23. Wakabayashi-Ito N, Ajjuri RR, Henderson BW, Doherty OM, Breakefield XO, O'Donnell JM, Ito N. Mutant human torsinA, responsible for early-onset dystonia, dominantly suppresses GTPCH expression, dopamine levels and locomotion in Drosophila melanogaster. Biol Open. 2015 Apr 17; 4(5):585-95. PMID: 25887123; PMCID: PMC4434810.
  24. Gong Y, Mu D, Prabhakar S, Moser A, Musolino P, Ren J, Breakefield XO, Maguire CA, Eichler FS. Adenoassociated virus serotype 9-mediated gene therapy for x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Mol Ther. 2015 May; 23(5):824-34. PMID: 25592337; PMCID: PMC4427888 [Available on 05/01/16].
  25. Rajendran L, Bali J, Barr MM, Court FA, Krämer-Albers EM, Picou F, Raposo G, van der Vos KE, van Niel G, Wang J, Breakefield XO. Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the nervous system. J Neurosci. 2014 Nov 12; 34(46):15482-9. PMID: 25392515; PMCID: PMC4228143.
  26. Nery FC, da Hora CC, Yaqub U, Zhang X, McCarthy DM, Bhide PG, Irimia D, Breakefield XO. New methods for investigation of neuronal migration in embryonic brain explants. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Jan 15; 239:80-4. PMID: 25291524; PMCID: PMC4268085.
  27. György B, Hung ME, Breakefield XO, Leonard JN. Therapeutic applications of extracellular vesicles: clinical promise and open questions. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015; 55:439-464. PMID: 25292428; PMCID: PMC4445965.
  28. Maguire CA, Ramirez SH, Merkel SF, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Gene therapy for the nervous system: challenges and new strategies. Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Oct; 11(4):817-39. PMID: 25159276; PMCID: PMC4391389.
  29. Plotkin SR, Albers AC, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Blakeley JO, Breakefield XO, Dunn CM, Evans DG, Fisher MJ, Friedman JM, Giovannini M, Gutmann DH, Kalamarides M, McClatchey AI, Messiaen L, Morrison H, Parkinson DB, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Van Raamsdonk CD, Riccardi VM, Rosser T, Schindeler A, Smith MJ, Stevenson DA, Ullrich NJ, van der Vaart T, Weiss B, Widemann BC, Zhu Y, Bakker AC, Lloyd AC. Update from the 2013 International Neurofibromatosis Conference. Am J Med Genet A. 2014 Dec; 164A(12):2969-78. PMID: 25255738; PMCID: PMC4236251.
  30. Hettich J, Ryan SD, de Souza ON, Saraiva Macedo Timmers LF, Tsai S, Atai NA, da Hora CC, Zhang X, Kothary R, Snapp E, Ericsson M, Grundmann K, Breakefield XO, Nery FC. Biochemical and cellular analysis of human variants of the DYT1 dystonia protein, TorsinA/TOR1A. Hum Mutat. 2014 Sep; 35(9):1101-13. PMID: 24930953; PMCID: PMC4134760.
  31. Nery FC, Atai NA, da Hora CC, Kim EY, Hettich J, Mempel TR, Breakefield XO, Irimia D. Microfluidic platform to evaluate migration of cells from patients with DYT1 dystonia. J Neurosci Methods. 2014 Jul 30; 232:181-188. PMID: 24880044; PMCID: PMC4120252.
  32. Redzic JS, Balaj L, van der Vos KE, Breakefield XO. Extracellular RNA mediates and marks cancer progression. Semin Cancer Biol. 2014 Oct; 28:14-23. PMID: 24783980; PMCID: PMC4162815.
  33. Vader P, Breakefield XO, Wood MJ. Extracellular vesicles: emerging targets for cancer therapy. Trends Mol Med. 2014 Jul; 20(7):385-93. PMID: 24703619; PMCID: PMC4082760.
  34. Lai CP, Mardini O, Ericsson M, Prabhakar S, Maguire C, Chen JW, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO. Dynamic biodistribution of extracellular vesicles in vivo using a multimodal imaging reporter. ACS Nano. 2014 Jan 28; 8(1):483-494. PMID: 24383518; PMCID: PMC3934350.
  35. Lai CP, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO. Noninvasive in vivo monitoring of extracellular vesicles. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1098:249-58. PMID: 24166382.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Armata IA, Balaj L, Kuster JK, Zhang X, Tsai S, Armatas AA, Multhaupt-Buell TJ, Soberman R, Breakefield XO, Ichinose H, Sharma N. Dopa-responsive dystonia: functional analysis of single nucleotide substitutions within the 5' untranslated GCH1 region. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76975. PMID: 24124602; PMCID: PMC3790877.
