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profileRichard Charles Mulligan, Ph.D.

TitleMallinckrodt Professor of Genetics and Professor of Pediatrics, Emeritus
InstitutionHarvard Insitutes of Medicine
DepartmentEmeritus
AddressHarvard Institutes of Medicine
Harvard Gene Therapy Initiative 407
77 Avenue Louis Pasteur
Boston MA 02115
Phone617/432-1465
Fax617/432-6146
vCardDownload vCard (login for email)

Collapse Mentoring 
Collapse completed student projects
A Gene therapy Approach Towards Blocking EPHRIN-B2/EPH-B4 Vascular Interactions in Tumor Angiogenesis
Summer, 06/23/99 - 08/31/99

Collapse Research 
Collapse research activities and funding
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
RC1DK087006     (MULLIGAN, RICHARD C)Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
NIH/NIDDK
Engineered in vivo nuclear fusion: application to regenerative medicine
Role: Principal Investigator

R01GM079187     (MULLIGAN, RICHARD C)Aug 1, 2007 - May 31, 2013
NIH/NIGMS
Improving the Safety Profile of Lentiviral Vectors
Role: Principal Investigator

R01GM075127     (MULLIGAN, RICHARD C)Jul 1, 2005 - Jun 30, 2010
NIH/NIGMS
Exogenous Gene Control via Modulation of RNA Self-Cleavage
Role: Principal Investigator

P01HL059316     (DZAU, VICTOR J)Sep 30, 1997 - Aug 31, 2002
NIH/NHLBI
CORE--PILOT AND FEASIBILITY STUDIES
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

P50HL059316     (DZAU, VICTOR J)Sep 30, 1997 - Aug 31, 2002
NIH/NHLBI
GENE TRANSFER PROGRAM IN HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD DISEASE
Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Collapse research resources
This researcher has shared information about their research resources
in the eagle-i Network. To update or add resource records, contact
eagle-i@hms.harvard.edu.
Harvard Gene Therapy Initiative Core (HMS) - Core services (10) and Plasmids (21)

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Peng CZ, Grant JD, Heath AC, Reiersen AM, Mulligan RC, Anokhin AP. Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study. Dev Psychopathol. 2016 May; 28(2):517-26. PMID: 26612434.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Mulligan RC. Development of gene transfer technology. Hum Gene Ther. 2014 Dec; 25(12):995-1002. PMID: 25513845.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Anokhin AP, Golosheykin S, Mulligan RC. Long-term test-retest reliability of delayed reward discounting in adolescents. Behav Processes. 2015 Feb; 111:55-9. PMID: 25447508; PMCID: PMC4306354.
  4. Anokhin AP, Grant JD, Mulligan RC, Heath AC. The genetics of impulsivity: evidence for the heritability of delay discounting. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 May 15; 77(10):887-94. PMID: 25555481; PMCID: PMC4416979.
  5. Mulligan RC, Kristjansson SD, Reiersen AM, Parra AS, Anokhin AP. Neural correlates of inhibitory control and functional genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene. Neuropsychologia. 2014 Sep; 62:306-18. PMID: 25107677; PMCID: PMC4180107.
  6. Xu X, Clark US, David SP, Mulligan RC, Knopik VS, McGeary J, MacKillop J, McCaffery J, Niaura RS, Sweet LH. Effects of nicotine deprivation and replacement on BOLD-fMRI response to smoking cues as a function of DRD4 VNTR genotype. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jul; 16(7):939-47. PMID: 24659022; PMCID: PMC4072897.
  7. Mulligan RC, Reiersen AM, Todorov AA. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Traits, and Substance Use Among Missouri Adolescents. Scand J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Psychol. 2014; 2(2):86-92. PMID: 26146608.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Burkhardt UE, Hainz U, Stevenson K, Goldstein NR, Pasek M, Naito M, Wu D, Ho VT, Alonso A, Hammond NN, Wong J, Sievers QL, Brusic A, McDonough SM, Zeng W, Perrin A, Brown JR, Canning CM, Koreth J, Cutler C, Armand P, Neuberg D, Lee JS, Antin JH, Mulligan RC, Sasada T, Ritz J, Soiffer RJ, Dranoff G, Alyea EP, Wu CJ. Autologous CLL cell vaccination early after transplant induces leukemia-specific T cells. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep; 123(9):3756-65. PMID: 23912587; PMCID: PMC3754265.
  9. Brusic A, Hainz U, Wadleigh M, Neuberg D, Su M, Canning CM, Deangelo DJ, Stone RM, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Ritz J, Dranoff G, Sasada T, Wu CJ. Detecting T-cell reactivity to whole cell vaccines: Proof of concept analysis of T-cell response to K562 cell antigens in CML patients. Oncoimmunology. 2012 Oct 01; 1(7):1095-1103. PMID: 23170257.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Clark US, Cohen RA, Sweet LH, Gongvatana A, Devlin KN, Hana GN, Westbrook ML, Mulligan RC, Jerskey BA, White TL, Navia B, Tashima KT. Effects of HIV and early life stress on amygdala morphometry and neurocognitive function. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2012 Jul; 18(4):657-68. PMID: 22621973; PMCID: PMC3575741.
