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Thomas E. Scammell, M.D.

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Mentoring
Neurobiology of Sleep[login at prompt]
Available: 07/01/11, Expires: 07/01/19

The Scammell Lab focuses on understanding the neurobiology of sleep. We spend much of our lives asleep, and yet surprisingly little is known about why we sleep and how the brain controls sleep. These are important questions because sleep disorders affect about ¼ of the population, resulting in problematic sleepiness, troublesome behavior during sleep, and miserable sleepless nights. Much of the work in our lab focuses on Narcolepsy, a common cause of chronic sleepiness that is caused by the selective loss of hypothalamic neurons producing the orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides.

Possible student projects include:
1) Using anatomic and physiologic techniques to map out the neural circuits through which the orexin peptides control wakefulness and regulate REM sleep.
2) Determining how cholinergic neurons in the pons promote arousal.
3) Examining how pain disrupts sleep and why poor sleep worsens pain.
4) Mapping the circuits through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy (brief episodes of paralysis) in narcoleptic mice.

Many projects in the lab use mouse models to understand the function of circuits that control sleep and wakefulness. We use cutting edge physiologic and molecular biologic techniques such as optogenetics, fiber photometry, Cre-loxP recombination, construction of new recombinant mice, and tracing of anatomic pathways using conditional expression of fluorescent proteins. We also work with post-mortem human brain tissue to better understand how loss of wake-promoting neurons with traumatic brain injury produces chronic sleepiness in humans.

Does REM Sleep Influence Cataplexy?
Summer, 05/20/10 - 08/31/10
Circadian Rhythms in Mice with Genetic Ablation of the Orexin Neurons
Summer, 07/01/05 - 09/01/05

Research
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
  1. R01NS106032 (SCAMMELL, THOMAS EMERY) Jul 1, 2018 - Apr 30, 2022
    NIH/NINDS
    Mechanisms of Cataplexy
    Role: Principal Investigator
  2. R01DE022912 (WOOLF, CLIFFORD J) Jul 26, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
    NIH/NIDCR
    Sleep disturbance as a risk factor for developing chronic pain
    Role: Principal Investigator
  3. P01HL095491 (SAPER, CLIFFORD B) Apr 1, 2009 - May 31, 2020
    NIH/NHLBI
    Mechanisms of Arousal in Sleep Apnea
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
  4. R01MH062589 (SCAMMELL, THOMAS EMERY) Aug 15, 2001 - Apr 30, 2007
    NIH/NIMH
    Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    Role: Principal Investigator
  5. R01NS055367 (SCAMMELL, THOMAS EMERY) Dec 1, 2000 - Nov 30, 2012
    NIH/NINDS
    Orexin and the Control of Cataplexy
    Role: Principal Investigator

Bibliographic
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Kroeger D, Absi G, Gagliardi C, Bandaru SS, Madara JC, Ferrari LL, Arrigoni E, Münzberg H, Scammell TE, Saper CB, Vetrivelan R. Galanin neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area promote sleep and heat loss in mice. Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 08; 9(1):4129. PMID: 30297727.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Scammell TE, Jackson AC, Franks NP, Wisden W, Dauvilliers Y. Histamine: Neural circuits and new medications. Sleep. 2018 Sep 18. PMID: 30239935.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Naganuma F, Bandaru SS, Absi G, Mahoney CE, Scammell TE, Vetrivelan R. Melanin-concentrating hormone neurons contribute to dysregulation of rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2018 Dec; 120:12-20. PMID: 30149182.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Svetnik V, Snyder ES, Tao P, Scammell TE, Roth T, Lines C, Herring WJ. Insight Into Reduction of Wakefulness by Suvorexant in Patients With Insomnia: Analysis of Wake Bouts. Sleep. 2018 01 01; 41(1). PMID: 29112763.