  37. Atai NA, Balaj L, van Veen H, Breakefield XO, Jarzyna PA, Van Noorden CJ, Skog J, Maguire CA. Heparin blocks transfer of extracellular vesicles between donor and recipient cells. J Neurooncol. 2013 Dec; 115(3):343-51. PMID: 24002181; PMCID: PMC3856724.
  38. Chen WW, Balaj L, Liau LM, Samuels ML, Kotsopoulos SK, Maguire CA, Loguidice L, Soto H, Garrett M, Zhu LD, Sivaraman S, Chen C, Wong ET, Carter BS, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Skog J. BEAMing and Droplet Digital PCR Analysis of Mutant IDH1 mRNA in Glioma Patient Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Extracellular Vesicles. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2013 Jul 23; 2:e109. PMID: 23881452; PMCID: PMC3732870.
  39. Prabhakar S, Goto J, Zhang X, Zuang X, Sena-Esteves M, Bronson R, Brockmann J, Gianni D, Wojtkiewicz GR, Chen JW, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Kwiatkowski DJ, Breakefield XO. Stochastic model of Tsc1 lesions in mouse brain. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64224. PMID: 23696872; PMCID: PMC3655945.
  40. EL Andaloussi S, Mäger I, Breakefield XO, Wood MJ. Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 May; 12(5):347-57. PMID: 23584393.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Tremblay JP, Xiao X, Aartsma-Rus A, Barbas C, Blau HM, Bogdanove AJ, Boycott K, Braun S, Breakefield XO, Bueren JA, Buschmann M, Byrne BJ, Calos M, Cathomen T, Chamberlain J, Chuah M, Cornetta K, Davies KE, Dickson JG, Duchateau P, Flotte TR, Gaudet D, Gersbach CA, Gilbert R, Glorioso J, Herzog RW, High KA, Huang W, Huard J, Joung JK, Liu D, Liu D, Lochmüller H, Lustig L, Martens J, Massie B, Mavilio F, Mendell JR, Nathwani A, Ponder K, Porteus M, Puymirat J, Samulski J, Takeda S, Thrasher A, VandenDriessche T, Wei Y, Wilson JM, Wilton SD, Wolfe JH, Gao G. Translating the genomics revolution: the need for an international gene therapy consortium for monogenic diseases. Mol Ther. 2013 Feb; 21(2):266-8. PMID: 23369965; PMCID: PMC3594019.
  42. Prabhakar S, Taherian M, Gianni D, Conlon TJ, Fulci G, Brockmann J, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Brenner GJ. Regression of schwannomas induced by adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of caspase-1. Hum Gene Ther. 2013 Feb; 24(2):152-62. PMID: 23140466; PMCID: PMC3581065.
  43. Kalra H, Simpson RJ, Ji H, Aikawa E, Altevogt P, Askenase P, Bond VC, Borràs FE, Breakefield X, Budnik V, Buzas E, Camussi G, Clayton A, Cocucci E, Falcon-Perez JM, Gabrielsson S, Gho YS, Gupta D, Harsha HC, Hendrix A, Hill AF, Inal JM, Jenster G, Krämer-Albers EM, Lim SK, Llorente A, Lötvall J, Marcilla A, Mincheva-Nilsson L, Nazarenko I, Nieuwland R, Nolte-'t Hoen EN, Pandey A, Patel T, Piper MG, Pluchino S, Prasad TS, Rajendran L, Raposo G, Record M, Reid GE, Sánchez-Madrid F, Schiffelers RM, Siljander P, Stensballe A, Stoorvogel W, Taylor D, Thery C, Valadi H, van Balkom BW, Vázquez J, Vidal M, Wauben MH, Yáñez-Mó M, Zoeller M, Mathivanan S. Vesiclepedia: a compendium for extracellular vesicles with continuous community annotation. PLoS Biol. 2012; 10(12):e1001450. PMID: 23271954; PMCID: PMC3525526.
  44. Shao H, Chung J, Balaj L, Charest A, Bigner DD, Carter BS, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R, Lee H. Protein typing of circulating microvesicles allows real-time monitoring of glioblastoma therapy. Nat Med. 2012 Dec; 18(12):1835-40. PMID: 23142818; PMCID: PMC3518564.
