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profileGeorge Liang King, M.D.

TitleProfessor of Medicine
InstitutionJoslin Diabetes Center
DepartmentMedicine
AddressJoslin Research Lab
One Joslin Place
Boston MA 02215
Phone617/732-2622
Fax617/732-2637
vCardDownload vCard (login for email)

Collapse Mentoring 
Collapse completed student projects
Role of Insulin and PKC activation in monocytes differentiation and the development of atherosclerosis
Summer, 06/20/05 - 09/01/05

Collapse Research 
Collapse research activities and funding
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
DP3DK112192     (KING, GEORGE L)Sep 30, 2016 - Sep 29, 2019
NIH/NIDDK
Pyruvate kinase M2 levels and activation as protective factors for diabetic nephropathy
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

R01EY026080     (KING, GEORGE L)Mar 1, 2016 - Feb 28, 2019
NIH/NEI
Identification of Retinoid-Binding Protein 3 (RBP3): A Protective Factor against Diabetic Retinopathy Using Retina from People with Extreme Duration of Diabetes
Role: Principal Investigator

DP3DK094333     (KING, GEORGE L)Sep 30, 2011 - Jun 30, 2016
NIH/NIDDK
Validation of Potential Protective Factors from Diabetic Complications
Role: Principal Investigator

R24DK090961     (KING, GEORGE L)Sep 30, 2010 - Aug 31, 2013
NIH/NIDDK
Protective Factors Against the Development of Microvascular Complications
Role: Principal Investigator

R24DK083957     (KING, GEORGE L)Aug 1, 2009 - Jul 31, 2011
NIH/NIDDK
Biomarkers for protection against complications and beta-cell destruction
Role: Principal Investigator

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Qi W, Keenan HA, Li Q, Ishikado A, Kannt A, Sadowski T, Yorek MA, Wu IH, Lockhart S, Coppey LJ, Pfenninger A, Liew CW, Qiang G, Burkart AM, Hastings S, Pober D, Cahill C, Niewczas MA, Israelsen WJ, Tinsley L, Stillman IE, Amenta PS, Feener EP, Vander Heiden MG, Stanton RC, King GL. Pyruvate kinase M2 activation may protect against the progression of diabetic glomerular pathology and mitochondrial dysfunction. Nat Med. 2017 Jun; 23(6):753-762. PMID: 28436957.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Noh H, Yu MR, Kim HJ, Lee JH, Park BW, Wu IH, Matsumoto M, King GL. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonists are novel regulators of macrophage activation in diabetic renal and cardiovascular complications. Kidney Int. 2017 Jul; 92(1):101-113. PMID: 28396116.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Rask-Madsen C, Park K, Li Q, King GL. Letter by Rask-Madsen et al Regarding Article, "Selective Enhancement of Insulin Sensitivity in the Endothelium In Vivo Reveals a Novel Proatherosclerotic Signaling Loop". Circ Res. 2017 Feb 17; 120(4):e2-e3. PMID: 28209799.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Qi W, Li Q, Liew CW, Rask-Madsen C, Lockhart SM, Rasmussen LM, Xia Y, Wang X, Khamaisi M, Croce K, King GL. SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017 Mar; 60(3):585-596. PMID: 27933336.
    View in: PubMed
  5. King GL, Park K, Li Q. Selective Insulin Resistance and the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases in Diabetes: The 2015 Edwin Bierman Award Lecture. Diabetes. 2016 Jun; 65(6):1462-71. PMID: 27222390; PMCID: PMC4878431 [Available on 06/01/17].
  6. Katagiri S, Park K, Maeda Y, Rao TN, Khamaisi M, Li Q, Yokomizo H, Mima A, Lancerotto L, Wagers A, Orgill DP, King GL. Overexpressing IRS1 in Endothelial Cells Enhances Angioblast Differentiation and Wound Healing in Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Diabetes. 2016 Sep; 65(9):2760-71. PMID: 27217486; PMCID: PMC5001189 [Available on 09/01/17].
  7. Park K, Mima A, Li Q, Rask-Madsen C, He P, Mizutani K, Katagiri S, Maeda Y, Wu IH, Khamaisi M, Preil SR, Maddaloni E, Sørensen D, Rasmussen LM, Huang PL, King GL. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression. JCI Insight. 2016 May 05; 1(6). PMID: 27200419.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Khamaisi M, Katagiri S, Keenan H, Park K, Maeda Y, Li Q, Qi W, Thomou T, Eschuk D, Tellechea A, Veves A, Huang C, Orgill DP, Wagers A, King GL. PKCd inhibition normalizes the wound-healing capacity of diabetic human fibroblasts. J Clin Invest. 2016 Mar 01; 126(3):837-53. PMID: 26808499; PMCID: PMC4767341.
  9. Bhatt S, Gupta MK, Khamaisi M, Martinez R, Gritsenko MA, Wagner BK, Guye P, Busskamp V, Shirakawa J, Wu G, Liew CW, Clauss TR, Valdez I, El Ouaamari A, Dirice E, Takatani T, Keenan HA, Smith RD, Church G, Weiss R, Wagers AJ, Qian WJ, King GL, Kulkarni RN. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes. Cell Metab. 2015 Aug 04; 22(2):239-52. PMID: 26244933; PMCID: PMC4589213.
  10. Agarwal I, Glazer NL, Barasch E, Djousse L, Gottdiener JS, Ix JH, Kizer JR, Rimm EB, Siscovick DS, King GL, Mukamal KJ. Associations between metabolic dysregulation and circulating biomarkers of fibrosis: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Metabolism. 2015 Oct; 64(10):1316-23. PMID: 26282733; PMCID: PMC4939831 [Available on 10/01/16].
  11. He ZH, D'Eon SA, Tinsley LJ, Fitzgerald S, Hastings SM, Khamaisi M, Sun JK, Turek SJ, Schaefer EJ, King GL, Keenan HA. Cardiovascular disease protection in long-duration type 1 diabetes and sex differences. Diabetes Care. 2015 May; 38(5):e73-4. PMID: 25908159; PMCID: PMC4407756.
  12. Durpès MC, Morin C, Paquin-Veillet J, Beland R, Paré M, Guimond MO, Rekhter M, King GL, Geraldes P. PKC-ß activation inhibits IL-18-binding protein causing endothelial dysfunction and diabetic atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2015 May 01; 106(2):303-13. PMID: 25808972.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Hsu WC, Lau KH, Matsumoto M, Moghazy D, Keenan H, King GL. Improvement of insulin sensitivity by isoenergy high carbohydrate traditional Asian diet: a randomized controlled pilot feasibility study. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106851. PMID: 25226279; PMCID: PMC4167335.
  14. Kondo K, Ishikado A, Morino K, Nishio Y, Ugi S, Kajiwara S, Kurihara M, Iwakawa H, Nakao K, Uesaki S, Shigeta Y, Imanaka H, Yoshizaki T, Sekine O, Makino T, Maegawa H, King GL, Kashiwagi A. A high-fiber, low-fat diet improves periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects: a pilot study. Nutr Res. 2014 Jun; 34(6):491-8. PMID: 25026916.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Hernandez SL, Gong JH, Chen L, Wu IH, Sun JK, Keenan HA, King GL. Characterization of circulating and endothelial progenitor cells in patients with extreme-duration type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014 Aug; 37(8):2193-201. PMID: 24780357; PMCID: PMC4113171.
  16. Turek SJ, Hastings SM, Sun JK, King GL, Keenan HA. Sexual dysfunction as a marker of cardiovascular disease in males with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct; 36(10):3222-6. PMID: 23780949; PMCID: PMC3781490.
  17. Park K, Li Q, Rask-Madsen C, Mima A, Mizutani K, Winnay J, Maeda Y, D'Aquino K, White MF, Feener EP, King GL. Serine phosphorylation sites on IRS2 activated by angiotensin II and protein kinase C to induce selective insulin resistance in endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Aug; 33(16):3227-41. PMID: 23775122; PMCID: PMC3753901.