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Schoch SF, Werth E, Poryazova R, Scammell TE, Baumann CR, Imbach LL. Dysregulation of Sleep Behavioral States in Narcolepsy. Sleep. 2017 12 01; 40(12). PMID: 29029348.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Pillen S, Pizza F, Dhondt K, Scammell TE, Overeem S. Cataplexy and Its Mimics: Clinical Recognition and Management. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2017 Jun; 19(6):23. PMID: 28478511.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Alexandre C, Latremoliere A, Ferreira A, Miracca G, Yamamoto M, Scammell TE, Woolf CJ. Decreased alertness due to sleep loss increases pain sensitivity in mice. Nat Med. 2017 Jun; 23(6):768-774. PMID: 28481358.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Maski K, Steinhart E, Williams D, Scammell T, Flygare J, McCleary K, Gow M. Listening to the Patient Voice in Narcolepsy: Diagnostic Delay, Disease Burden, and Treatment Efficacy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 Mar 15; 13(3):419-425. PMID: 27923434.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Mahoney CE, Agostinelli LJ, Brooks JN, Lowell BB, Scammell TE. GABAergic Neurons of the Central Amygdala Promote Cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2017 04 12; 37(15):3995-4006. PMID: 28235898.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Scammell TE, Arrigoni E, Lipton JO. Neural Circuitry of Wakefulness and Sleep. Neuron. 2017 Feb 22; 93(4):747-765. PMID: 28231463.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Agostinelli LJ, Ferrari LL, Mahoney CE, Mochizuki T, Lowell BB, Arrigoni E, Scammell TE. Descending projections from the basal forebrain to the orexin neurons in mice. J Comp Neurol. 2017 May 01; 525(7):1668-1684. PMID: 27997037.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Peng YJ, Zhang X, Gridina A, Chupikova I, McCormick DL, Thomas RJ, Scammell TE, Kim G, Vasavda C, Nanduri J, Kumar GK, Semenza GL, Snyder SH, Prabhakar NR. Complementary roles of gasotransmitters CO and H2S in sleep apnea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 02 07; 114(6):1413-1418. PMID: 28115703.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Kroeger D, Ferrari LL, Petit G, Mahoney CE, Fuller PM, Arrigoni E, Scammell TE. Cholinergic, Glutamatergic, and GABAergic Neurons of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Have Distinct Effects on Sleep/Wake Behavior in Mice. J Neurosci. 2017 02 01; 37(5):1352-1366. PMID: 28039375.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Garfield AS, Shah BP, Burgess CR, Li MM, Li C, Steger JS, Madara JC, Campbell JN, Kroeger D, Scammell TE, Tannous BA, Myers MG, Andermann ML, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB. Dynamic GABAergic afferent modulation of AgRP neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2016 12; 19(12):1628-1635. PMID: 27643429.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Valko PO, Gavrilov YV, Yamamoto M, Noaín D, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Weis S, Baumann CR, Scammell TE. Damage to Arousal-Promoting Brainstem Neurons with Traumatic Brain Injury. Sleep. 2016 06 01; 39(6):1249-52. PMID: 27091531; PMCID: PMC4863213 [Available on 12/01/16].
  16. Gavrilov YV, Ellison BA, Yamamoto M, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Mignot E, Baumann CR, Scammell TE, Valko PO. Disrupted Sleep in Narcolepsy: Exploring the Integrity of Galanin Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area. Sleep. 2016 05 01; 39(5):1059-62. PMID: 26951397; PMCID: PMC4835304 [Available on 11/01/16].
  17. Branch AF, Navidi W, Tabuchi S, Terao A, Yamanaka A, Scammell TE, Diniz Behn C. Progressive Loss of the Orexin Neurons Reveals Dual Effects on Wakefulness. Sleep. 2016 Feb 01; 39(2):369-77. PMID: 26446125; PMCID: PMC4712398.
  18. Ferrari LL, Agostinelli LJ, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Scammell TE, Arrigoni E. Dynorphin inhibits basal forebrain cholinergic neurons by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. J Physiol. 2016 Feb 15; 594(4):1069-85. PMID: 26613645; PMCID: PMC4753266 [Available on 02/15/17].