  45. Pike LS, Tannous BA, Deliolanis NC, Hsich G, Morse D, Tung CH, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Imaging gene delivery in a mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Gene Ther. 2012 Nov; 19(11):1121. PMID: 23135206.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Mizrak A, Bolukbasi MF, Ozdener GB, Brenner GJ, Madlener S, Erkan EP, Ströbel T, Breakefield XO, Saydam O. Genetically engineered microvesicles carrying suicide mRNA/protein inhibit schwannoma tumor growth. Mol Ther. 2013 Jan; 21(1):101-8. PMID: 22910294; PMCID: PMC3538300.
  47. Wurdinger T, Gatson NN, Balaj L, Kaur B, Breakefield XO, Pegtel DM. Extracellular vesicles and their convergence with viral pathways. Adv Virol. 2012; 2012:767694. PMID: 22888349; PMCID: PMC3410301.
  48. Breakefield XO. Refocus the recombinant DNA advisory committee. Nat Med. 2012 Jul 06; 18(7):1007. PMID: 22772546.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Lai CP, Breakefield XO. Role of exosomes/microvesicles in the nervous system and use in emerging therapies. Front Physiol. 2012; 3:228. PMID: 22754538; PMCID: PMC3384085.
  50. Atai NA, Ryan SD, Kothary R, Breakefield XO, Nery FC. Untethering the nuclear envelope and cytoskeleton: biologically distinct dystonias arising from a common cellular dysfunction. Int J Cell Biol. 2012; 2012:634214. PMID: 22611399; PMCID: PMC3352338.
  51. Lötvall J, Rajendran L, Gho YS, Thery C, Wauben M, Raposo G, Sjöstrand M, Taylor D, Telemo E, Breakefield XO. The launch of Journal of Extracellular Vesicles (JEV), the official journal of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles - about microvesicles, exosomes, ectosomes and other extracellular vesicles. J Extracell Vesicles. 2012; 1. PMID: 24009885; PMCID: PMC3760649.
  52. Maguire CA, Balaj L, Sivaraman S, Crommentuijn MH, Ericsson M, Mincheva-Nilsson L, Baranov V, Gianni D, Tannous BA, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Skog J. Microvesicle-associated AAV vector as a novel gene delivery system. Mol Ther. 2012 May; 20(5):960-71. PMID: 22314290; PMCID: PMC3345986.
  53. Bolukbasi MF, Mizrak A, Ozdener GB, Madlener S, Ströbel T, Erkan EP, Fan JB, Breakefield XO, Saydam O. miR-1289 and "Zipcode"-like Sequence Enrich mRNAs in Microvesicles. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2012 Feb 07; 1:e10. PMID: 23344721; PMCID: PMC3381601.
  54. Noerholm M, Balaj L, Limperg T, Salehi A, Zhu LD, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Carter BS, Skog J. RNA expression patterns in serum microvesicles from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and controls. BMC Cancer. 2012 Jan 17; 12:22. PMID: 22251860; PMCID: PMC3329625.
  55. Wakabayashi-Ito N, Doherty OM, Moriyama H, Breakefield XO, Gusella JF, O'Donnell JM, Ito N. Dtorsin, the Drosophila ortholog of the early-onset dystonia TOR1A (DYT1), plays a novel role in dopamine metabolism. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26183. PMID: 22022556; PMCID: PMC3192163.
  56. Pike LS, Tannous BA, Deliolanis NC, Hsich G, Morse D, Tung CH, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Imaging gene delivery in a mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Gene Ther. 2011 Dec; 18(12):1173-8. PMID: 21900963; PMCID: PMC3235265.
  57. Breakefield XO, Frederickson RM, Simpson RJ. Gesicles: Microvesicle "cookies" for transient information transfer between cells. Mol Ther. 2011 Sep; 19(9):1574-6. PMID: 21886114; PMCID: PMC3182359.
  58. Nery FC, Armata IA, Farley JE, Cho JA, Yaqub U, Chen P, da Hora CC, Wang Q, Tagaya M, Klein C, Tannous B, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA, Lencer WI, Ye Y, Breakefield XO. TorsinA participates in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Nat Commun. 2011 Jul 12; 2:393. PMID: 21750546; PMCID: PMC3529909.
  59. Carter B, Hochberg F, Breakefield X, Balaj L, Sivaraman S, Curry W, Kalkanis SN, Loguidice L, Russo LM, Noerhelm M, Skog J. Use of exosome analysis to reveal glioma-specific genetic changes in patient serum. J Clin Oncol. 2011 May 20; 29(15_suppl):2061. PMID: 28019922.