  18. Le H, Wong S, Iftikar T, Keenan H, King GL, Hsu WC. Characterization of factors affecting attainment of glycemic control in Asian Americans with diabetes in a culturally specific program. Diabetes Educ. 2013 Jul-Aug; 39(4):468-77. PMID: 23771841; PMCID: PMC4167383.
  19. Li Q, Park K, Li C, Rask-Madsen C, Mima A, Qi W, Mizutani K, Huang P, King GL. Induction of vascular insulin resistance and endothelin-1 expression and acceleration of atherosclerosis by the overexpression of protein kinase C-ß isoform in the endothelium. Circ Res. 2013 Aug 02; 113(4):418-27. PMID: 23759514; PMCID: PMC3893704.
  20. Fukuzawa T, Fukazawa M, Ueda O, Shimada H, Kito A, Kakefuda M, Kawase Y, Wada NA, Goto C, Fukushima N, Jishage K, Honda K, King GL, Kawabe Y. SGLT5 reabsorbs fructose in the kidney but its deficiency paradoxically exacerbates hepatic steatosis induced by fructose. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56681. PMID: 23451068; PMCID: PMC3581502.
  21. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Vascular complications of diabetes: mechanisms of injury and protective factors. Cell Metab. 2013 Jan 08; 17(1):20-33. PMID: 23312281; PMCID: PMC3546345.
  22. Ishikado A, Sono Y, Matsumoto M, Robida-Stubbs S, Okuno A, Goto M, King GL, Blackwell TK, Makino T. Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Dec; 65:1506-15. PMID: 23277146; PMCID: PMC3800243.
  23. Mima A, Qi W, Hiraoka-Yamomoto J, Park K, Matsumoto M, Kitada M, Li Q, Mizutani K, Yu E, Shimada T, Lee J, Shoelson SE, Jobin C, Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Retinal not systemic oxidative and inflammatory stress correlated with VEGF expression in rodent models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Dec 19; 53(13):8424-32. PMID: 23197686; PMCID: PMC3753893.
  24. Mima A, Qi W, King GL. Implications of treatment that target protective mechanisms against diabetic nephropathy. Semin Nephrol. 2012 Sep; 32(5):471-8. PMID: 23062988; PMCID: PMC3584697.
  25. Glazer NL, Macy EM, Lumley T, Smith NL, Reiner AP, Psaty BM, King GL, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS. Transforming growth factor beta-1 and incidence of heart failure in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Cytokine. 2012 Nov; 60(2):341-5. PMID: 22878343; PMCID: PMC4143419.
  26. Mima A, Hiraoka-Yamomoto J, Li Q, Kitada M, Li C, Geraldes P, Matsumoto M, Mizutani K, Park K, Cahill C, Nishikawa S, Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Protective effects of GLP-1 on glomerular endothelium and its inhibition by PKCß activation in diabetes. Diabetes. 2012 Nov; 61(11):2967-79. PMID: 22826029; PMCID: PMC3478518.
  27. Hsu WC, Boyko EJ, Fujimoto WY, Kanaya A, Karmally W, Karter A, King GL, Look M, Maskarinec G, Misra R, Tavake-Pasi F, Arakaki R. Pathophysiologic differences among Asians, native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders and treatment implications. Diabetes Care. 2012 May; 35(5):1189-98. PMID: 22517940; PMCID: PMC3329855.
  28. King GL, McNeely MJ, Thorpe LE, Mau ML, Ko J, Liu LL, Sun A, Hsu WC, Chow EA. Understanding and addressing unique needs of diabetes in Asian Americans, native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Diabetes Care. 2012 May; 35(5):1181-8. PMID: 22517939; PMCID: PMC3329823.
  29. Mima A, Kitada M, Geraldes P, Li Q, Matsumoto M, Mizutani K, Qi W, Li C, Leitges M, Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Glomerular VEGF resistance induced by PKCd/SHP-1 activation and contribution to diabetic nephropathy. FASEB J. 2012 Jul; 26(7):2963-74. PMID: 22499584; PMCID: PMC3382088.
  30. Rask-Madsen C, Buonomo E, Li Q, Park K, Clermont AC, Yerokun O, Rekhter M, King GL. Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 May; 32(5):1124-31. PMID: 22426129; PMCID: PMC3640325.
  31. Maeno Y, Li Q, Park K, Rask-Madsen C, Gao B, Matsumoto M, Liu Y, Wu IH, White MF, Feener EP, King GL. Inhibition of insulin signaling in endothelial cells by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation of p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 10; 287(7):4518-30. PMID: 22158866; PMCID: PMC3281670.
  32. Hsu WC, Okeke E, Cheung S, Keenan H, Tsui T, Cheng K, King GL. A cross-sectional characterization of insulin resistance by phenotype and insulin clamp in East Asian Americans with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PLoS One. 2011; 6(12):e28311. PMID: 22164267; PMCID: PMC3229556.
  33. Bezy O, Tran TT, Pihlajamäki J, Suzuki R, Emanuelli B, Winnay J, Mori MA, Haas J, Biddinger SB, Leitges M, Goldfine AB, Patti ME, King GL, Kahn CR. PKCd regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity and hepatosteatosis in mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2011 Jun; 121(6):2504-17. PMID: 21576825; PMCID: PMC3104767.
  34. Sun JK, Keenan HA, Cavallerano JD, Asztalos BF, Schaefer EJ, Sell DR, Strauch CM, Monnier VM, Doria A, Aiello LP, King GL. Protection from retinopathy and other complications in patients with type 1 diabetes of extreme duration: the joslin 50-year medalist study. Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr; 34(4):968-74. PMID: 21447665; PMCID: PMC3064059.
  35. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Endothelium-dependent delivery of insulin to muscle interstitium. Cell Metab. 2011 Mar 02; 13(3):236-8. PMID: 21356512; PMCID: PMC3232062.
  36. Jeong IK, King GL. New perspectives on diabetic vascular complications: the loss of endogenous protective factors induced by hyperglycemia. Diabetes Metab J. 2011 Feb; 35(1):8-11. PMID: 21537407; PMCID: PMC3080576.
  37. Mima A, Ohshiro Y, Kitada M, Matsumoto M, Geraldes P, Li C, Li Q, White GS, Cahill C, Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Glomerular-specific protein kinase C-ß-induced insulin receptor substrate-1 dysfunction and insulin resistance in rat models of diabetes and obesity. Kidney Int. 2011 Apr; 79(8):883-96. PMID: 21228767; PMCID: PMC3612886.
  38. Stanton RC, King GL. A complex interplay of factors causes diabetic nephropathy. Metabolism. 2011 May; 60(5):591-3. PMID: 21109270.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Diabetes: Podocytes lose their footing. Nature. 2010 Nov 04; 468(7320):42-4. PMID: 21048754.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Cao L, Arany PR, Kim J, Rivera-Feliciano J, Wang YS, He Z, Rask-Madsen C, King GL, Mooney DJ. Modulating Notch signaling to enhance neovascularization and reperfusion in diabetic mice. Biomaterials. 2010 Dec; 31(34):9048-56. PMID: 20800279; PMCID: PMC2949444.
  41. Keenan HA, Sun JK, Levine J, Doria A, Aiello LP, Eisenbarth G, Bonner-Weir S, King GL. Residual insulin production and pancreatic ß-cell turnover after 50 years of diabetes: Joslin Medalist Study. Diabetes. 2010 Nov; 59(11):2846-53. PMID: 20699420; PMCID: PMC2963543.
  42. Kitada M, Zhang Z, Mima A, King GL. Molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complications. J Diabetes Investig. 2010 Jun 01; 1(3):77-89. PMID: 24843412; PMCID: PMC4008020.
  43. Rask-Madsen C, Li Q, Freund B, Feather D, Abramov R, Wu IH, Chen K, Yamamoto-Hiraoka J, Goldenbogen J, Sotiropoulos KB, Clermont A, Geraldes P, Dall'Osso C, Wagers AJ, Huang PL, Rekhter M, Scalia R, Kahn CR, King GL. Loss of insulin signaling in vascular endothelial cells accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice. Cell Metab. 2010 May 05; 11(5):379-89. PMID: 20444418; PMCID: PMC3020149.