  19. Scammell TE. Narcolepsy. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 31; 373(27):2654-62. PMID: 26716917.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Perez MV, Pavlovic A, Shang C, Wheeler MT, Miller CL, Liu J, Dewey FE, Pan S, Thanaporn PK, Absher D, Brandimarto J, Salisbury H, Chan K, Mukherjee R, Konadhode RP, Myers RM, Sedehi D, Scammell TE, Quertermous T, Cappola T, Ashley EA. Systems Genomics Identifies a Key Role for Hypocretin/Orexin Receptor-2 in Human Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Dec 08; 66(22):2522-33. PMID: 26653627.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Geerling JC, Kim M, Mahoney CE, Abbott SB, Agostinelli LJ, Garfield AS, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Scammell TE. Genetic identity of thermosensory relay neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Jan 01; 310(1):R41-54. PMID: 26491097; PMCID: PMC4747895 [Available on 01/01/17].
  22. Bonsall DR, Kim H, Tocci C, Ndiaye A, Petronzio A, McKay-Corkum G, Molyneux PC, Scammell TE, Harrington ME. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1ß: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140678. PMID: 26469939; PMCID: PMC4607158.
  23. Imbach LL, Sommerauer M, Poryazova R, Werth E, Valko PO, Scammell TE, Baumann CR. Bradysomnia in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Feb; 127(2):1403-1409. PMID: 26419612.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Reiter J, Katz E, Scammell TE, Maski K. Usefulness of a Nocturnal SOREMP for Diagnosing Narcolepsy with Cataplexy in a Pediatric Population. Sleep. 2015 Jun 01; 38(6):859-65. PMID: 25325489; PMCID: PMC4434552.
  25. Scammell TE. Overview of sleep: the neurologic processes of the sleep-wake cycle. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 May; 76(5):e13. PMID: 26035194.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Oishi Y, Yoshida K, Scammell TE, Urade Y, Lazarus M, Saper CB. The roles of prostaglandin E2 and D2 in lipopolysaccharide-mediated changes in sleep. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jul; 47:172-7. PMID: 25532785; PMCID: PMC4468012.
  27. Valko PO, Gavrilov YV, Yamamoto M, Finn K, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Weis S, Scammell TE, Baumann CR. Damage to histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons and other hypothalamic neurons with traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2015 Jan; 77(1):177-82. PMID: 25363332.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Bastianini S, Berteotti C, Gabrielli A, Del Vecchio F, Amici R, Alexandre C, Scammell TE, Gazea M, Kimura M, Lo Martire V, Silvani A, Zoccoli G. SCOPRISM: a new algorithm for automatic sleep scoring in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2014 Sep 30; 235:277-84. PMID: 25092499.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Baumann CR, Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Overeem S, Arnulf I, Rye D, Dauvilliers Y, Honda M, Owens JA, Plazzi G, Scammell TE. Challenges in diagnosing narcolepsy without cataplexy: a consensus statement. Sleep. 2014 Jun 01; 37(6):1035-42. PMID: 24882898; PMCID: PMC4015377.
  30. Williams RH, Chee MJ, Kroeger D, Ferrari LL, Maratos-Flier E, Scammell TE, Arrigoni E. Optogenetic-mediated release of histamine reveals distal and autoregulatory mechanisms for controlling arousal. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 23; 34(17):6023-9. PMID: 24760861; PMCID: PMC3996219.
  31. Wamsley E, Donjacour CE, Scammell TE, Lammers GJ, Stickgold R. Delusional confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. Sleep. 2014 Feb 01; 37(2):419-22. PMID: 24501437; PMCID: PMC3900627.
  32. Weng FJ, Williams RH, Hawryluk JM, Lu J, Scammell TE, Saper CB, Arrigoni E. Carbachol excites sublaterodorsal nucleus neurons projecting to the spinal cord. J Physiol. 2014 Apr 01; 592(7):1601-17. PMID: 24344163; PMCID: PMC3979614.