    View in: PubMed
  60. van der Vos KE, Balaj L, Skog J, Breakefield XO. Brain tumor microvesicles: insights into intercellular communication in the nervous system. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Aug; 31(6):949-59. PMID: 21553248; PMCID: PMC3702172.
  61. Bowers WJ, Breakefield XO, Sena-Esteves M. Genetic therapy for the nervous system. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Apr 15; 20(R1):R28-41. PMID: 21429918; PMCID: PMC3095060.
  62. Deliolanis NC, Wurdinger T, Pike L, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R, Ntziachristos V. In vivo tomographic imaging of red-shifted fluorescent proteins. Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Mar 16; 2(4):887-900. PMID: 21483611; PMCID: PMC3072128.
  63. Erkan EP, Breakefield XO, Saydam O. miRNA signature of schwannomas: possible role(s) of "tumor suppressor" miRNAs in benign tumors. Oncotarget. 2011 Mar; 2(3):265-70. PMID: 21454924; PMCID: PMC3260820.
  64. Balaj L, Lessard R, Dai L, Cho YJ, Pomeroy SL, Breakefield XO, Skog J. Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences. Nat Commun. 2011 Feb 01; 2:180. PMID: 21285958.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Smits M, Mir SE, Nilsson RJ, van der Stoop PM, Niers JM, Marquez VE, Cloos J, Breakefield XO, Krichevsky AM, Noske DP, Tannous BA, Würdinger T. Down-regulation of miR-101 in endothelial cells promotes blood vessel formation through reduced repression of EZH2. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 28; 6(1):e16282. PMID: 21297974; PMCID: PMC3030563.
  66. Saydam O, Senol O, Würdinger T, Mizrak A, Ozdener GB, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Yi M, Stephens RM, Krichevsky AM, Saydam N, Brenner GJ, Breakefield XO. miRNA-7 attenuation in Schwannoma tumors stimulates growth by upregulating three oncogenic signaling pathways. Cancer Res. 2011 Feb 01; 71(3):852-61. PMID: 21156648; PMCID: PMC3072568.
  67. Bragg DC, Armata IA, Nery FC, Breakefield XO, Sharma N. Molecular pathways in dystonia. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 May; 42(2):136-47. PMID: 21134457; PMCID: PMC3073693.
  68. Saydam O, Ozdener GB, Senol O, Mizrak A, Prabhakar S, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Breakefield XO, Brenner GJ. A novel imaging-compatible sciatic nerve schwannoma model. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Jan 30; 195(1):75-7. PMID: 21111000; PMCID: PMC3032262.
  69. Breakefield XO, Sena-Esteves M. Healing genes in the nervous system. Neuron. 2010 Oct 21; 68(2):178-81. PMID: 20955923; PMCID: PMC3076203.
  70. Chen P, Burdette AJ, Porter JC, Ricketts JC, Fox SA, Nery FC, Hewett JW, Berkowitz LA, Breakefield XO, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA. The early-onset torsion dystonia-associated protein, torsinA, is a homeostatic regulator of endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Sep 15; 19(18):3502-15. PMID: 20584926; PMCID: PMC2928126.
  71. Grandi P, Fernandez J, Szentirmai O, Carter R, Gianni D, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Targeting HSV-1 virions for specific binding to epidermal growth factor receptor-vIII-bearing tumor cells. Cancer Gene Ther. 2010 Sep; 17(9):655-63. PMID: 20508670; PMCID: PMC2923688.
  72. Cao S, Hewett JW, Yokoi F, Lu J, Buckley AC, Burdette AJ, Chen P, Nery FC, Li Y, Breakefield XO, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA. Chemical enhancement of torsinA function in cell and animal models of torsion dystonia. Dis Model Mech. 2010 May-Jun; 3(5-6):386-96. PMID: 20223934; PMCID: PMC2860854.
  73. Chen C, Skog J, Hsu CH, Lessard RT, Balaj L, Wurdinger T, Carter BS, Breakefield XO, Toner M, Irimia D. Microfluidic isolation and transcriptome analysis of serum microvesicles. Lab Chip. 2010 Feb 21; 10(4):505-11. PMID: 20126692; PMCID: PMC3136803.
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  337. Schumacher JM, Short MP, Hyman BT, Breakefield XO, Isacson O. Intracerebral implantation of nerve growth factor-producing fibroblasts protects striatum against neurotoxic levels of excitatory amino acids. Neuroscience. 1991; 45(3):561-70. PMID: 1837849.
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  338. Short MP, Choi BC, Lee JK, Malick A, Breakefield XO, Martuza RL. Gene delivery to glioma cells in rat brain by grafting of a retrovirus packaging cell line. J Neurosci Res. 1990 Nov; 27(3):427-39. PMID: 2129047.