  11. Herson S, Hentati F, Rigolet A, Behin A, Romero NB, Leturcq F, Laforêt P, Maisonobe T, Amouri R, Haddad H, Audit M, Montus M, Masurier C, Gjata B, Georger C, Cheraï M, Carlier P, Hogrel JY, Herson A, Allenbach Y, Lemoine FM, Klatzmann D, Sweeney HL, Mulligan RC, Eymard B, Caizergues D, Voït T, Benveniste O. A phase I trial of adeno-associated virus serotype 1-?-sarcoglycan gene therapy for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C. Brain. 2012 Feb; 135(Pt 2):483-92. PMID: 22240777.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Mulligan RC, Knopik VS, Sweet LH, Fischer M, Seidenberg M, Rao SM. Neural correlates of inhibitory control in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from the Milwaukee longitudinal sample. Psychiatry Res. 2011 Nov 30; 194(2):119-29. PMID: 21937201; PMCID: PMC3196255.
  13. Schwenter F, Zarei S, Luy P, Padrun V, Bouche N, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Morel P, Mach N. Cell encapsulation technology as a novel strategy for human anti-tumor immunotherapy. Cancer Gene Ther. 2011 Aug; 18(8):553-62. PMID: 21566667.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Sahin E, Colla S, Liesa M, Moslehi J, Müller FL, Guo M, Cooper M, Kotton D, Fabian AJ, Walkey C, Maser RS, Tonon G, Foerster F, Xiong R, Wang YA, Shukla SA, Jaskelioff M, Martin ES, Heffernan TP, Protopopov A, Ivanova E, Mahoney JE, Kost-Alimova M, Perry SR, Bronson R, Liao R, Mulligan R, Shirihai OS, Chin L, DePinho RA. Telomere dysfunction induces metabolic and mitochondrial compromise. Nature. 2011 Feb 17; 470(7334):359-65. PMID: 21307849; PMCID: PMC3741661.
  15. Sanchez CE, Tierney TS, Gale JT, Alavian KN, Sahin A, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Carter BS. Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 pseudotypes: comparing safety, specificity, and transduction efficiency in the primate striatum. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):672-80. PMID: 20950087; PMCID: PMC3773229.
  16. Danos O, Davies K, Lehn P, Mulligan R. The ARRIVE guidelines, a welcome improvement to standards for reporting animal research. J Gene Med. 2010 Jul; 12(7):559-60. PMID: 20603891.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Sweet LH, Mulligan RC, Finnerty CE, Jerskey BA, David SP, Cohen RA, Niaura RS. Effects of nicotine withdrawal on verbal working memory and associated brain response. Psychiatry Res. 2010 Jul 30; 183(1):69-74. PMID: 20570495; PMCID: PMC2913712.
  18. Wilson AA, Murphy GJ, Hamakawa H, Kwok LW, Srinivasan S, Hovav AH, Mulligan RC, Amar S, Suki B, Kotton DN. Amelioration of emphysema in mice through lentiviral transduction of long-lived pulmonary alveolar macrophages. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan; 120(1):379-89. PMID: 20038801; PMCID: PMC2798672.
  19. Irani F, Sweet LH, Haley AP, Gunstad JJ, Jerskey BA, Mulligan RC, Jefferson AL, Poppas A, Cohen RA. A fMRI Study of Verbal Working Memory, Cardiac Output, and Ejection Fraction in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. Brain Imaging Behav. 2009 Dec; 3(4):350-357. PMID: 23227137.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Bullain SS, Sahin A, Szentirmai O, Sanchez C, Lin N, Baratta E, Waterman P, Weissleder R, Mulligan RC, Carter BS. Genetically engineered T cells to target EGFRvIII expressing glioblastoma. J Neurooncol. 2009 Sep; 94(3):373-82. PMID: 19387557; PMCID: PMC2730985.
  21. Yen L, Stockwell BR, Mulligan RC. A mammalian cell-based assay for screening inhibitors of RNA cleavage. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 540:335-47. PMID: 19381571.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Kuhnert F, Tam BY, Sennino B, Gray JT, Yuan J, Jocson A, Nayak NR, Mulligan RC, McDonald DM, Kuo CJ. Soluble receptor-mediated selective inhibition of VEGFR and PDGFRbeta signaling during physiologic and tumor angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 22; 105(29):10185-90. PMID: 18632559; PMCID: PMC2474564.
  23. Rodino-Klapac LR, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Clark KR, Mendell JR. Lack of toxicity of alpha-sarcoglycan overexpression supports clinical gene transfer trial in LGMD2D. Neurology. 2008 Jul 22; 71(4):240-7. PMID: 18525034.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Szentirmai O, Baker CH, Bullain SS, Lin N, Takahashi M, Folkman J, Mulligan RC, Carter BS. Successful inhibition of intracranial human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft growth via systemic adenoviral delivery of soluble endostatin and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2008 May; 108(5):979-88. PMID: 18447716; PMCID: PMC4459889.
  25. Austin KM, Gupta ML, Coats SA, Tulpule A, Mostoslavsky G, Balazs AB, Mulligan RC, Daley G, Pellman D, Shimamura A. Mitotic spindle destabilization and genomic instability in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr; 118(4):1511-8. PMID: 18324336; PMCID: PMC2263145.