  33. Valko PO, Gavrilov YV, Yamamoto M, Reddy H, Haybaeck J, Mignot E, Baumann CR, Scammell TE. Increase of histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons in narcolepsy. Ann Neurol. 2013 Dec; 74(6):794-804. PMID: 24006291.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Saper CB, Scammell TE. Emerging therapeutics in sleep. Ann Neurol. 2013 Sep; 74(3):435-40. PMID: 24038193.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Kantor S, Mochizuki T, Lops SN, Ko B, Clain E, Clark E, Yamamoto M, Scammell TE. Orexin gene therapy restores the timing and maintenance of wakefulness in narcoleptic mice. Sleep. 2013 Aug 01; 36(8):1129-38. PMID: 23904672; PMCID: PMC3700709.
  36. Burgess CR, Oishi Y, Mochizuki T, Peever JH, Scammell TE. Amygdala lesions reduce cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 05; 33(23):9734-42. PMID: 23739970; PMCID: PMC3704329.
  37. Oishi Y, Williams RH, Agostinelli L, Arrigoni E, Fuller PM, Mochizuki T, Saper CB, Scammell TE. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 05; 33(23):9743-51. PMID: 23739971; PMCID: PMC3714797.
  38. Alexandre C, Andermann ML, Scammell TE. Control of arousal by the orexin neurons. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Oct; 23(5):752-9. PMID: 23683477; PMCID: PMC3783629.
  39. Poli F, Overeem S, Lammers GJ, Plazzi G, Lecendreux M, Bassetti CL, Dauvilliers Y, Keene D, Khatami R, Li Y, Mayer G, Nohynek H, Pahud B, Paiva T, Partinen M, Scammell TE, Shimabukuro T, Sturkenboom M, van Dinther K, Wiznitzer M, Bonhoeffer J. Narcolepsy as an adverse event following immunization: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis and presentation. Vaccine. 2013 Jan 30; 31(6):994-1007. PMID: 23246545.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Imbach LL, Werth E, Kallweit U, Sarnthein J, Scammell TE, Baumann CR. Inter-hemispheric oscillations in human sleep. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e48660. PMID: 23144920; PMCID: PMC3492490.
  41. Burgess CR, Scammell TE. Narcolepsy: neural mechanisms of sleepiness and cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 05; 32(36):12305-11. PMID: 22956821; PMCID: PMC3449314.
  42. Saper CB, Romanovsky AA, Scammell TE. Neural circuitry engaged by prostaglandins during the sickness syndrome. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Jul 26; 15(8):1088-95. PMID: 22837039; PMCID: PMC3748818.
  43. España RA, Scammell TE. Sleep neurobiology from a clinical perspective. Sleep. 2011 Jul 01; 34(7):845-58. PMID: 21731134; PMCID: PMC3119826.
  44. Dimitrova A, Fronczek R, Van der Ploeg J, Scammell T, Gautam S, Pascual-Leone A, Lammers GJ. Reward-seeking behavior in human narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Jun 15; 7(3):293-300. PMID: 21677900; PMCID: PMC3113969.
  45. Scott MM, Marcus JN, Pettersen A, Birnbaum SG, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE, Nestler EJ, Elmquist JK, Lutter M. Hcrtr1 and 2 signaling differentially regulates depression-like behaviors. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 23; 222(2):289-94. PMID: 21377495.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Mochizuki T, Arrigoni E, Marcus JN, Clark EL, Yamamoto M, Honer M, Borroni E, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK, Scammell TE. Orexin receptor 2 expression in the posterior hypothalamus rescues sleepiness in narcoleptic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 15; 108(11):4471-6. PMID: 21368172; PMCID: PMC3060231.
  47. Scammell TE, Matheson JK, Honda M, Thannickal TC, Siegel JM. Coexistence of narcolepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Jul; 33(7):1318-9. PMID: 21257235.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Scammell TE, Winrow CJ. Orexin receptors: pharmacology and therapeutic opportunities. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011; 51:243-66. PMID: 21034217; PMCID: PMC3058259.
  49. Saper CB, Fuller PM, Pedersen NP, Lu J, Scammell TE. Sleep state switching. Neuron. 2010 Dec 22; 68(6):1023-42. PMID: 21172606; PMCID: PMC3026325.