  44. Geraldes P, King GL. Activation of protein kinase C isoforms and its impact on diabetic complications. Circ Res. 2010 Apr 30; 106(8):1319-31. PMID: 20431074; PMCID: PMC2877591.
  45. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Kidney complications: factors that protect the diabetic vasculature. Nat Med. 2010 Jan; 16(1):40-1. PMID: 20057426.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Geraldes P, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Matsumoto M, Clermont A, Leitges M, Marette A, Aiello LP, Kern TS, King GL. Activation of PKC-delta and SHP-1 by hyperglycemia causes vascular cell apoptosis and diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2009 Nov; 15(11):1298-306. PMID: 19881493; PMCID: PMC3290906.
  47. Kondo T, El Khattabi I, Nishimura W, Laybutt DR, Geraldes P, Shah S, King G, Bonner-Weir S, Weir G, Sharma A. p38 MAPK is a major regulator of MafA protein stability under oxidative stress. Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Aug; 23(8):1281-90. PMID: 19407223; PMCID: PMC2718751.
  48. Rigor DL, Bodyak N, Bae S, Choi JH, Zhang L, Ter-Ovanesyan D, He Z, McMullen JR, Shioi T, Izumo S, King GL, Kang PM. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Akt signaling pathway interacts with protein kinase Cbeta2 in the regulation of physiologic developmental hypertrophy and heart function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009 Mar; 296(3):H566-72. PMID: 19122165; PMCID: PMC2660227.
  49. Geraldes P, Yagi K, Ohshiro Y, He Z, Maeno Y, Yamamoto-Hiraoka J, Rask-Madsen C, Chung SW, Perrella MA, King GL. Selective regulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression and function by insulin through IRS1/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-2 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008 Dec 05; 283(49):34327-36. PMID: 18854316; PMCID: PMC2590690.
  50. Isshiki K, He Z, Maeno Y, Ma RC, Yasuda Y, Kuroki T, White GS, Patti ME, Weir GC, King GL. Insulin regulates SOCS2 expression and the mitogenic effect of IGF-1 in mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2008 Dec; 74(11):1434-43. PMID: 19008912; PMCID: PMC2644821.
  51. King GL. The role of inflammatory cytokines in diabetes and its complications. J Periodontol. 2008 Aug; 79(8 Suppl):1527-34. PMID: 18673007.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Tong Z, Yang Z, Patel S, Chen H, Gibbs D, Yang X, Hau VS, Kaminoh Y, Harmon J, Pearson E, Buehler J, Chen Y, Yu B, Tinkham NH, Zabriskie NA, Zeng J, Luo L, Sun JK, Prakash M, Hamam RN, Tonna S, Constantine R, Ronquillo CC, Sadda S, Avery RL, Brand JM, London N, Anduze AL, King GL, Bernstein PS, Watkins S, Jorde LB, Li DY, Aiello LP, Pollak MR, Zhang K. Promoter polymorphism of the erythropoietin gene in severe diabetic eye and kidney complications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13; 105(19):6998-7003. PMID: 18458324; PMCID: PMC2383970.
  53. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. More sugar, less blood vessels: another piece in the puzzle of increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Apr; 28(4):608-10. PMID: 18354093; PMCID: PMC3232058.
  54. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Differential regulation of VEGF signaling by PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 May; 28(5):919-24. PMID: 18323518; PMCID: PMC3340425.
  55. Biddinger SB, Hernandez-Ono A, Rask-Madsen C, Haas JT, Alemán JO, Suzuki R, Scapa EF, Agarwal C, Carey MC, Stephanopoulos G, Cohen DE, King GL, Ginsberg HN, Kahn CR. Hepatic insulin resistance is sufficient to produce dyslipidemia and susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 2008 Feb; 7(2):125-34. PMID: 18249172; PMCID: PMC4251554.
  56. Geraldes P, Yamagata M, Rook SL, Sassa Y, Ma RC, Clermont A, Gao B, Aiello LP, Feener EP, King GL. Glypican 4, a membrane binding protein for bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein signaling pathways in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Dec; 48(12):5750-5. PMID: 18055828.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Noh H, King GL. The role of protein kinase C activation in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int Suppl. 2007 Aug; (106):S49-53. PMID: 17653211.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Keenan HA, Costacou T, Sun JK, Doria A, Cavellerano J, Coney J, Orchard TJ, Aiello LP, King GL. Clinical factors associated with resistance to microvascular complications in diabetic patients of extreme disease duration: the 50-year medalist study. Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug; 30(8):1995-7. PMID: 17507696.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Das Evcimen N, King GL. The role of protein kinase C activation and the vascular complications of diabetes. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Jun; 55(6):498-510. PMID: 17574431.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Arikawa E, Ma RC, Isshiki K, Luptak I, He Z, Yasuda Y, Maeno Y, Patti ME, Weir GC, Harris RA, Zammit VA, Tian R, King GL. Effects of insulin replacements, inhibitors of angiotensin, and PKCbeta's actions to normalize cardiac gene expression and fuel metabolism in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2007 May; 56(5):1410-20. PMID: 17363743.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Xu G, Kaneto H, Laybutt DR, Duvivier-Kali VF, Trivedi N, Suzuma K, King GL, Weir GC, Bonner-Weir S. Downregulation of GLP-1 and GIP receptor expression by hyperglycemia: possible contribution to impaired incretin effects in diabetes. Diabetes. 2007 Jun; 56(6):1551-8. PMID: 17360984.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Mechanisms of Disease: endothelial dysfunction in insulin resistance and diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan; 3(1):46-56. PMID: 17179929.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Engelgau MM, Vinicor F, Simionescu M, King GL, Meininger C, Mensah GA. Summary statement IV: Obesity and diabetes: opportunities for translation of basic research. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007 May; 46(5):324-6. PMID: 17275418.
    View in: PubMed
  64. McGill JB, King GL, Berg PH, Price KL, Kles KA, Bastyr EJ, Hyslop DL. Clinical safety of the selective PKC-beta inhibitor, ruboxistaurin. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Nov; 5(6):835-45. PMID: 17044810.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Ohshiro Y, Ma RC, Yasuda Y, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Clermont AC, Isshiki K, Yagi K, Arikawa E, Kern TS, King GL. Reduction of diabetes-induced oxidative stress, fibrotic cytokine expression, and renal dysfunction in protein kinase Cbeta-null mice. Diabetes. 2006 Nov; 55(11):3112-20. PMID: 17065350.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Yamagata M, Rook SL, Sassa Y, Ma RC, Geraldes P, Goddard L, Clermont A, Gao B, Salti H, Gundel R, White M, Feener EP, Aiello LP, King GL. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein's signaling pathways and its retinal trophic and anti-angiogenic effects. FASEB J. 2006 Oct; 20(12):2058-67. PMID: 17012258.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Sotiropoulos KB, Clermont A, Yasuda Y, Rask-Madsen C, Mastumoto M, Takahashi J, Della Vecchia K, Kondo T, Aiello LP, King GL. Adipose-specific effect of rosiglitazone on vascular permeability and protein kinase C activation: novel mechanism for PPARgamma agonist's effects on edema and weight gain. FASEB J. 2006 Jun; 20(8):1203-5. PMID: 16672634.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Naruse K, Rask-Madsen C, Takahara N, Ha SW, Suzuma K, Way KJ, Jacobs JR, Clermont AC, Ueki K, Ohshiro Y, Zhang J, Goldfine AB, King GL. Activation of vascular protein kinase C-beta inhibits Akt-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase function in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2006 Mar; 55(3):691-8. PMID: 16505232.
    View in: PubMed
  69. He Z, Opland DM, Way KJ, Ueki K, Bodyak N, Kang PM, Izumo S, Kulkarni RN, Wang B, Liao R, Kahn CR, King GL. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and vascularization in the myocardium by insulin receptor and PI3K/Akt pathways in insulin resistance and ischemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Apr; 26(4):787-93. PMID: 16469952.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Hsu WC, Cheung S, Ong E, Wong K, Lin S, Leon K, Weinger K, King GL. Identification of linguistic barriers to diabetes knowledge and glycemic control in Chinese Americans with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Feb; 29(2):415-6. PMID: 16443897.