  26. Sweet LH, Paskavitz JF, Haley AP, Gunstad JJ, Mulligan RC, Nyalakanti PK, Cohen RA. Imaging phonological similarity effects on verbal working memory. Neuropsychologia. 2008 Mar 07; 46(4):1114-23. PMID: 18155074.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Paul R, Grieve SM, Chaudary B, Gordon N, Lawrence J, Cooper N, Clark CR, Kukla M, Mulligan R, Gordon E. Relative contributions of the cerebellar vermis and prefrontal lobe volumes on cognitive function across the adult lifespan. Neurobiol Aging. 2009 Mar; 30(3):457-65. PMID: 17869383.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Link KH, Guo L, Ames TD, Yen L, Mulligan RC, Breaker RR. Engineering high-speed allosteric hammerhead ribozymes. Biol Chem. 2007 Aug; 388(8):779-86. PMID: 17655496.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Chan RK, Garfein E, Gigante PR, Liu P, Agha RA, Mulligan R, Orgill DP. Side population hematopoietic stem cells promote wound healing in diabetic mice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Aug; 120(2):407-11; discussion 412-3. PMID: 17632341.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Glodek AM, Le Y, Dykxhoorn DM, Park SY, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan R, Lieberman J, Beggs HE, Honczarenko M, Silberstein LE. Focal adhesion kinase is required for CXCL12-induced chemotactic and pro-adhesive responses in hematopoietic precursor cells. Leukemia. 2007 Aug; 21(8):1723-32. PMID: 17568820.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Butler MO, Lee JS, Ansén S, Neuberg D, Hodi FS, Murray AP, Drury L, Berezovskaya A, Mulligan RC, Nadler LM, Hirano N. Long-lived antitumor CD8+ lymphocytes for adoptive therapy generated using an artificial antigen-presenting cell. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 15; 13(6):1857-67. PMID: 17363542.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Kaipainen A, Kieran MW, Huang S, Butterfield C, Bielenberg D, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan R, Folkman J, Panigrahy D. PPARalpha deficiency in inflammatory cells suppresses tumor growth. PLoS One. 2007 Feb 28; 2(2):e260. PMID: 17327920; PMCID: PMC1800345.
  33. Hägerkvist R, Mokhtari D, Lindholm C, Farnebo F, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan RC, Welsh N, Welsh M. Consequences of Shb and c-Abl interactions for cell death in response to various stress stimuli. Exp Cell Res. 2007 Jan 15; 313(2):284-91. PMID: 17112510.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Mostoslavsky G, Fabian AJ, Rooney S, Alt FW, Mulligan RC. Complete correction of murine Artemis immunodeficiency by lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31; 103(44):16406-11. PMID: 17062750; PMCID: PMC1637595.
  35. Murphy GJ, Mostoslavsky G, Kotton DN, Mulligan RC. Exogenous control of mammalian gene expression via modulation of translational termination. Nat Med. 2006 Sep; 12(9):1093-9. PMID: 16892063.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Bullain SS, Szentirmai O, Lin N, Sanchez CE, Mulligan RC, Carter B. Chimeric T-cell Receptor Therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme 895. Neurosurgery. 2006 Aug 01; 59(2):486. PMID: 28180724.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Tam BY, Wei K, Rudge JS, Hoffman J, Holash J, Park SK, Yuan J, Hefner C, Chartier C, Lee JS, Jiang S, Nayak NR, Niyak NR, Kuypers FA, Ma L, Sundram U, Wu G, Garcia JA, Schrier SL, Maher JJ, Johnson RS, Yancopoulos GD, Mulligan RC, Kuo CJ. VEGF modulates erythropoiesis through regulation of adult hepatic erythropoietin synthesis. Nat Med. 2006 Jul; 12(7):793-800. PMID: 16799557.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Simons JW, Carducci MA, Mikhak B, Lim M, Biedrzycki B, Borellini F, Clift SM, Hege KM, Ando DG, Piantadosi S, Mulligan R, Nelson WG. Phase I/II trial of an allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in hormone-naïve prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 01; 12(11 Pt 1):3394-401. PMID: 16740763.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Yan CT, Kaushal D, Murphy M, Zhang Y, Datta A, Chen C, Monroe B, Mostoslavsky G, Coakley K, Gao Y, Mills KD, Fazeli AP, Tepsuporn S, Hall G, Mulligan R, Fox E, Bronson R, De Girolami U, Lee C, Alt FW. XRCC4 suppresses medulloblastomas with recurrent translocations in p53-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 09; 103(19):7378-83. PMID: 16670198; PMCID: PMC1464348.
  40. Yen L, Magnier M, Weissleder R, Stockwell BR, Mulligan RC. Identification of inhibitors of ribozyme self-cleavage in mammalian cells via high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. RNA. 2006 May; 12(5):797-806. PMID: 16556935; PMCID: PMC1440893.
  41. Szentirmai O, Baker CH, Lin N, Szucs S, Takahashi M, Kiryu S, Kung AL, Mulligan RC, Carter BS. Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of luciferase expressing intracranial U87 xenografts: correlation with magnetic resonance imaging determined tumor volume and longitudinal use in assessing tumor growth and antiangiogenic treatment effect. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(2):365-72; discussion 365-72. PMID: 16462491.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Mostoslavsky R, Chua KF, Lombard DB, Pang WW, Fischer MR, Gellon L, Liu P, Mostoslavsky G, Franco S, Murphy MM, Mills KD, Patel P, Hsu JT, Hong AL, Ford E, Cheng HL, Kennedy C, Nunez N, Bronson R, Frendewey D, Auerbach W, Valenzuela D, Karow M, Hottiger MO, Hursting S, Barrett JC, Guarente L, Mulligan R, Demple B, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Genomic instability and aging-like phenotype in the absence of mammalian SIRT6. Cell. 2006 Jan 27; 124(2):315-29. PMID: 16439206.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Balazs AB, Fabian AJ, Esmon CT, Mulligan RC. Endothelial protein C receptor (CD201) explicitly identifies hematopoietic stem cells in murine bone marrow. Blood. 2006 Mar 15; 107(6):2317-21. PMID: 16304059; PMCID: PMC1895725.