  50. Lim AS, Scammell TE. The trouble with Tribbles: do antibodies against TRIB2 cause narcolepsy? Sleep. 2010 Jul; 33(7):857-8. PMID: 20614841; PMCID: PMC2894423.
  51. Diniz Behn CG, Klerman EB, Mochizuki T, Lin SC, Scammell TE. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice. Sleep. 2010 Mar; 33(3):297-306. PMID: 20337187; PMCID: PMC2831423.
  52. Baumann CR, Bassetti CL, Valko PO, Haybaeck J, Keller M, Clark E, Stocker R, Tolnay M, Scammell TE. Loss of hypocretin (orexin) neurons with traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2009 Oct; 66(4):555-9. PMID: 19847903; PMCID: PMC2770195.
  53. Kantor S, Mochizuki T, Janisiewicz AM, Clark E, Nishino S, Scammell TE. Orexin neurons are necessary for the circadian control of REM sleep. Sleep. 2009 Sep; 32(9):1127-34. PMID: 19750917; PMCID: PMC2737570.
  54. Arrigoni E, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE. Activation of the basal forebrain by the orexin/hypocretin neurones. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010 Mar; 198(3):223-35. PMID: 19723027; PMCID: PMC2938067.
  55. Clark EL, Baumann CR, Cano G, Scammell TE, Mochizuki T. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2009 Jul 21; 161(4):970-7. PMID: 19362119; PMCID: PMC2743520.
  56. Scammell TE, Mochizuki T. Is low histamine a fundamental cause of sleepiness in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia? Sleep. 2009 Feb; 32(2):133-4. PMID: 19238797; PMCID: PMC2635574.
  57. Scammell TE, Willie JT, Guilleminault C, Siegel JM. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2009 Jan; 32(1):111-6. PMID: 19189786; PMCID: PMC2625315.
  58. Diniz Behn CG, Kopell N, Brown EN, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE. Delayed orexin signaling consolidates wakefulness and sleep: physiology and modeling. J Neurophysiol. 2008 Jun; 99(6):3090-103. PMID: 18417630; PMCID: PMC3065358.
  59. Baumann CR, Clark EL, Pedersen NP, Hecht JL, Scammell TE. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin? Regul Pept. 2008 Apr 10; 147(1-3):1-3. PMID: 18191238; PMCID: PMC2276606.
  60. España RA, McCormack SL, Mochizuki T, Scammell TE. Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. Sleep. 2007 Nov; 30(11):1417-25. PMID: 18041476; PMCID: PMC2082091.
  61. Baumann CR, Scammell TE, Bassetti CL. Parkinson's disease, sleepiness and hypocretin/orexin. Brain. 2008 Mar; 131(Pt 3):e91. PMID: 17898005.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Behn CG, Brown EN, Scammell TE, Kopell NJ. Mathematical model of network dynamics governing mouse sleep-wake behavior. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Jun; 97(6):3828-40. PMID: 17409167; PMCID: PMC2259448.
  63. Scammell TE, Saper CB. Orexins: looking forward to sleep, back at addiction. Nat Med. 2007 Feb; 13(2):126-8. PMID: 17290266; PMCID: PMC3058782.
  64. Mochizuki T, Klerman EB, Sakurai T, Scammell TE. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Sep; 291(3):R533-40. PMID: 16556901; PMCID: PMC2259440.
  65. Scammell TE. The frustrating and mostly fruitless search for an autoimmune cause of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2006 May; 29(5):601-2. PMID: 16774147.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Grady SP, Nishino S, Czeisler CA, Hepner D, Scammell TE. Diurnal variation in CSF orexin-A in healthy male subjects. Sleep. 2006 Mar; 29(3):295-7. PMID: 16553014.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Yoshida K, McCormack S, España RA, Crocker A, Scammell TE. Afferents to the orexin neurons of the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Feb 10; 494(5):845-61. PMID: 16374809; PMCID: PMC2259441.