    View in: PubMed
  71. He Z, King GL. Can protein kinase C beta-selective inhibitor, ruboxistaurin, stop vascular complications in diabetic patients? Diabetes Care. 2005 Nov; 28(11):2803-5. PMID: 16249561.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Ahmad FK, He Z, King GL. Molecular targets of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Jun; 6(4):487-94. PMID: 16026267.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Itoh S, Ding B, Bains CP, Wang N, Takeishi Y, Jalili T, King GL, Walsh RA, Yan C, Abe J. Role of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) in reactive oxygen species and protein kinase C beta (PKC-beta)-mediated cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24; 280(25):24135-42. PMID: 15840586.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Xu Y, He Z, King GL. Introduction of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Curr Diab Rep. 2005 Apr; 5(2):91-7. PMID: 15794910.
    View in: PubMed
  75. He Z, Way KJ, Arikawa E, Chou E, Opland DM, Clermont A, Isshiki K, Ma RC, Scott JA, Schoen FJ, Feener EP, King GL. Differential regulation of angiotensin II-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor by protein kinase C isoforms in the myocardium. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 22; 280(16):15719-26. PMID: 15699040.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Yi X, Schubert M, Peachey NS, Suzuma K, Burks DJ, Kushner JA, Suzuma I, Cahill C, Flint CL, Dow MA, Leshan RL, King GL, White MF. Insulin receptor substrate 2 is essential for maturation and survival of photoreceptor cells. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 02; 25(5):1240-8. PMID: 15689562.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Rask-Madsen C, King GL. Proatherosclerotic mechanisms involving protein kinase C in diabetes and insulin resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Mar; 25(3):487-96. PMID: 15637306.
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  78. Economides PA, Khaodhiar L, Caselli A, Caballero AE, Keenan H, Bursell SE, King GL, Johnstone MT, Horton ES, Veves A. The effect of vitamin E on endothelial function of micro- and macrocirculation and left ventricular function in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2005 Jan; 54(1):204-11. PMID: 15616030.
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  79. Scott JA, King GL. Oxidative stress and antioxidant treatment in diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec; 1031:204-13. PMID: 15753146.
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  80. Treszl A, Szereday L, Doria A, King GL, Orban T. Elevated C-reactive protein levels do not correspond to autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov; 27(11):2769-70. PMID: 15505025.
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  81. King GL, Loeken MR. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004 Oct; 122(4):333-8. PMID: 15257460.
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  82. He Z, King GL. Protein kinase Cbeta isoform inhibitors: a new treatment for diabetic cardiovascular diseases. Circulation. 2004 Jul 06; 110(1):7-9. PMID: 15238466.
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  83. Schulze PC, Yoshioka J, Takahashi T, He Z, King GL, Lee RT. Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress through inhibition of thioredoxin function by thioredoxin-interacting protein. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16; 279(29):30369-74. PMID: 15128745.
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  84. He Z, King GL. Microvascular complications of diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2004 Mar; 33(1):215-38, xi-xii. PMID: 15053904.
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  85. Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL, Klein R. Retinopathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan; 27 Suppl 1:S84-7. PMID: 14693935.
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  86. Kuroki T, Isshiki K, King GL. Oxidative stress: the lead or supporting actor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003 Aug; 14(8 Suppl 3):S216-20. PMID: 12874434.
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  87. Kondo T, Vicent D, Suzuma K, Yanagisawa M, King GL, Holzenberger M, Kahn CR. Knockout of insulin and IGF-1 receptors on vascular endothelial cells protects against retinal neovascularization. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jun; 111(12):1835-42. PMID: 12813019; PMCID: PMC161423.
  88. Jiang ZY, He Z, King BL, Kuroki T, Opland DM, Suzuma K, Suzuma I, Ueki K, Kulkarni RN, Kahn CR, King GL. Characterization of multiple signaling pathways of insulin in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in vascular cells and angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 22; 278(34):31964-71. PMID: 12775712.
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  89. Vicent D, Ilany J, Kondo T, Naruse K, Fisher SJ, Kisanuki YY, Bursell S, Yanagisawa M, King GL, Kahn CR. The role of endothelial insulin signaling in the regulation of vascular tone and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2003 May; 111(9):1373-80. PMID: 12727929; PMCID: PMC154437.
  90. Yokota T, Ma RC, Park JY, Isshiki K, Sotiropoulos KB, Rauniyar RK, Bornfeldt KE, King GL. Role of protein kinase C on the expression of platelet-derived growth factor and endothelin-1 in the retina of diabetic rats and cultured retinal capillary pericytes. Diabetes. 2003 Mar; 52(3):838-45. PMID: 12606528.
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  91. Abiko T, Abiko A, Clermont AC, Shoelson B, Horio N, Takahashi J, Adamis AP, King GL, Bursell SE. Characterization of retinal leukostasis and hemodynamics in insulin resistance and diabetes: role of oxidants and protein kinase-C activation. Diabetes. 2003 Mar; 52(3):829-37. PMID: 12606527.
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  92. Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL, Klein R. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan; 26(1):226-9. PMID: 12502685.
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  93. Shen GX, Way KJ, Jacobs JR, King GL. Applications of inhibitors for protein kinase C and their isoforms. Methods Mol Biol. 2003; 233:397-422. PMID: 12840525.
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  94. Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL, Klein R. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan; 26 Suppl 1:S99-S102. PMID: 12502630.
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  95. Minami T, Abid MR, Zhang J, King G, Kodama T, Aird WC. Thrombin stimulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1 in endothelial cells is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC)-delta-NF-kappa B and PKC-zeta-GATA signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 28; 278(9):6976-84. PMID: 12493764.
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  96. Sheetz MJ, King GL. Molecular understanding of hyperglycemia's adverse effects for diabetic complications. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288(20):2579-88. PMID: 12444865.
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  97. Way KJ, Isshiki K, Suzuma K, Yokota T, Zvagelsky D, Schoen FJ, Sandusky GE, Pechous PA, Vlahos CJ, Wakasaki H, King GL. Expression of connective tissue growth factor is increased in injured myocardium associated with protein kinase C beta2 activation and diabetes. Diabetes. 2002 Sep; 51(9):2709-18. PMID: 12196463.
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  98. Hiramatsu Y, Sekiguchi N, Hayashi M, Isshiki K, Yokota T, King GL, Loeken MR. Diacylglycerol production and protein kinase C activity are increased in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy. Diabetes. 2002 Sep; 51(9):2804-10. PMID: 12196474.
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  99. Mathis D, King GL. B-cell signaling: protein kinase Cdelta puts the brakes on. Curr Biol. 2002 Aug 20; 12(16):R554-6. PMID: 12194836.
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  100. Eckel RH, Wassef M, Chait A, Sobel B, Barrett E, King G, Lopes-Virella M, Reusch J, Ruderman N, Steiner G, Vlassara H. Prevention Conference VI: Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: Writing Group II: pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Circulation. 2002 May 07; 105(18):e138-43. PMID: 11994264.
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  101. Rauniyar RK, Suzuma K, King AL, Aiello LP, King GL. Differential effects of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) analogues on retinal neovascularization and retinal pericyte growth. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Feb; 43(2):503-9. PMID: 11818397.
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  102. Suzuma K, Takahara N, Suzuma I, Isshiki K, Ueki K, Leitges M, Aiello LP, King GL. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform's action on retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22; 99(2):721-6. PMID: 11805327; PMCID: PMC117372.
  103. Chou E, Suzuma I, Way KJ, Opland D, Clermont AC, Naruse K, Suzuma K, Bowling NL, Vlahos CJ, Aiello LP, King GL. Decreased cardiac expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in insulin-resistant and diabetic States: a possible explanation for impaired collateral formation in cardiac tissue. Circulation. 2002 Jan 22; 105(3):373-9. PMID: 11804995.