  44. Levenberg S, Rouwkema J, Macdonald M, Garfein ES, Kohane DS, Darland DC, Marini R, van Blitterswijk CA, Mulligan RC, D'Amore PA, Langer R. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue. Nat Biotechnol. 2005 Jul; 23(7):879-84. PMID: 15965465.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Kotton DN, Fabian AJ, Mulligan RC. Failure of bone marrow to reconstitute lung epithelium. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005 Oct; 33(4):328-34. PMID: 15961722; PMCID: PMC2715341.
  46. Mostoslavsky G, Kotton DN, Fabian AJ, Gray JT, Lee JS, Mulligan RC. Efficiency of transduction of highly purified murine hematopoietic stem cells by lentiviral and oncoretroviral vectors under conditions of minimal in vitro manipulation. Mol Ther. 2005 Jun; 11(6):932-40. PMID: 15922964.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Kotton DN, Fabian AJ, Mulligan RC. A novel stem-cell population in adult liver with potent hematopoietic-reconstitution activity. Blood. 2005 Sep 01; 106(5):1574-80. PMID: 15870171; PMCID: PMC1895213.
  48. Mackinnon A, Mulligan R. [The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels in French speakers]. Encephale. 2005 Jan-Feb; 31(1 Pt 1):31-43. PMID: 15971638.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Fernandes JR, Duvivier-Kali VF, Keegan M, Hollister-Lock J, Omer A, Su S, Bonner-Weir S, Feng S, Lee JS, Mulligan RC, Weir GC. Transplantation of islets transduced with CTLA4-Ig and TGFbeta using adenovirus and lentivirus vectors. Transpl Immunol. 2004 Nov; 13(3):191-200. PMID: 15381202.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Tani K, Azuma M, Nakazaki Y, Oyaizu N, Hase H, Ohata J, Takahashi K, OiwaMonna M, Hanazawa K, Wakumoto Y, Kawai K, Noguchi M, Soda Y, Kunisaki R, Watari K, Takahashi S, Machida U, Satoh N, Tojo A, Maekawa T, Eriguchi M, Tomikawa S, Tahara H, Inoue Y, Yoshikawa H, Yamada Y, Iwamoto A, Hamada H, Yamashita N, Okumura K, Kakizoe T, Akaza H, Fujime M, Clift S, Ando D, Mulligan R, Asano S. Phase I study of autologous tumor vaccines transduced with the GM-CSF gene in four patients with stage IV renal cell cancer in Japan: clinical and immunological findings. Mol Ther. 2004 Oct; 10(4):799-816. PMID: 15451464.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Yen L, Svendsen J, Lee JS, Gray JT, Magnier M, Baba T, D'Amato RJ, Mulligan RC. Exogenous control of mammalian gene expression through modulation of RNA self-cleavage. Nature. 2004 Sep 23; 431(7007):471-6. PMID: 15386015.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Chang LK, Garcia-Cardeña G, Farnebo F, Fannon M, Chen EJ, Butterfield C, Moses MA, Mulligan RC, Folkman J, Kaipainen A. Dose-dependent response of FGF-2 for lymphangiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 10; 101(32):11658-63. PMID: 15289610; PMCID: PMC511009.
  53. Michurina T, Krasnov P, Balazs A, Nakaya N, Vasilieva T, Kuzin B, Khrushchov N, Mulligan RC, Enikolopov G. Nitric oxide is a regulator of hematopoietic stem cell activity. Mol Ther. 2004 Aug; 10(2):241-8. PMID: 15294171.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Perron MJ, Stremlau M, Song B, Ulm W, Mulligan RC, Sodroski J. TRIM5alpha mediates the postentry block to N-tropic murine leukemia viruses in human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 10; 101(32):11827-32. PMID: 15280539; PMCID: PMC511059.
  55. Podar K, Mostoslavsky G, Sattler M, Tai YT, Hayashi T, Catley LP, Hideshima T, Mulligan RC, Chauhan D, Anderson KC. Critical role for hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck)-mediated phosphorylation of Gab1 and Gab2 docking proteins in interleukin 6-induced proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14; 279(20):21658-65. PMID: 15010462.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Matsuzaki Y, Kinjo K, Mulligan RC, Okano H. Unexpectedly efficient homing capacity of purified murine hematopoietic stem cells. Immunity. 2004 Jan; 20(1):87-93. PMID: 14738767.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Griese DP, Ehsan A, Melo LG, Kong D, Zhang L, Mann MJ, Pratt RE, Mulligan RC, Dzau VJ. Isolation and transplantation of autologous circulating endothelial cells into denuded vessels and prosthetic grafts: implications for cell-based vascular therapy. Circulation. 2003 Nov 25; 108(21):2710-5. PMID: 14597586.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Soiffer R, Hodi FS, Haluska F, Jung K, Gillessen S, Singer S, Tanabe K, Duda R, Mentzer S, Jaklitsch M, Bueno R, Clift S, Hardy S, Neuberg D, Mulligan R, Webb I, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer augments antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Sep 01; 21(17):3343-50. PMID: 12947071.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Robert C, Klein C, Cheng G, Kogan A, Mulligan RC, von Andrian UH, Kupper TS. Gene therapy to target dendritic cells from blood to lymph nodes. Gene Ther. 2003 Aug; 10(17):1479-86. PMID: 12900763.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Kettner A, Pivniouk V, Kumar L, Falet H, Lee JS, Mulligan R, Geha RS. Structural requirements of SLP-76 in signaling via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fc epsilon RI) in mast cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Apr; 23(7):2395-406. PMID: 12640123; PMCID: PMC150723.