  68. Saper CB, Cano G, Scammell TE. Homeostatic, circadian, and emotional regulation of sleep. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Dec 05; 493(1):92-8. PMID: 16254994.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005 Oct 27; 437(7063):1257-63. PMID: 16251950.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Scammell TE, Saper CB. Orexin, drugs and motivated behaviors. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Oct; 8(10):1286-8. PMID: 16189534.
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  71. Crocker A, España RA, Papadopoulou M, Saper CB, Faraco J, Sakurai T, Honda M, Mignot E, Scammell TE. Concomitant loss of dynorphin, NARP, and orexin in narcolepsy. Neurology. 2005 Oct 25; 65(8):1184-8. PMID: 16247044; PMCID: PMC2254145.
  72. Anderson MP, Mochizuki T, Xie J, Fischler W, Manger JP, Talley EM, Scammell TE, Tonegawa S. Thalamic Cav3.1 T-type Ca2+ channel plays a crucial role in stabilizing sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 01; 102(5):1743-8. PMID: 15677322; PMCID: PMC547889.
  73. Willie JT, Renthal W, Chemelli RM, Miller MS, Scammell TE, Yanagisawa M, Sinton CM. Modafinil more effectively induces wakefulness in orexin-null mice than in wild-type littermates. Neuroscience. 2005; 130(4):983-95. PMID: 15652995.
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  74. Arrigoni E, Crocker AJ, Saper CB, Greene RW, Scammell TE. Deletion of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors impairs the recovery of synaptic transmission after hypoxia. Neuroscience. 2005; 132(3):575-80. PMID: 15837119; PMCID: PMC2259447.
  75. Lo CC, Chou T, Penzel T, Scammell TE, Strecker RE, Stanley HE, Ivanov PCh. Common scale-invariant patterns of sleep-wake transitions across mammalian species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 14; 101(50):17545-8. PMID: 15583127; PMCID: PMC536051.
  76. Houghton WC, Scammell TE, Thorpy M. Pharmacotherapy for cataplexy. Sleep Med Rev. 2004 Oct; 8(5):355-66. PMID: 15336236.
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  77. Mochizuki T, Crocker A, McCormack S, Yanagisawa M, Sakurai T, Scammell TE. Behavioral state instability in orexin knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2004 Jul 14; 24(28):6291-300. PMID: 15254084.
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  78. Simon DK, Nishino S, Scammell TE. Mistaken diagnosis of psychogenic gait disorder in a man with status cataplecticus ("limp man syndrome"). Mov Disord. 2004 Jul; 19(7):838-840. PMID: 15254948.
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  79. España RA, Scammell TE. Sleep neurobiology for the clinician. Sleep. 2004 Jun 15; 27(4):811-20. PMID: 15283019.
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  80. Gledhill RF, Bartel PR, Yoshida Y, Nishino S, Scammell TE. Narcolepsy caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Arch Neurol. 2004 May; 61(5):758-60. PMID: 15148155.
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  81. Saper CB, Scammell TE. Modafinil: a drug in search of a mechanism. Sleep. 2004 Feb 01; 27(1):11-2. PMID: 14998230.
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  82. Ko EM, Estabrooke IV, McCarthy M, Scammell TE. Wake-related activity of tuberomammillary neurons in rats. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 05; 992(2):220-6. PMID: 14625060.
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  83. Chou TC, Scammell TE, Gooley JJ, Gaus SE, Saper CB, Lu J. Critical role of dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in a wide range of behavioral circadian rhythms. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 19; 23(33):10691-702. PMID: 14627654.
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  84. Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Martin CL, Marcus JN, Yanagisawa M, Minson JB, Scammell TE. Orexin-immunoreactive inputs to rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Nov 13; 351(2):115-9. PMID: 14583395.
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  85. Mochizuki T, Scammell TE. Orexin/Hypocretin: wired for wakefulness. Curr Biol. 2003 Jul 15; 13(14):R563-4. PMID: 12867050.
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  86. Scammell TE, Arrigoni E, Thompson MA, Ronan PJ, Saper CB, Greene RW. Focal deletion of the adenosine A1 receptor in adult mice using an adeno-associated viral vector. J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 02; 23(13):5762-70. PMID: 12843280.