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  104. Way KJ, Katai N, King GL. Protein kinase C and the development of diabetic vascular complications. Diabet Med. 2001 Dec; 18(12):945-59. PMID: 11903393.
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  105. Meier M, King GL, Clermont A, Perez A, Hayashi M, Feener EP. Angiotensin AT(1) receptor stimulates heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Hypertension. 2001 Dec 01; 38(6):1260-5. PMID: 11751700.
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  106. Kaneto H, Suzuma K, Sharma A, Bonner-Weir S, King GL, Weir GC. Involvement of protein kinase C beta 2 in c-myc induction by high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 01; 277(5):3680-5. PMID: 11714718.
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  107. Suzuma I, Suzuma K, Ueki K, Hata Y, Feener EP, King GL, Aiello LP. Stretch-induced retinal vascular endothelial growth factor expression is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta but not by stretch-induced ERK1/2, Akt, Ras, or classical/novel PKC pathways. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 11; 277(2):1047-57. PMID: 11694503.
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  108. Veves A, King GL. Can VEGF reverse diabetic neuropathy in human subjects? J Clin Invest. 2001 May; 107(10):1215-8. PMID: 11375408; PMCID: PMC209306.
  109. Faries PL, Rohan DI, Takahara H, Wyers MC, Contreras MA, Quist WC, King GL, Logerfo FW. Human vascular smooth muscle cells of diabetic origin exhibit increased proliferation, adhesion, and migration. J Vasc Surg. 2001 Mar; 33(3):601-7. PMID: 11241133.
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  110. Feener EP, King GL. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: role in cardiovascular disease. Heart Fail Monit. 2001; 1(3):74-82. PMID: 12634871.
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  111. Suzuma K, Naruse K, Suzuma I, Takahara N, Ueki K, Aiello LP, King GL. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces expression of connective tissue growth factor via KDR, Flt1, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-akt-dependent pathways in retinal vascular cells. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 29; 275(52):40725-31. PMID: 11018037.
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  112. Feng D, Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Lipinska I, Aiello LP, Laffel L, King GL, Tofler GH. von Willebrand factor and retinal circulation in early-stage retinopathy of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Nov; 23(11):1694-8. PMID: 11092294.
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  113. Mori F, King GL, Clermont AC, Bursell DK, Bursell SE. Endothelin-3 regulation of retinal hemodynamics in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Nov; 41(12):3955-62. PMID: 11053299.
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  114. Park JY, Takahara N, Gabriele A, Chou E, Naruse K, Suzuma K, Yamauchi T, Ha SW, Meier M, Rhodes CJ, King GL. Induction of endothelin-1 expression by glucose: an effect of protein kinase C activation. Diabetes. 2000 Jul; 49(7):1239-48. PMID: 10909984.
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  115. Naruse K, King GL. Protein kinase C and myocardial biology and function. Circ Res. 2000 Jun 09; 86(11):1104-6. PMID: 10850959.
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  116. Way KJ, Chou E, King GL. Identification of PKC-isoform-specific biological actions using pharmacological approaches. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2000 May; 21(5):181-7. PMID: 10785652.
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  117. Koya D, Haneda M, Nakagawa H, Isshiki K, Sato H, Maeda S, Sugimoto T, Yasuda H, Kashiwagi A, Ways DK, King GL, Kikkawa R. Amelioration of accelerated diabetic mesangial expansion by treatment with a PKC beta inhibitor in diabetic db/db mice, a rodent model for type 2 diabetes. FASEB J. 2000 Mar; 14(3):439-47. PMID: 10698958.
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  118. Kuboki K, Jiang ZY, Takahara N, Ha SW, Igarashi M, Yamauchi T, Feener EP, Herbert TP, Rhodes CJ, King GL. Regulation of endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene expression in endothelial cells and in vivo : a specific vascular action of insulin. Circulation. 2000 Feb 15; 101(6):676-81. PMID: 10673261.
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  119. King GL, Suzuma K. Pigment-epithelium-derived factor--a key coordinator of retinal neuronal and vascular functions. N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 03; 342(5):349-51. PMID: 10655537.
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  120. Bursell SE, King GL. The potential use of glutathionyl hemoglobin as a clinical marker of oxidative stress. Clin Chem. 2000 Feb; 46(2):145-6. PMID: 10657367.
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  121. Meier M, King GL. Protein kinase C activation and its pharmacological inhibition in vascular disease. Vasc Med. 2000; 5(3):173-85. PMID: 11104300.
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  122. Koya D, Dennis JW, Warren CE, Takahara N, Schoen FJ, Nishio Y, Nakajima T, Lipes MA, King GL. Overexpression of core 2 N-acetylglycosaminyltransferase enhances cytokine actions and induces hypertrophic myocardium in transgenic mice. FASEB J. 1999 Dec; 13(15):2329-37. PMID: 10593880.
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  123. Bursell SE, King GL. Can protein kinase C inhibition and vitamin E prevent the development of diabetic vascular complications? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1999 Sep; 45(2-3):169-82. PMID: 10588370.
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  124. Lee IK, Koya D, Ishi H, Kanoh H, King GL. d-Alpha-tocopherol prevents the hyperglycemia induced activation of diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in vascular smooth muscle cell by an increase of DAG kinase activity. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1999 Sep; 45(2-3):183-90. PMID: 10588371.
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  125. Caballero AE, Arora S, Saouaf R, Lim SC, Smakowski P, Park JY, King GL, LoGerfo FW, Horton ES, Veves A. Microvascular and macrovascular reactivity is reduced in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1999 Sep; 48(9):1856-62. PMID: 10480619.
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  126. Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Aiello LP, Aiello LM, Schlossman DK, Feener EP, Laffel L, King GL. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999 Aug; 22(8):1245-51. PMID: 10480765.
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  127. Jiang ZY, Lin YW, Clemont A, Feener EP, Hein KD, Igarashi M, Yamauchi T, White MF, King GL. Characterization of selective resistance to insulin signaling in the vasculature of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. J Clin Invest. 1999 Aug; 104(4):447-57. PMID: 10449437; PMCID: PMC408521.
  128. Jiang ZY, Zhou QL, Chatterjee A, Feener EP, Myers MG, White MF, King GL. Endothelin-1 modulates insulin signaling through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Diabetes. 1999 May; 48(5):1120-30. PMID: 10331419.
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  129. King GL, Wakasaki H. Theoretical mechanisms by which hyperglycemia and insulin resistance could cause cardiovascular diseases in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999 Apr; 22 Suppl 3:C31-7. PMID: 10189560.
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  130. Bowling N, Walsh RA, Song G, Estridge T, Sandusky GE, Fouts RL, Mintze K, Pickard T, Roden R, Bristow MR, Sabbah HN, Mizrahi JL, Gromo G, King GL, Vlahos CJ. Increased protein kinase C activity and expression of Ca2+-sensitive isoforms in the failing human heart. Circulation. 1999 Jan 26; 99(3):384-91. PMID: 9918525.
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  131. Park JY, Ha SW, King GL. The role of protein kinase C activation in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Perit Dial Int. 1999; 19 Suppl 2:S222-7. PMID: 10406523.
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  132. Igarashi M, Wakasaki H, Takahara N, Ishii H, Jiang ZY, Yamauchi T, Kuboki K, Meier M, Rhodes CJ, King GL. Glucose or diabetes activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase via different pathways. J Clin Invest. 1999 Jan; 103(2):185-95. PMID: 9916130; PMCID: PMC407875.
  133. Smith FE, Chiu JL, King GL. Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications in Asian Americans. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health. 1999; 7(2):170-175. PMID: 11567491.
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  134. Takagi H, King GL, Aiello LP. Hypoxia upregulates glucose transport activity through an adenosine-mediated increase of GLUT1 expression in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Diabetes. 1998 Sep; 47(9):1480-8. PMID: 9726238.