  61. Salgia R, Lynch T, Skarin A, Lucca J, Lynch C, Jung K, Hodi FS, Jaklitsch M, Mentzer S, Swanson S, Lukanich J, Bueno R, Wain J, Mathisen D, Wright C, Fidias P, Donahue D, Clift S, Hardy S, Neuberg D, Mulligan R, Webb I, Sugarbaker D, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Vaccination with irradiated autologous tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments antitumor immunity in some patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Feb 15; 21(4):624-30. PMID: 12586798.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Klein C, Nguyen D, Liu CH, Mizoguchi A, Bhan AK, Miki H, Takenawa T, Rosen FS, Alt FW, Mulligan RC, Snapper SB. Gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: rescue of T-cell signaling and amelioration of colitis upon transplantation of retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Blood. 2003 Mar 15; 101(6):2159-66. PMID: 12433691.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Conte MS, Mann MJ, Simosa HF, Rhynhart KK, Mulligan RC. Genetic interventions for vein bypass graft disease: a review. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Nov; 36(5):1040-52. PMID: 12422116.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Tseng JF, Farnebo FA, Kisker O, Becker CM, Kuo CJ, Folkman J, Mulligan RC. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of a soluble form of the VEGF receptor Flk1 delays the growth of murine and human pancreatic adenocarcinoma in mice. Surgery. 2002 Nov; 132(5):857-65. PMID: 12464871.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Ramalho-Santos M, Yoon S, Matsuzaki Y, Mulligan RC, Melton DA. "Stemness": transcriptional profiling of embryonic and adult stem cells. Science. 2002 Oct 18; 298(5593):597-600. PMID: 12228720.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Becker CM, Farnebo FA, Iordanescu I, Behonick DJ, Shih MC, Dunning P, Christofferson R, Mulligan RC, Taylor GA, Kuo CJ, Zetter BR. Gene therapy of prostate cancer with the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Flk1. Cancer Biol Ther. 2002 Sep-Oct; 1(5):548-53. PMID: 12496487.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Kawai K, Tani K, Yamashita N, Tomikawa S, Eriguchi M, Fujime M, Okumura K, Kakizoe T, Clift S, Ando D, Mulligan R, Yamauchi A, Noguchi M, Asano S, Akaza H. Advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene therapy: a clinical course of the first Japanese experience. Int J Urol. 2002 Aug; 9(8):462-6. PMID: 12225344.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Heinz M, Huang CA, Emery DW, Giovino MA, LeGuern A, Kurilla-Mahon B, Theodore P, Arn JS, Sykes M, Mulligan R, Down JD, Sachs DH, Goodell MA. Use of CD9 expression to enrich for porcine hematopoietic progenitors. Exp Hematol. 2002 Jul; 30(7):809-15. PMID: 12135680.
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  69. Tseng JF, Mulligan RC. Gene therapy for pancreatic cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2002 Jul; 11(3):537-69. PMID: 12487056.
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  70. Niederman TM, Ghogawala Z, Carter BS, Tompkins HS, Russell MM, Mulligan RC. Antitumor activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes engineered to target vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 14; 99(10):7009-14. PMID: 11997459; PMCID: PMC124519.
  71. Snapper SB, Takeshima F, Antón I, Liu CH, Thomas SM, Nguyen D, Dudley D, Fraser H, Purich D, Lopez-Ilasaca M, Klein C, Davidson L, Bronson R, Mulligan RC, Southwick F, Geha R, Goldberg MB, Rosen FS, Hartwig JH, Alt FW. N-WASP deficiency reveals distinct pathways for cell surface projections and microbial actin-based motility. Nat Cell Biol. 2001 Oct; 3(10):897-904. PMID: 11584271.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Hilton JF, Alves M, Anastos K, Canchola AJ, Cohen M, Delapenha R, Greenspan D, Levine A, MacPhail LA, Micci SJ, Mulligan R, Navazesh M, Phelan J, Tsaknis P. Accuracy of diagnoses of HIV-related oral lesions by medical clinicians. Findings from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2001 Oct; 29(5):362-72. PMID: 11553109.
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  73. Mackinnon A, Mulligan R. The Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales (PAS): psychometric properties in French and German speaking populations. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001 Sep; 16(9):892-9. PMID: 11571770.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Faradji RN, Havari E, Chen Q, Gray J, Tornheim K, Corkey BE, Mulligan RC, Lipes MA. Glucose-induced toxicity in insulin-producing pituitary cells that coexpress GLUT2 and glucokinase. Implications for metabolic engineering. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 28; 276(39):36695-702. PMID: 11443115.
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  75. Kuo CJ, Farnebo F, Yu EY, Christofferson R, Swearingen RA, Carter R, von Recum HA, Yuan J, Kamihara J, Flynn E, D'Amato R, Folkman J, Mulligan RC. Comparative evaluation of the antitumor activity of antiangiogenic proteins delivered by gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 10; 98(8):4605-10. PMID: 11274374; PMCID: PMC31881.
  76. Kuo CJ, LaMontagne KR, Garcia-Cardeña G, Ackley BD, Kalman D, Park S, Christofferson R, Kamihara J, Ding YH, Lo KM, Gillies S, Folkman J, Mulligan RC, Javaherian K. Oligomerization-dependent regulation of motility and morphogenesis by the collagen XVIII NC1/endostatin domain. J Cell Biol. 2001 Mar 19; 152(6):1233-46. PMID: 11257123; PMCID: PMC2199214.