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  87. Scammell TE. The neurobiology, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Ann Neurol. 2003 Feb; 53(2):154-66. PMID: 12557281.
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  88. Chamberlin NL, Arrigoni E, Chou TC, Scammell TE, Greene RW, Saper CB. Effects of adenosine on gabaergic synaptic inputs to identified ventrolateral preoptic neurons. Neuroscience. 2003; 119(4):913-8. PMID: 12831851.
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  89. Kramer A, Yang FC, Snodgrass P, Li X, Scammell TE, Davis FC, Weitz CJ. Regulation of daily locomotor activity and sleep by hypothalamic EGF receptor signalling. Novartis Found Symp. 2003; 253:250-62; discussion 102-9, 263-6, 281-4. PMID: 14712926.
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  90. Overeem S, Scammell TE, Lammers GJ. Hypocretin/orexin and sleep: implications for the pathophysiology and diagnosis of narcolepsy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2002 Dec; 15(6):739-45. PMID: 12447114.
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  91. Chou TC, Bjorkum AA, Gaus SE, Lu J, Scammell TE, Saper CB. Afferents to the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 01; 22(3):977-90. PMID: 11826126.
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  92. Kramer A, Yang FC, Snodgrass P, Li X, Scammell TE, Davis FC, Weitz CJ. Regulation of daily locomotor activity and sleep by hypothalamic EGF receptor signaling. Science. 2001 Dec 21; 294(5551):2511-5. PMID: 11752569.
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  93. Gooley JJ, Lu J, Chou TC, Scammell TE, Saper CB. Melanopsin in cells of origin of the retinohypothalamic tract. Nat Neurosci. 2001 Dec; 4(12):1165. PMID: 11713469.
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  94. Saper CB, Chou TC, Scammell TE. The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends Neurosci. 2001 Dec; 24(12):726-31. PMID: 11718878.
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  95. Olafsdóttir BR, Rye DB, Scammell TE, Matheson JK, Stefánsson K, Gulcher JR. Polymorphisms in hypocretin/orexin pathway genes and narcolepsy. Neurology. 2001 Nov 27; 57(10):1896-9. PMID: 11723285.
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  96. Murray BJ, Matheson JK, Scammell TE. Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on respiration during sleep. Neurology. 2001 Oct 23; 57(8):1523-4. PMID: 11673612.
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  97. Scammell TE. Wakefulness: an eye-opening perspective on orexin neurons. Curr Biol. 2001 Oct 02; 11(19):R769-71. PMID: 11591333.
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  98. Chou TC, Lee CE, Lu J, Elmquist JK, Hara J, Willie JT, Beuckmann CT, Chemelli RM, Sakurai T, Yanagisawa M, Saper CB, Scammell TE. Orexin (hypocretin) neurons contain dynorphin. J Neurosci. 2001 Oct 01; 21(19):RC168. PMID: 11567079.
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  99. Scammell TE, Nishino S, Mignot E, Saper CB. Narcolepsy and low CSF orexin (hypocretin) concentration after a diencephalic stroke. Neurology. 2001 Jun 26; 56(12):1751-3. PMID: 11425947.
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  100. Estabrooke IV, McCarthy MT, Ko E, Chou TC, Chemelli RM, Yanagisawa M, Saper CB, Scammell TE. Fos expression in orexin neurons varies with behavioral state. J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 01; 21(5):1656-62. PMID: 11222656.
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  101. Scammell TE, Gerashchenko DY, Mochizuki T, McCarthy MT, Estabrooke IV, Sears CA, Saper CB, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. An adenosine A2a agonist increases sleep and induces Fos in ventrolateral preoptic neurons. Neuroscience. 2001; 107(4):653-63. PMID: 11720788.
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  102. Oka T, Oka K, Scammell TE, Lee C, Kelly JF, Nantel F, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Relationship of EP(1-4) prostaglandin receptors with rat hypothalamic cell groups involved in lipopolysaccharide fever responses. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Dec 04; 428(1):20-32. PMID: 11058222.