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  339. Chiocca EA, Choi BB, Cai WZ, DeLuca NA, Schaffer PA, DiFiglia M, Breakefield XO, Martuza RL. Transfer and expression of the lacZ gene in rat brain neurons mediated by herpes simplex virus mutants. New Biol. 1990 Aug; 2(8):739-46. PMID: 2178004.
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  340. Schuback DE, Ozelius L, Hu G, Craft CM, Raese J, Breakefield XO, Hsu YP. RFLP for human DBH (dopamine beta-hydroxylase). Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Jan 25; 18(2):387. PMID: 1970168; PMCID: PMC330306.
  341. Murphy DL, Sims KB, Karoum F, de la Chapelle A, Norio R, Sankila EM, Breakefield XO. Marked amine and amine metabolite changes in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase. J Neurochem. 1990 Jan; 54(1):242-7. PMID: 2293615.
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  342. Weyler W, Hsu YP, Breakefield XO. Biochemistry and genetics of monoamine oxidase. Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 47(3):391-417. PMID: 2290855.
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  343. Short MP, Rosenberg MB, Ezzedine ZD, Gage FH, Friedmann T, Breakefield XO. Autocrine differentiation of PC12 cells mediated by retroviral vectors. Dev Neurosci. 1990; 12(1):34-45. PMID: 2105198.
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  344. Seizinger BR, Breakefield XO. The role of 'tumor suppressor' genes in neural tumors. Trends Neurosci. 1990 Jan; 13(1):3-6. PMID: 1688673.
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  345. Ozelius L, Gusella JF, Breakefield XO. MspI RFLP for human MAOA gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Dec 25; 17(24):10516. PMID: 2481273; PMCID: PMC335341.
  346. Diergaarde PJ, Wieringa B, Bleeker-Wagemakers EM, Sims KB, Breakefield XO, Ropers HH. Physical fine-mapping of a deletion spanning the Norrie gene. Hum Genet. 1989 Dec; 84(1):22-6. PMID: 2606473.
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  347. Breakefield XO. Combining CNS transplantation and gene transfer. Neurobiol Aging. 1989 Sep-Oct; 10(5):647-8; discussion 648-50. PMID: 2812248.
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  348. Levy ER, Powell JF, Buckle VJ, Hsu YP, Breakefield XO, Craig IW. Localization of human monoamine oxidase-A gene to Xp11.23-11.4 by in situ hybridization: implications for Norrie disease. Genomics. 1989 Aug; 5(2):368-70. PMID: 2793188.
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  349. Hsu YP, Powell JF, Sims KB, Breakefield XO. Molecular genetics of the monoamine oxidases. J Neurochem. 1989 Jul; 53(1):12-8. PMID: 2656914.
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  350. Kwiatkowski DJ, Ozelius L, Schuback D, Gusella J, Breakefield XO. The gelsolin (GSN) cDNA clone, from 9q32-34, identifies BclI and StuI RFLPs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jun 12; 17(11):4425. PMID: 2567988; PMCID: PMC317994.
  351. Shimohama S, Rosenberg MB, Fagan AM, Wolff JA, Short MP, Breakefield XO, Friedmann T, Gage FH. Grafting genetically modified cells into the rat brain: characteristics of E. coli beta-galactosidase as a reporter gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1989 Jun; 5(4):271-8. PMID: 2501628.
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  352. Powell JF, Hsu YP, Weyler W, Chen SA, Salach J, Andrikopoulos K, Mallet J, Breakefield XO. The primary structure of bovine monoamine oxidase type A. Comparison with peptide sequences of bovine monoamine oxidase type B and other flavoenzymes. Biochem J. 1989 Apr 15; 259(2):407-13. PMID: 2719656; PMCID: PMC1138524.
  353. Grossman MH, Creveling CR, Breakefield XO. Isolation of the mRNA encoding rat liver catechol-O-methyltransferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Feb 15; 158(3):776-82. PMID: 2645868.
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  354. Rosenberg MB, Friedmann T, Robertson RC, Tuszynski M, Wolff JA, Breakefield XO, Gage FH. Grafting genetically modified cells to the damaged brain: restorative effects of NGF expression. Science. 1988 Dec 16; 242(4885):1575-8. PMID: 3201248.
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  355. Hsu YP, Weyler W, Chen S, Sims KB, Rinehart WB, Utterback MC, Powell JF, Breakefield XO. Structural features of human monoamine oxidase A elucidated from cDNA and peptide sequences. J Neurochem. 1988 Oct; 51(4):1321-4. PMID: 3418353.