  77. Snitkovsky S, Niederman TM, Mulligan RC, Young JA. Targeting avian leukosis virus subgroup A vectors by using a TVA-VEGF bridge protein. J Virol. 2001 Feb; 75(3):1571-5. PMID: 11152532; PMCID: PMC114065.
  78. Lundberg C, Jungles SJ, Mulligan RC. Direct delivery of leptin to the hypothalamus using recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors results in increased therapeutic efficacy. Nat Biotechnol. 2001 Feb; 19(2):169-72. PMID: 11175734.
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  79. Hirosue S, Müller BG, Mulligan RC, Langer R. Plasmid DNA encapsulation and release from solvent diffusion nanospheres. J Control Release. 2001 Jan 29; 70(1-2):231-42. PMID: 11166423.
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  80. Snitkovsky S, Niederman TM, Carter BS, Mulligan RC, Young JA. A TVA-single-chain antibody fusion protein mediates specific targeting of a subgroup A avian leukosis virus vector to cells expressing a tumor-specific form of epidermal growth factor receptor. J Virol. 2000 Oct; 74(20):9540-5. PMID: 11000224; PMCID: PMC112384.
  81. Storms RW, Goodell MA, Fisher A, Mulligan RC, Smith C. Hoechst dye efflux reveals a novel CD7(+)CD34(-) lymphoid progenitor in human umbilical cord blood. Blood. 2000 Sep 15; 96(6):2125-33. PMID: 10979957.
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  82. Greenspan D, Komaroff E, Redford M, Phelan JA, Navazesh M, Alves ME, Kamrath H, Mulligan R, Barr CE, Greenspan JS. Oral mucosal lesions and HIV viral load in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Sep 01; 25(1):44-50. PMID: 11064503.
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  83. Navazesh M, Mulligan R, Komaroff E, Redford M, Greenspan D, Phelan J. The prevalence of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction in a cohort of HIV-positive and at-risk women. J Dent Res. 2000 Jul; 79(7):1502-7. PMID: 11005735.
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  84. Dahl AM, Klein C, Andres PG, London CA, Lodge MP, Mulligan RC, Abbas AK. Expression of bcl-X(L) restores cell survival, but not proliferation off effector differentiation, in CD28-deficient T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2000 Jun 19; 191(12):2031-8. PMID: 10859328; PMCID: PMC2193206.
  85. Klein C, Bueler H, Mulligan RC. Comparative analysis of genetically modified dendritic cells and tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines. J Exp Med. 2000 May 15; 191(10):1699-708. PMID: 10811863; PMCID: PMC2193145.
  86. Feng D, Nagy JA, Brekken RA, Pettersson A, Manseau EJ, Pyne K, Mulligan R, Thorpe PE, Dvorak HF, Dvorak AM. Ultrastructural localization of the vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) receptor-2 (FLK-1, KDR) in normal mouse kidney and in the hyperpermeable vessels induced by VPF/VEGF-expressing tumors and adenoviral vectors. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000 Apr; 48(4):545-56. PMID: 10727296.
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  87. Pettersson A, Nagy JA, Brown LF, Sundberg C, Morgan E, Jungles S, Carter R, Krieger JE, Manseau EJ, Harvey VS, Eckelhoefer IA, Feng D, Dvorak AM, Mulligan RC, Dvorak HF. Heterogeneity of the angiogenic response induced in different normal adult tissues by vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor. Lab Invest. 2000 Jan; 80(1):99-115. PMID: 10653008.
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  88. Nelson WG, Simons JW, Mikhak B, Chang JF, DeMarzo AM, Carducci MA, Kim M, Weber CE, Baccala AA, Goeman MA, Clift SM, Ando DG, Levitsky HI, Cohen LK, Sanda MG, Mulligan RC, Partin AW, Carter HB, Piantadosi S, Marshall FF. Cancer cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor using ex vivo gene transfer as vaccines for the treatment of genitourinary malignancies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2000; 46 Suppl:S67-72. PMID: 10950151.
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  89. Dzau V, Frank M, Reich M, Austin MJ, Aebersold R, Cowley A, Housman D, Mulligan R, Rosenberg R. Constants and scientific progress. Physiol Genomics. 1999 Nov 11; 1(3):107. PMID: 11015568.
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  90. Simons JW, Mikhak B, Chang JF, DeMarzo AM, Carducci MA, Lim M, Weber CE, Baccala AA, Goemann MA, Clift SM, Ando DG, Levitsky HI, Cohen LK, Sanda MG, Mulligan RC, Partin AW, Carter HB, Piantadosi S, Marshall FF, Nelson WG. Induction of immunity to prostate cancer antigens: results of a clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated autologous prostate tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor using ex vivo gene transfer. Cancer Res. 1999 Oct 15; 59(20):5160-8. PMID: 10537292.
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  91. Gussoni E, Soneoka Y, Strickland CD, Buzney EA, Khan MK, Flint AF, Kunkel LM, Mulligan RC. Dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse restored by stem cell transplantation. Nature. 1999 Sep 23; 401(6751):390-4. PMID: 10517639.
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  92. Dzau VJ, Austin MJ, Brown P, Cowley A, Housman D, Mulligan R, Rosenberg R. Revolution and renaissance. Physiol Genomics. 1999 Jul 15; 1(1):1-2. PMID: 11015554.
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  93. Feng S, Quickel RR, Hollister-Lock J, McLeod M, Bonner-Weir S, Mulligan RC, Weir GC. Prolonged xenograft survival of islets infected with small doses of adenovirus expressing CTLA4Ig. Transplantation. 1999 Jun 27; 67(12):1607-13. PMID: 10401769.