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  135. Takeishi Y, Chu G, Kirkpatrick DM, Li Z, Wakasaki H, Kranias EG, King GL, Walsh RA. In vivo phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I by protein kinase Cbeta2 decreases cardiomyocyte calcium responsiveness and contractility in transgenic mouse hearts. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jul 01; 102(1):72-8. PMID: 9649559; PMCID: PMC509067.
  136. Schuppin GT, Pons S, Hügl S, Aiello LP, King GL, White M, Rhodes CJ. A specific increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 in pancreatic beta-cell lines is involved in mediating serum-stimulated beta-cell growth. Diabetes. 1998 Jul; 47(7):1074-85. PMID: 9648831.
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  137. Koya D, King GL. Protein kinase C activation and the development of diabetic complications. Diabetes. 1998 Jun; 47(6):859-66. PMID: 9604860.
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  138. Ishii H, Koya D, King GL. Protein kinase C activation and its role in the development of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. J Mol Med (Berl). 1998 Jan; 76(1):21-31. PMID: 9462865.
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  139. Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL, Klein R. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 1998 Jan; 21(1):143-56. PMID: 9538986.
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  140. Koya D, Haneda M, Kikkawa R, King GL. d-alpha-tocopherol treatment prevents glomerular dysfunctions in diabetic rats through inhibition of protein kinase C-diacylglycerol pathway. Biofactors. 1998; 7(1-2):69-76. PMID: 9523030.
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  141. Kunisaki M, Bursell SE, Umeda F, Nawata H, King GL. Prevention of diabetes-induced abnormal retinal blood flow by treatment with d-alpha-tocopherol. Biofactors. 1998; 7(1-2):55-67. PMID: 9523029.
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  142. Bursell SE, Takagi C, Clermont AC, Takagi H, Mori F, Ishii H, King GL. Specific retinal diacylglycerol and protein kinase C beta isoform modulation mimics abnormal retinal hemodynamics in diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997 Dec; 38(13):2711-20. PMID: 9418723.
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  143. King GL, Ishii H, Koya D. Diabetic vascular dysfunctions: a model of excessive activation of protein kinase C. Kidney Int Suppl. 1997 Sep; 60:S77-85. PMID: 9285907.
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  144. Aiello LP, Bursell SE, Clermont A, Duh E, Ishii H, Takagi C, Mori F, Ciulla TA, Ways K, Jirousek M, Smith LE, King GL. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced retinal permeability is mediated by protein kinase C in vivo and suppressed by an orally effective beta-isoform-selective inhibitor. Diabetes. 1997 Sep; 46(9):1473-80. PMID: 9287049.
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  145. Wakasaki H, Koya D, Schoen FJ, Jirousek MR, Ways DK, Hoit BD, Walsh RA, King GL. Targeted overexpression of protein kinase C beta2 isoform in myocardium causes cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Aug 19; 94(17):9320-5. PMID: 9256480; PMCID: PMC23178.
  146. Feener EP, King GL. Vascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 1997 Jul; 350 Suppl 1:SI9-13. PMID: 9250277.
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  147. Koya D, Jirousek MR, Lin YW, Ishii H, Kuboki K, King GL. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform activation on the gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta, extracellular matrix components, and prostanoids in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. J Clin Invest. 1997 Jul 01; 100(1):115-26. PMID: 9202063; PMCID: PMC508171.
  148. Hamdan AD, Aiello LP, Misare BD, Contreras MA, King GL, LoGerfo FW, Quist WC. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in canine peripheral vein bypass grafts. J Vasc Surg. 1997 Jul; 26(1):79-86. PMID: 9240325.
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  149. Koya D, Lee IK, Ishii H, Kanoh H, King GL. Prevention of glomerular dysfunction in diabetic rats by treatment with d-alpha-tocopherol. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997 Mar; 8(3):426-35. PMID: 9071711.
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  150. Xia P, Aiello LP, Ishii H, Jiang ZY, Park DJ, Robinson GS, Takagi H, Newsome WP, Jirousek MR, King GL. Characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor's effect on the activation of protein kinase C, its isoforms, and endothelial cell growth. J Clin Invest. 1996 Nov 01; 98(9):2018-26. PMID: 8903320; PMCID: PMC507645.
  151. Takagi C, Bursell SE, Lin YW, Takagi H, Duh E, Jiang Z, Clermont AC, King GL. Regulation of retinal hemodynamics in diabetic rats by increased expression and action of endothelin-1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Nov; 37(12):2504-18. PMID: 8933767.
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  152. King GL. The role of hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in causing vascular dysfunction in diabetes. Ann Med. 1996 Oct; 28(5):427-32. PMID: 8949974.
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  153. Takagi H, King GL, Robinson GS, Ferrara N, Aiello LP. Adenosine mediates hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal pericytes and endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Oct; 37(11):2165-76. PMID: 8843903.
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  154. Takagi C, King GL, Takagi H, Lin YW, Clermont AC, Bursell SE. Endothelin-1 action via endothelin receptors is a primary mechanism modulating retinal circulatory response to hyperoxia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Sep; 37(10):2099-109. PMID: 8814149.
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  155. Takagi H, King GL, Aiello LP. Identification and characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flt) in bovine retinal pericytes. Diabetes. 1996 Aug; 45(8):1016-23. PMID: 8690146.
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  156. King GL, Kunisaki M, Nishio Y, Inoguchi T, Shiba T, Xia P. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Diabetes. 1996 Jul; 45 Suppl 3:S105-8. PMID: 8674872.
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  157. Kunisaki M, Fumio U, Nawata H, King GL. Vitamin E normalizes diacylglycerol-protein kinase C activation induced by hyperglycemia in rat vascular tissues. Diabetes. 1996 Jul; 45 Suppl 3:S117-9. PMID: 8674876.
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  158. Takagi H, King GL, Ferrara N, Aiello LP. Hypoxia regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR/Flk gene expression through adenosine A2 receptors in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Jun; 37(7):1311-21. PMID: 8641834.
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  159. King GL, Brownlee M. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of diabetic complications. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Jun; 25(2):255-70. PMID: 8799700.
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  160. Ishii H, Jirousek MR, Koya D, Takagi C, Xia P, Clermont A, Bursell SE, Kern TS, Ballas LM, Heath WF, Stramm LE, Feener EP, King GL. Amelioration of vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats by an oral PKC beta inhibitor. Science. 1996 May 03; 272(5262):728-31. PMID: 8614835.
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  161. Sasson S, Gorowits N, Joost HG, King GL, Cerasi E, Kaiser N. Regulation by metformin of the hexose transport system in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Mar; 117(6):1318-24. PMID: 8882631; PMCID: PMC1909760.
  162. Feener EP, Xia P, Inoguchi T, Shiba T, Kunisaki M, King GL. Role of protein kinase C in glucose- and angiotensin II-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor expression. Contrib Nephrol. 1996; 118:180-7. PMID: 8744056.
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  163. Aiello LP, Pierce EA, Foley ED, Takagi H, Chen H, Riddle L, Ferrara N, King GL, Smith LE. Suppression of retinal neovascularization in vivo by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 07; 92(23):10457-61. PMID: 7479819; PMCID: PMC40630.
  164. Nishio Y, Warren CE, Buczek-Thomas JA, Rulfs J, Koya D, Aiello LP, Feener EP, Miller TB, Dennis JW, King GL. Identification and characterization of a gene regulating enzymatic glycosylation which is induced by diabetes and hyperglycemia specifically in rat cardiac tissue. J Clin Invest. 1995 Oct; 96(4):1759-67. PMID: 7560067; PMCID: PMC366652.
  165. Takagi C, King GL, Clermont AC, Cummins DR, Takagi H, Bursell SE. Reversal of abnormal retinal hemodynamics in diabetic rats by acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Curr Eye Res. 1995 Sep; 14(9):741-9. PMID: 8529412.
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  166. Kunisaki M, Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Ishii H, Ballas LM, Jirousek MR, Umeda F, Nawata H, King GL. Vitamin E prevents diabetes-induced abnormal retinal blood flow via the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C pathway. Am J Physiol. 1995 Aug; 269(2 Pt 1):E239-46. PMID: 7653541.