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  356. Geller AI, Breakefield XO. A defective HSV-1 vector expresses Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase in cultured peripheral neurons. Science. 1988 Sep 23; 241(4873):1667-9. PMID: 2843986; PMCID: PMC2581874.
  357. Wolf D, Richter-Landsberg C, Short MP, Cepko C, Breakefield XO. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of beta-nerve growth factor into mouse pituitary line AtT-20. Mol Biol Med. 1988 Feb; 5(1):43-59. PMID: 2836691.
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  358. Kramer PL, Ozelius L, Brin MF, Fahn S, Kidd KK, Gusella J, Breakefield XO. Molecular genetics of an autosomal dominant form of torsion dystonia. Adv Neurol. 1988; 50:57-66. PMID: 2899954.
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  359. Pintar JE, Breakefield XO, Patterson PH. Differences in monoamine oxidase activity between cultured noradrenergic and cholinergic sympathetic neurons. Dev Biol. 1987 Mar; 120(1):305-8. PMID: 3817298.
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  360. Rosenberg MB, Breakefield XO, Hawrot E. Targeting of liposomes to cells bearing nerve growth factor receptors mediated by biotinylated nerve growth factor. J Neurochem. 1987 Mar; 48(3):865-75. PMID: 3027260.
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  361. Kramer PL, Ozelius L, Gusella JF, Fahn S, Kidd KK, Breakefield XO. Exclusion of autosomal dominant dystonia gene from large regions of chromosomes 11p, 13q, and 21q by multi-point linkage analysis. Genet Epidemiol. 1987; 4(5):377-86. PMID: 3692135.
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  362. Breakefield XO, Cambi F. Molecular genetic insights into neurologic diseases. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1987; 10:535-94. PMID: 3551764.
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  363. Seizinger BR, Martuza RL, Rouleau G, Breakefield XO, Gusella JF. Models for inherited susceptibility to cancer in the nervous system: a molecular-genetic approach to neurofibromatosis. Dev Neurosci. 1987; 9(3):144-53. PMID: 3119309.
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  364. Breakefield XO, Geller AI. Gene transfer into the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 1987; 1(4):339-71. PMID: 3077063.
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  365. Breakefield XO, Ozelius L, Bothwell MA, Chao MV, Axelrod F, Kramer PL, Kidd KK, Lanahan AA, Johnson DE, Ross AH, et al. DNA polymorphisms for the nerve growth factor receptor gene exclude its role in familial dysautonomia. Mol Biol Med. 1986 Dec; 3(6):483-94. PMID: 2886891.
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  366. Brockes JP, Breakefield XO, Martuza RL. Glial growth factor-like activity in Schwann cell tumors. Ann Neurol. 1986 Sep; 20(3):317-22. PMID: 3767316.
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  367. Ozelius L, Mandel JL, Gusella JF, Breakefield XO. A new RFLP for D18S3(B74) an anonymous genomic clone localized to 18p113. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Aug 26; 14(16):6782. PMID: 3018684; PMCID: PMC311693.
  368. Edelstein SB, Breakefield XO. Monoamine oxidases A and B are differentially regulated by glucocorticoids and "aging" in human skin fibroblasts. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1986 Jun; 6(2):121-50. PMID: 3731213.
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  369. Breakefield XO, Bressman SB, Kramer PL, Ozelius L, Moskowitz C, Tanzi R, Brin MF, Hobbs W, Kaufman D, Tobin A, et al. Linkage analysis in a family with dominantly inherited torsion dystonia: exclusion of the pro-opiomelanocortin and glutamic acid decarboxylase genes and other chromosomal regions using DNA polymorphisms. J Neurogenet. 1986 May; 3(3):159-75. PMID: 3016220.
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  370. Rosenberg MB, Hawrot E, Breakefield XO. Receptor binding activities of biotinylated derivatives of beta-nerve growth factor. J Neurochem. 1986 Feb; 46(2):641-8. PMID: 3001230.
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  371. Grossman MH, Creveling CR, Rybczynski R, Braverman M, Isersky C, Breakefield XO. Soluble and particulate forms of rat catechol-O-methyltransferase distinguished by gel electrophoresis and immune fixation. J Neurochem. 1985 Feb; 44(2):421-32. PMID: 3880804.
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  372. Rosenberg MB, Hansen C, Breakefield XO. Molecular genetic approaches to neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Prog Neurobiol. 1985; 24(2):95-140. PMID: 3898226.