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  94. Zehntner S, Townsend W, Parkes J, Schmidt C, Down M, Bell J, Mulligan R, O'Rourke M, Ellem K, Thomas R. Tumor metastasis biopsy as a surrogate marker of response to melanoma immunotherapy. Pathology. 1999 May; 31(2):116-22. PMID: 10399166.
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  95. Rebel VI, Tanaka M, Lee JS, Hartnett S, Pulsipher M, Nathan DG, Mulligan RC, Sieff CA. One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus. Blood. 1999 Apr 01; 93(7):2217-24. PMID: 10090930.
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  96. Soiffer R, Lynch T, Mihm M, Jung K, Rhuda C, Schmollinger JC, Hodi FS, Liebster L, Lam P, Mentzer S, Singer S, Tanabe KK, Cosimi AB, Duda R, Sober A, Bhan A, Daley J, Neuberg D, Parry G, Rokovich J, Richards L, Drayer J, Berns A, Clift S, Cohen LK, Mulligan RC, Dranoff G. Vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 27; 95(22):13141-6. PMID: 9789055; PMCID: PMC23738.
  97. Pulsipher M, Kupfer GM, Naf D, Suliman A, Lee JS, Jakobs P, Grompe M, Joenje H, Sieff C, Guinan E, Mulligan R, D'Andrea AD. Subtyping analysis of Fanconi anemia by immunoblotting and retroviral gene transfer. Mol Med. 1998 Jul; 4(7):468-79. PMID: 9713825; PMCID: PMC2230330.
  98. Gainsford T, Roberts AW, Kimura S, Metcalf D, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Begley CG, Robb L, Alexander WS. Cytokine production and function in c-mpl-deficient mice: no physiologic role for interleukin-3 in residual megakaryocyte and platelet production. Blood. 1998 Apr 15; 91(8):2745-52. PMID: 9531584.
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  99. Lantz CS, Boesiger J, Song CH, Mach N, Kobayashi T, Mulligan RC, Nawa Y, Dranoff G, Galli SJ. Role for interleukin-3 in mast-cell and basophil development and in immunity to parasites. Nature. 1998 Mar 05; 392(6671):90-3. PMID: 9510253.
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  100. Mach N, Lantz CS, Galli SJ, Reznikoff G, Mihm M, Small C, Granstein R, Beissert S, Sadelain M, Mulligan RC, Dranoff G. Involvement of interleukin-3 in delayed-type hypersensitivity. Blood. 1998 Feb 01; 91(3):778-83. PMID: 9446636.
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  101. McArthur JG, Mulligan RC. Induction of protective anti-tumor immunity by gene-modified dendritic cells. J Immunother. 1998 Jan; 21(1):41-7. PMID: 9456435.
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  102. Sonderbye L, Feng S, Yacoubian S, Buehler H, Ahsan N, Mulligan R, Langhoff E. In vivo and in vitro modulation of immune stimulatory capacity of primary dendritic cells by adenovirus-mediated gene transduction. Exp Clin Immunogenet. 1998; 15(2):100-11. PMID: 9691204.
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  103. Goodell MA, Rosenzweig M, Kim H, Marks DF, DeMaria M, Paradis G, Grupp SA, Sieff CA, Mulligan RC, Johnson RP. Dye efflux studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells expressing low or undetectable levels of CD34 antigen exist in multiple species. Nat Med. 1997 Dec; 3(12):1337-45. PMID: 9396603.
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  104. Kaptein LC, Van Beusechem VW, Rivière I, Mulligan RC, Valerio D. Long-term in vivo expression of the MFG-ADA retroviral vector in rhesus monkeys transplanted with transduced bone marrow cells. Hum Gene Ther. 1997 Sep 01; 8(13):1605-10. PMID: 9322093.
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  105. Lindemann D, Patriquin E, Feng S, Mulligan RC. Versatile retrovirus vector systems for regulated gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Mol Med. 1997 Jul; 3(7):466-76. PMID: 9260158; PMCID: PMC2230217.
  106. Simons JW, Jaffee EM, Weber CE, Levitsky HI, Nelson WG, Carducci MA, Lazenby AJ, Cohen LK, Finn CC, Clift SM, Hauda KM, Beck LA, Leiferman KM, Owens AH, Piantadosi S, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Pardoll DM, Marshall FF. Bioactivity of autologous irradiated renal cell carcinoma vaccines generated by ex vivo granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transfer. Cancer Res. 1997 Apr 15; 57(8):1537-46. PMID: 9108457; PMCID: PMC4084516.
  107. Ellem KA, O'Rourke MG, Johnson GR, Parry G, Misko IS, Schmidt CW, Parsons PG, Burrows SR, Cross S, Fell A, Li CL, Bell JR, Dubois PJ, Moss DJ, Good MF, Kelso A, Cohen LK, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC. A case report: immune responses and clinical course of the first human use of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-transduced autologous melanoma cells for immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1997 Mar; 44(1):10-20. PMID: 9111579.
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  108. Lieschke GJ, Rao PK, Gately MK, Mulligan RC. Bioactive murine and human interleukin-12 fusion proteins which retain antitumor activity in vivo. Nat Biotechnol. 1997 Jan; 15(1):35-40. PMID: 9035103.
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  109. Dranoff G, Soiffer R, Lynch T, Mihm M, Jung K, Kolesar K, Liebster L, Lam P, Duda R, Mentzer S, Singer S, Tanabe K, Johnson R, Sober A, Bhan A, Clift S, Cohen L, Parry G, Rokovich J, Richards L, Drayer J, Berns A, Mulligan RC. A phase I study of vaccination with autologous, irradiated melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Hum Gene Ther. 1997 Jan 01; 8(1):111-23. PMID: 8990000.