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  103. Scammell TE, Estabrooke IV, McCarthy MT, Chemelli RM, Yanagisawa M, Miller MS, Saper CB. Hypothalamic arousal regions are activated during modafinil-induced wakefulness. J Neurosci. 2000 Nov 15; 20(22):8620-8. PMID: 11069971.
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  104. Murray BJ, Apetauerova D, Scammell TE. Severe acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with normal MRI at presentation. Neurology. 2000 Oct 24; 55(8):1237-8. PMID: 11071514.
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  105. Murray BJ, Llinas R, Caplan LR, Scammell T, Pascual-Leone A. Cerebral deep venous thrombosis presenting as acute micrographia and hypophonia. Neurology. 2000 Feb 08; 54(3):751-3. PMID: 10680819.
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  106. Lövblad KO, Thomas R, Jakob PM, Scammell T, Bassetti C, Griswold M, Ives J, Matheson J, Edelman RR, Warach S. Silent functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates focal activation in rapid eye movement sleep. Neurology. 1999 Dec 10; 53(9):2193-5. PMID: 10599807.
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  107. Chemelli RM, Willie JT, Sinton CM, Elmquist JK, Scammell T, Lee C, Richardson JA, Williams SC, Xiong Y, Kisanuki Y, Fitch TE, Nakazato M, Hammer RE, Saper CB, Yanagisawa M. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell. 1999 Aug 20; 98(4):437-51. PMID: 10481909.
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  108. Scammell T, Gerashchenko D, Urade Y, Onoe H, Saper C, Hayaishi O. Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons by the somnogen prostaglandin D2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 23; 95(13):7754-9. PMID: 9636223; PMCID: PMC22747.
  109. Scammell TE, Griffin JD, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Microinjection of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor into the anteroventral preoptic region attenuates LPS fever. Am J Physiol. 1998 Mar; 274(3 Pt 2):R783-9. PMID: 9530246.
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  110. Scammell TE, Matheson J. Modafinil: a novel stimulant for the treatment of narcolepsy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 1998 Jan; 7(1):99-112. PMID: 15991923.
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  111. Elmquist JK, Scammell TE, Saper CB. Mechanisms of CNS response to systemic immune challenge: the febrile response. Trends Neurosci. 1997 Dec; 20(12):565-70. PMID: 9416669.
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  112. Elmquist JK, Breder CD, Sherin JE, Scammell TE, Hickey WF, Dewitt D, Saper CB. Intravenous lipopolysaccharide induces cyclooxygenase 2-like immunoreactivity in rat brain perivascular microglia and meningeal macrophages. J Comp Neurol. 1997 May 05; 381(2):119-29. PMID: 9130663.
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  113. Scammell TE, Elmquist JK, Griffin JD, Saper CB. Ventromedial preoptic prostaglandin E2 activates fever-producing autonomic pathways. J Neurosci. 1996 Oct 01; 16(19):6246-54. PMID: 8815905.
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  114. Scammell TE, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase produces hypothermia and depresses lipopolysaccharide fever. Am J Physiol. 1996 Aug; 271(2 Pt 2):R333-8. PMID: 8770131.
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  115. Elmquist JK, Scammell TE, Jacobson CD, Saper CB. Distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain following intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration. J Comp Neurol. 1996 Jul 15; 371(1):85-103. PMID: 8835720.
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  116. Scammell TE, Price KJ, Sagar SM. Hyperthermia induces c-fos expression in the preoptic area. Brain Res. 1993 Aug 06; 618(2):303-7. PMID: 8374760.
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  117. Scammell TE, Schwartz WJ, Smith CB. No evidence for a circadian rhythm of protein synthesis in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Brain Res. 1989 Aug 07; 494(1):155-8. PMID: 2765915.
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  118. Scammell T. Threat of nuclear war. J Fam Pract. 1987 Jan; 24(1):18-20. PMID: 3794610.
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Funded by the NIH/NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, grant number UL1TR001102, and through institutional support from Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.