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  373. Breakefield XO, Orloff G, Castiglione C, Coussens L, Axelrod FB, Ullrich A. Structural gene for beta-nerve growth factor not defective in familial dysautonomia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jul; 81(13):4213-6. PMID: 6330750; PMCID: PMC345399.
  374. Rosenberg MB, Grossman MH, Breakefield XO. Artifactual presence of beta-nerve growth factor in adult mouse brain. Brain Res. 1984 Mar 12; 295(1):35-40. PMID: 6713177.
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  375. Pintar JE, Levitt P, Salach JI, Weyler W, Rosenberg MB, Breakefield XO. Specificity of antisera prepared against pure bovine MAO-B. Brain Res. 1983 Oct 03; 276(1):127-39. PMID: 6626992.
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  376. Cawthon RM, Breakefield XO. Differences in the structures of monoamine oxidases A and B in rat clonal cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983 Feb 01; 32(3):441-8. PMID: 6847697.
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  377. Levitt P, Pintar JE, Breakefield XO. Immunocytochemical demonstration of monoamine oxidase B in brain astrocytes and serotonergic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct; 79(20):6385-9. PMID: 6755469; PMCID: PMC347126.
  378. Pintar JE, Breakefield XO. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity as a determinant in human neurophysiology. Behav Genet. 1982 Feb; 12(1):53-68. PMID: 6284115.
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  379. Bonnefil V, Castiglione CM, Cawthon RM, Breakefield XO. Effect of riboflavin on monoamine oxidase activity in cultured neuroblastoma cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1981 Dec; 1(4):351-9. PMID: 6765737.
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  380. Cawthon RM, Pintar JE, Haseltine FP, Breakefield XO. Differences in the structure of A and B forms of human monoamine oxidase. J Neurochem. 1981 Aug; 37(2):363-72. PMID: 7264664.
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  381. Edelstein SB, Breakefield XO. Dexamethasone selectively increases monoamine oxidase type A in human skin fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Feb 12; 98(3):836-43. PMID: 7225122.
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  382. Pintar JE, Barbosa J, Francke U, Castiglione CM, Hawkins M, Breakefield XO. Gene for monoamine oxidase type A assigned to the human X chromosome. J Neurosci. 1981 Feb; 1(2):166-75. PMID: 7196439.
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  383. Riker DK, Roth RH, Breakefield XO. High-affinity [3H]choline accumulation in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J Neurochem. 1981 Feb; 36(2):746-52. PMID: 6257859.
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  384. Hawkins M, Wallace DC, Eisenstadt JM, Breakefield XO. Expression of monoamine oxidase A and B activities in mouse cybrids and hybrids. Life Sci. 1981 Jan 26; 28(4):425-32. PMID: 7219055.
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  385. Breakefield XO, Braverman M, Riker DK, Giller EL. Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in cultured human skin fibroblasts from controls and patients with dystonia musculorum deformans. J Neurosci Res. 1981; 6(3):349-60. PMID: 7299845.
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  386. Ryan JM, Ostrow DG, Breakefield XO, Gershon ES, Upchurch L. A comparison of the proliferative and replicative life span kinetics of cell cultures derived from monozygotic twins. In Vitro. 1981 Jan; 17(1):20-7. PMID: 7194310.
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  387. Breakefield XO, Giller EL, Nurnberger JI, Castiglione CM, Buchsbaum MS, Gershon ES. Monoamine oxidase type A in fibroblasts from patients with bipolar depressive illness. Psychiatry Res. 1980 Jul; 2(3):307-14. PMID: 6932070.
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  388. Castro Costa MR, Edelstein SB, Castiglione CM, Chao H, Breakefield XO. Properties of monoamine oxidase in control and Lesch-Nyhan fibroblasts. Biochem Genet. 1980 Jun; 18(5-6):577-90. PMID: 7437013.
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  389. Giller EL, Young JG, Breakefield XO, Carbonari C, Braverman M, Cohen DJ. Monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activities in cultured fibroblasts and blood cells from children with autism and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 1980 May; 2(2):187-97. PMID: 6932062.
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  390. Costa MR, Breakefield XO. Electrophoretic analysis of 3H-pargyline-labeled monoamine oxidases A and B from human and rat cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1980 Mar; 17(2):199-205. PMID: 7393204.
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  391. Schwartz JP, Breakefield XO. Altered nerve growth factor in fibroblasts from patients with familial dysautonomia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Feb; 77(2):1154-8. PMID: 6244581; PMCID: PMC348443.