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  167. Xia P, Kramer RM, King GL. Identification of the mechanism for the inhibition of Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase by hyperglycemia involving activation of protein kinase C and cytosolic phospholipase A2. J Clin Invest. 1995 Aug; 96(2):733-40. PMID: 7635966; PMCID: PMC185257.
  168. Feener EP, Northrup JM, Aiello LP, King GL. Angiotensin II induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -2 expression in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest. 1995 Mar; 95(3):1353-62. PMID: 7883982; PMCID: PMC441475.
  169. Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Oren B, King GL. The in vivo effect of endothelins on retinal circulation in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Mar; 36(3):596-607. PMID: 7890491.
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  170. Hamdan AD, Aiello LP, Quist WC, Ozaki CK, Contreras MA, Phaneuf MD, Ruiz C, King GL, LoGerfo FW. Isolation of genes differentially expressed at the downstream anastomosis of prosthetic arterial grafts with use of mRNA differential display. J Vasc Surg. 1995 Feb; 21(2):228-34. PMID: 7853596.
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  171. Thieme H, Aiello LP, Takagi H, Ferrara N, King GL. Comparative analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on retinal and aortic vascular endothelial cells. Diabetes. 1995 Jan; 44(1):98-103. PMID: 7529203.
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  172. Kunisaki M, Bursell SE, Umeda F, Nawata H, King GL. Normalization of diacylglycerol-protein kinase C activation by vitamin E in aorta of diabetic rats and cultured rat smooth muscle cells exposed to elevated glucose levels. Diabetes. 1994 Nov; 43(11):1372-7. PMID: 7926314.
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  173. Feener EP, Shiba T, Hu KQ, Wilden PA, White MF, King GL. Characterization of phorbol ester-stimulated serine phosphorylation of the human insulin receptor. Biochem J. 1994 Oct 01; 303 ( Pt 1):43-50. PMID: 7945263; PMCID: PMC1137554.
  174. Inoguchi T, Xia P, Kunisaki M, Higashi S, Feener EP, King GL. Insulin's effect on protein kinase C and diacylglycerol induced by diabetes and glucose in vascular tissues. Am J Physiol. 1994 Sep; 267(3 Pt 1):E369-79. PMID: 7943217.
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  175. Xia P, Inoguchi T, Kern TS, Engerman RL, Oates PJ, King GL. Characterization of the mechanism for the chronic activation of diacylglycerol-protein kinase C pathway in diabetes and hypergalactosemia. Diabetes. 1994 Sep; 43(9):1122-9. PMID: 8070612.
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  176. Aiello LP, Robinson GS, Lin YW, Nishio Y, King GL. Identification of multiple genes in bovine retinal pericytes altered by exposure to elevated levels of glucose by using mRNA differential display. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jun 21; 91(13):6231-5. PMID: 8016144; PMCID: PMC44172.
  177. Clermont AC, Brittis M, Shiba T, McGovern T, King GL, Bursell SE. Normalization of retinal blood flow in diabetic rats with primary intervention using insulin pumps. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Mar; 35(3):981-90. PMID: 8125761.
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  178. King GL, Shiba T, Oliver J, Inoguchi T, Bursell SE. Cellular and molecular abnormalities in the vascular endothelium of diabetes mellitus. Annu Rev Med. 1994; 45:179-88. PMID: 8198375.
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  179. Nishio Y, Aiello LP, King GL. Glucose induced genes in bovine aortic smooth muscle cells identified by mRNA differential display. FASEB J. 1994 Jan; 8(1):103-6. PMID: 8299882.
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  180. Shiba T, Inoguchi T, Sportsman JR, Heath WF, Bursell S, King GL. Correlation of diacylglycerol level and protein kinase C activity in rat retina to retinal circulation. Am J Physiol. 1993 Nov; 265(5 Pt 1):E783-93. PMID: 8238505.
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  181. Ohashi H, Rosen KM, Smith FE, Villa-Komaroff L, Nayak RC, King GL. Characterization of type I IGF receptor and IGF-I mRNA expression in cultured human and bovine glomerular cells. Regul Pept. 1993 Oct 20; 48(1-2):9-20. PMID: 8265820.
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  182. Feener EP, Backer JM, King GL, Wilden PA, Sun XJ, Kahn CR, White MF. Insulin stimulates serine and tyrosine phosphorylation in the juxtamembrane region of the insulin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25; 268(15):11256-64. PMID: 8496180.
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  183. Kaiser N, Sasson S, Feener EP, Boukobza-Vardi N, Higashi S, Moller DE, Davidheiser S, Przybylski RJ, King GL. Differential regulation of glucose transport and transporters by glucose in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Diabetes. 1993 Jan; 42(1):80-9. PMID: 7678404.
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  184. de la Rubia G, Oliver FJ, Inoguchi T, King GL. Induction of resistance to endothelin-1's biochemical actions by elevated glucose levels in retinal pericytes. Diabetes. 1992 Dec; 41(12):1533-9. PMID: 1446793.
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  185. Inoguchi T, Battan R, Handler E, Sportsman JR, Heath W, King GL. Preferential elevation of protein kinase C isoform beta II and diacylglycerol levels in the aorta and heart of diabetic rats: differential reversibility to glycemic control by islet cell transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 15; 89(22):11059-63. PMID: 1438315; PMCID: PMC50483.
  186. Nayak RC, Attawia MA, Cahill CJ, King GL, Ohashi H, Moromisato R. Expression of a monoclonal antibody (3G5) defined ganglioside antigen in the renal cortex. Kidney Int. 1992 Jun; 41(6):1638-45. PMID: 1501420.
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  187. Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Shiba T, King GL. Evaluating retinal circulation using video fluorescein angiography in control and diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res. 1992 Apr; 11(4):287-95. PMID: 1388117.
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  188. Oliver FJ, de la Rubia G, Feener EP, Lee ME, Loeken MR, Shiba T, Quertermous T, King GL. Stimulation of endothelin-1 gene expression by insulin in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1991 Dec 05; 266(34):23251-6. PMID: 1744120.
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  189. Lee TS, Hu KQ, Chao T, King GL. Characterization of endothelin receptors and effects of endothelin on diacylglycerol and protein kinase C in retinal capillary pericytes. Diabetes. 1991 Nov; 40(11):1564. PMID: 1936614.
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  190. King GL, Hu KQ. Endothelin stimulates a sustained 1,2-diacylglycerol increase and protein kinase C activation in bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Oct 31; 180(2):1164. PMID: 1953717.
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  191. Backer JM, King GL. Regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis by phorbol esters. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 May 01; 41(9):1267-77. PMID: 1850281.
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  192. King GL, Ohashi H, Najak R. A cell biology approach to the study of diabetic vascular complications. J Diabet Complications. 1991 Apr-Sep; 5(2-3):56-7. PMID: 1663116.
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  193. Hu KQ, Backer JM, Sahagian G, Feener EP, King GL. Modulation of the insulin growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor in microvascular endothelial cells by phorbol ester via protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1990 Aug 15; 265(23):13864-70. PMID: 2166043.
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  194. Lee TS, Hu KQ, Chao T, King GL. Characterization of endothelin receptors and effects of endothelin on diacylglycerol and protein kinase C in retinal capillary pericytes. Diabetes. 1989 Dec; 38(12):1643-6. PMID: 2555243.
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  195. Banskota NK, Taub R, Zellner K, King GL. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor I and platelet-derived growth factor interact additively in the induction of the protooncogene c-myc and cellular proliferation in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1989 Aug; 3(8):1183-90. PMID: 2674692.
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  196. Lee TS, Chao T, Hu KQ, King GL. Endothelin stimulates a sustained 1,2-diacylglycerol increase and protein kinase C activation in bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Jul 14; 162(1):381-6. PMID: 2665742.
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  197. Lee TS, Saltsman KA, Ohashi H, King GL. Activation of protein kinase C by elevation of glucose concentration: proposal for a mechanism in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul; 86(13):5141-5. PMID: 2740348; PMCID: PMC297573.
  198. Bottaro DP, Bonner-Weir S, King GL. Insulin receptor recycling in vascular endothelial cells. Regulation by insulin and phorbol ester. J Biol Chem. 1989 Apr 05; 264(10):5916-23. PMID: 2647729.
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  199. Verdin EM, King GL, Maratos-Flier E. Characterization of a common high-affinity receptor for reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 on endothelial cells. J Virol. 1989 Mar; 63(3):1318-25. PMID: 2915382; PMCID: PMC247829.
  200. Lee TS, MacGregor LC, Fluharty SJ, King GL. Differential regulation of protein kinase C and (Na,K)-adenosine triphosphatase activities by elevated glucose levels in retinal capillary endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jan; 83(1):90-4. PMID: 2536048; PMCID: PMC303647.
  201. Banskota NK, Taub R, Zellner K, Olsen P, King GL. Characterization of induction of protooncogene c-myc and cellular growth in human vascular smooth muscle cells by insulin and IGF-I. Diabetes. 1989 Jan; 38(1):123-9. PMID: 2521209.
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  202. Kwok CF, Goldstein BJ, Muller-Wieland D, Lee TS, Kahn CR, King GL. Identification of persistent defects in insulin receptor structure and function capillary endothelial cells from diabetic rats. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jan; 83(1):127-36. PMID: 2910904; PMCID: PMC303652.
  203. Hachiya HL, Halban PA, King GL. Intracellular pathways of insulin transport across vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1988 Oct; 255(4 Pt 1):C459-64. PMID: 3052101.
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  204. Nayak RC, Berman AB, George KL, Eisenbarth GS, King GL. A monoclonal antibody (3G5)-defined ganglioside antigen is expressed on the cell surface of microvascular pericytes. J Exp Med. 1988 Mar 01; 167(3):1003-15. PMID: 3351433; PMCID: PMC2188880.
  205. Arnqvist HJ, Ballermann BJ, King GL. Receptors for and effects of insulin and IGF-I in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Am J Physiol. 1988 Mar; 254(3 Pt 1):C411-6. PMID: 3279808.
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  206. King GL, Berman AB, Bonner-Weir S, Carson MP. Regulation of vascular permeability in cell culture. Diabetes. 1987 Dec; 36(12):1460-7. PMID: 3678623.
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  207. Maratos-Flier E, Kao CY, Verdin EM, King GL. Receptor-mediated vectorial transcytosis of epidermal growth factor by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Cell Biol. 1987 Oct; 105(4):1595-601. PMID: 3312235; PMCID: PMC2114648.
  208. Hachiya HL, Takayama S, White MF, King GL. Regulation of insulin receptor internalization in vascular endothelial cells by insulin and phorbol ester. J Biol Chem. 1987 May 05; 262(13):6417-24. PMID: 3106355.
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  209. Banskota NK, Carpentier JL, King GL. Processing and release of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I by macro- and microvascular endothelial cells. Endocrinology. 1986 Nov; 119(5):1904-13. PMID: 3533517.
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  210. Hachiya HL, Carpentier JL, King GL. Comparative studies on insulin-like growth factor II and insulin processing by vascular endothelial cells. Diabetes. 1986 Oct; 35(10):1065-72. PMID: 2944781.
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  211. Catanese VM, Grigorescu F, King GL, Kahn CR. The human erythrocyte insulin-like growth factor I receptor: characterization and demonstration of ligand-stimulated autophosphorylation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Apr; 62(4):692-9. PMID: 3005355.
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  212. King GL. Hyperglycemia and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. J Gen Intern Med. 1986 Mar-Apr; 1(2):133-4. PMID: 2430081.
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  213. King GL, Johnson SM, Jialal I. Processing and transport of insulin by vascular endothelial cells. Effects of sulfonylureas on insulin receptors. Am J Med. 1985 Sep 20; 79(3B):43-7. PMID: 3901745.
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  214. Jialal I, Crettaz M, Hachiya HL, Kahn CR, Moses AC, Buzney SM, King GL. Characterization of the receptors for insulin and the insulin-like growth factors on micro- and macrovascular tissues. Endocrinology. 1985 Sep; 117(3):1222-9. PMID: 2990869.
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  215. King GL, Goodman AD, Buzney S, Moses A, Kahn CR. Receptors and growth-promoting effects of insulin and insulinlike growth factors on cells from bovine retinal capillaries and aorta. J Clin Invest. 1985 Mar; 75(3):1028-36. PMID: 2984251; PMCID: PMC423655.
  216. Jialal I, King GL, Buchwald S, Kahn CR, Crettaz M. Processing of insulin by bovine endothelial cells in culture. Internalization without degradation. Diabetes. 1984 Aug; 33(8):794-800. PMID: 6378702.
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  217. King GL, Buchwald S. Characterization and partial purification of an endothelial cell growth factor from human platelets. J Clin Invest. 1984 Feb; 73(2):392-6. PMID: 6365972; PMCID: PMC425029.
  218. Knorr R, Danho W, Büllesbach EE, Gattner HG, Zahn H, King GL, Kahn CR. [B17-D-leucine]insulin and [B17-norleucine]insulin: synthesis and biological properties. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1983 Nov; 364(11):1615-26. PMID: 6363268.
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  219. King GL, Buzney SM, Kahn CR, Hetu N, Buchwald S, Macdonald SG, Rand LI. Differential responsiveness to insulin of endothelial and support cells from micro- and macrovessels. J Clin Invest. 1983 Apr; 71(4):974-9. PMID: 6339562; PMCID: PMC436955.
  220. King GL, Kahn CR, Heldin CH. Sharing of biological effect and receptors between guinea pig insulin and platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Mar; 80(5):1308-12. PMID: 6298787; PMCID: PMC393586.
  221. Knorr R, Danho W, Büllesbach EE, Gattner HG, Zahn H, King GL, Kahn CR. [B22-D-arginine]insulin: synthesis and biological properties. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1982 Dec; 363(12):1449-60. PMID: 6761262.
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  222. King GL, Kahn CR, Samuels B, Danho W, Bullesbach EE, Gattner HG. Synthesis and characterization of molecular hybrids of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I. The role of the A-chain extension peptide. J Biol Chem. 1982 Sep 25; 257(18):10869-73. PMID: 7050123.
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  223. King GL, Rechler MM, Kahn CR. Interactions between the receptors for insulin and the insulin-like growth factors on adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1982 Sep 10; 257(17):10001-6. PMID: 6286636.
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  224. Foley TP, Nissley SP, Stevens RL, King GL, Hascall VC, Humbel RE, Short PA, Rechler MM. Demonstration of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors on Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes. Evidence that insulin stimulates proteoglycan synthesis through the insulin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1982 Jan 25; 257(2):663-9. PMID: 6274858.
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  225. Kahn CR, Kasuga M, King GL, Grunfeld C. Autoantibodies to insulin receptors in man: immunological determinants and mechanism of action. Ciba Found Symp. 1982; (90):91-113. PMID: 6183063.
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  226. King GL, Kahn CR. Non-parallel evolution of metabolic and growth-promoting functions of insulin. Nature. 1981 Aug 13; 292(5824):644-6. PMID: 7019727.
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  227. Kahn CR, Baird KL, Flier JS, Grunfeld C, Harmon JT, Harrison LC, Karlsson FA, Kasuga M, King GL, Lang UC, Podskalny JM, Van Obberghen E. Insulin receptors, receptor antibodies, and the mechanism of insulin action. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1981; 37:477-538. PMID: 6269165.
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  228. King GL, Kahn CR, Rechler MM, Nissley SP. Direct demonstration of separate receptors for growth and metabolic activities of insulin and multiplication-stimulating activity (an insulinlike growth factor) using antibodies to the insulin receptor. J Clin Invest. 1980 Jul; 66(1):130-40. PMID: 6995478; PMCID: PMC371514.
  229. Harrison LC, Van Obberghen E, Grunfeld C, King GL, Kahn CR. Modulation of the insulin receptor by insulin receptor autoantibodies. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1980; 42:109-26. PMID: 6994107.
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