  392. Breakefield XO, Edelstein SB. Inherited levels of A and B types of monoamine oxidase activity. Schizophr Bull. 1980; 6(2):282-8. PMID: 6929569.
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  393. Breakefield XO, Giller EL. Human skin fibroblasts in neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1980 Jan; 16(1):63-5. PMID: 7360847.
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  394. Cawthon RM, Breakefield XO. Differences in A and B forms of monoamine oxidase revealed by limited proteolysis and peptide mapping. Nature. 1979 Oct 25; 281(5733):692-4. PMID: 551289.
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  395. Walter U, Costa MR, Breakefield XO, Greengard P. Presence of free cyclic AMP receptor protein and regulation of its level by cyclic AMP in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jul; 76(7):3251-5. PMID: 226964; PMCID: PMC383802.
  396. Costa MR, Breakefield XO. Electrophoretic characterization of monoamine oxidase by [3H]pargyline binding in rat hepatoma cells with A and B activity. Mol Pharmacol. 1979 Jul; 16(1):242-9. PMID: 481420.
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  397. Castro Costa MR, Breakefield XO. Distinct forms of monoamine oxidase expressed in hepatoma and HeLa cells in culture. Biochem Pharmacol. 1979; 28(4):525-8. PMID: 426872.
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  398. Study RE, Breakefield XO, Bartfai T, Greengard P. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels regulate guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Dec; 75(12):6295-9. PMID: 216020; PMCID: PMC393168.
  399. Bartfai T, Breakefield XO, Greengard P. Regulation of synthesis of guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in neuroblastoma cells. Biochem J. 1978 Oct 15; 176(1):119-27. PMID: 31871; PMCID: PMC1186211.
  400. Crooks PA, Breakefield XO, Sulens CH, Castiglione CM, Coward JK. Extensive conjugation of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) metabolites in cultured human skin fibroblasts and rat hepatoma cells. Biochem J. 1978 Oct 15; 176(1):187-96. PMID: 569477; PMCID: PMC1186220.
  401. Lloyd T, Weisz J, Breakefield XO. The catechol estrogen, 2-hydroxyestradiol, inhibits catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in neuroblastoma cells. J Neurochem. 1978 Jul; 31(1):245-50. PMID: 671023.
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  402. Hawkins M, Breakefield XO. Monoamine oxidase A and B in cultured cells. J Neurochem. 1978 Jun; 30(6):1391-7. PMID: 209133.
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  403. Breakefield XO, Castiglione CM, Halaban R, Pawelek J, Shiman R. Phenylalanine hydroxylase in melanoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 1978 Mar; 94(3):307-14. PMID: 23386.
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  404. Archer EG, Breakefield XO, Sharata MN. Transport of tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and glycine in neuroblastoma clones. J Neurochem. 1977 Jan; 28(1):127-35. PMID: 833588.
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  405. Roth JA, Breakefield XO, Castiglione CM. Monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activities in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Life Sci. 1976 Dec 01; 19(11):1705-10. PMID: 1004130.
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  406. Breakefield XO, Giller EL. Neurotransmitter metabolism in cell culture. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976 Nov 01; 25(21):2337-42. PMID: 11805.
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  407. Breakefield XO, Castiglione CM, Edelstein SB. Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Science. 1976 Jun 04; 192(4243):1018-20. PMID: 1273584.
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  408. Rotman A, Daly JW, Creveling CR, Breakefield XO. Uptake and binding of dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine in murine neuroblastoma and fibroblast cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976 Feb 15; 25(4):383-8. PMID: 945744.
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  409. Breakefield XO. Neurotransmitter metabolism in murine neuroblastoma cells. Life Sci. 1976 Feb 01; 18(3):267-78. PMID: 3710.
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  410. Breakefield XO. Reserpine sensitivity of catecholamine metabolism in murine neuroblastoma clone N1E-115. J Neurochem. 1975 Dec; 25(6):877-82. PMID: 1206405.
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  411. Lloyd T, Breakefield XO. Tyrosine-dependent increase of tyrosine hydroxylase in neuroblastoma cells. Nature. 1974 Dec 20; 252(5485):719-20. PMID: 4155049.
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  412. Breakefield XO, Nirenberg MW. Selection for neuroblastoma cells that synthesize certain transmitters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Jun; 71(6):2530-3. PMID: 4152249; PMCID: PMC388493.
  413. Breakefield XO, Landman OE. Temperature-sensitive divisionless mutant of Bacillus subtilis defective in the initiation of septation. J Bacteriol. 1973 Feb; 113(2):985-98. PMID: 4570614; PMCID: PMC285317.
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