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  110. Ory DS, Neugeboren BA, Mulligan RC. A stable human-derived packaging cell line for production of high titer retrovirus/vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 15; 93(21):11400-6. PMID: 8876147; PMCID: PMC38069.
  111. Naito T, Yokoyama H, Moore KJ, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Kelley VR. A gene transfer system establishes interleukin-6 neither promotes nor suppresses renal injury. Am J Physiol. 1996 Sep; 271(3 Pt 2):F603-9. PMID: 8853422.
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  112. Büeler H, Mulligan RC. Induction of antigen-specific tumor immunity by genetic and cellular vaccines against MAGE: enhanced tumor protection by coexpression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and B7-1. Mol Med. 1996 Sep; 2(5):545-55. PMID: 8898371; PMCID: PMC2230202.
  113. Huang YY, Bach ME, Lipp HP, Zhuo M, Wolfer DP, Hawkins RD, Schoonjans L, Kandel ER, Godfraind JM, Mulligan R, Collen D, Carmeliet P. Mice lacking the gene encoding tissue-type plasminogen activator show a selective interference with late-phase long-term potentiation in both Schaffer collateral and mossy fiber pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Aug 06; 93(16):8699-704. PMID: 8710934; PMCID: PMC38736.
  114. Lanske B, Karaplis AC, Lee K, Luz A, Vortkamp A, Pirro A, Karperien M, Defize LH, Ho C, Mulligan RC, Abou-Samra AB, Jüppner H, Segre GV, Kronenberg HM. PTH/PTHrP receptor in early development and Indian hedgehog-regulated bone growth. Science. 1996 Aug 02; 273(5275):663-6. PMID: 8662561.
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  115. Naito T, Yokoyama H, Moore KJ, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Kelley VR. Macrophage growth factors introduced into the kidney initiate renal injury. Mol Med. 1996 May; 2(3):297-312. PMID: 8784783; PMCID: PMC2230158.
  116. Naldini L, Blömer U, Gallay P, Ory D, Mulligan R, Gage FH, Verma IM, Trono D. In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science. 1996 Apr 12; 272(5259):263-7. PMID: 8602510.
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  117. Chang AE, Sondak VK, Bishop DK, Nickoloff BJ, Mulligan RC, Mulé JJ. Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer with activated lymph node cells primed in vivo with autologous tumor cells transduced with the GM-CSF gene. Hum Gene Ther. 1996 Apr 10; 7(6):773-92. PMID: 9053030.
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  118. Goodell MA, Brose K, Paradis G, Conner AS, Mulligan RC. Isolation and functional properties of murine hematopoietic stem cells that are replicating in vivo. J Exp Med. 1996 Apr 01; 183(4):1797-806. PMID: 8666936; PMCID: PMC2192511.
  119. Ikegami M, Ueda T, Hull W, Whitsett JA, Mulligan RC, Dranoff G, Jobe AH. Surfactant metabolism in transgenic mice after granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor ablation. Am J Physiol. 1996 Apr; 270(4 Pt 1):L650-8. PMID: 8928826.
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  120. Dewerchin M, Nuffelen AV, Wallays G, Bouché A, Moons L, Carmeliet P, Mulligan RC, Collen D. Generation and characterization of urokinase receptor-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1996 Feb 01; 97(3):870-8. PMID: 8609247; PMCID: PMC507128.
  121. Huffman JA, Hull WM, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Whitsett JA. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of GM-CSF corrects the alveolar proteinosis in GM-CSF-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1996 Feb 01; 97(3):649-55. PMID: 8609219; PMCID: PMC507100.
  122. Hakim LS, Kulaksizoglu H, Mulligan R, Greenfield A, Goldstein I. Evolving concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of arterial high flow priapism. J Urol. 1996 Feb; 155(2):541-8. PMID: 8558656.
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  123. Yokoyama H, Naito T, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Rubin-Kelley V. Gene transfer of macrophage growth factors into the kidney of lpr mice initiates renal injury. Contrib Nephrol. 1996; 118:94-9. PMID: 8744045.
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  124. Krall WJ, Skelton DC, Yu XJ, Riviere I, Lehn P, Mulligan RC, Kohn DB. Increased levels of spliced RNA account for augmented expression from the MFG retroviral vector in hematopoietic cells. Gene Ther. 1996 Jan; 3(1):37-48. PMID: 8929910.
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  125. Leonardsson G, Peng XR, Liu K, Nordström L, Carmeliet P, Mulligan R, Collen D, Ny T. Ovulation efficiency is reduced in mice that lack plasminogen activator gene function: functional redundancy among physiological plasminogen activators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Dec 19; 92(26):12446-50. PMID: 8618918; PMCID: PMC40374.
  126. Tani K, Lin T, Hibino H, Takahashi K, Nakazaki Y, Takahashi S, Nagayama H, Ozawa K, Saitoh I, Mulligan R, et al. Transduction of LacZ gene into leukemia cells using viral vectors of retrovirus and adenovirus. Leukemia. 1995 Oct; 9 Suppl 1:S64-5. PMID: 7475316.
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  127. Hurford RK, Dranoff G, Mulligan RC, Tepper RI. Gene therapy of metastatic cancer by in vivo retroviral gene targeting. Nat Genet. 1995 Aug; 10(4):430-5. PMID: 7670493.
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  128. Sadelain M, Wang CH, Antoniou M, Grosveld F, Mulligan RC. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human beta-globin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jul 18; 92(15):6728-32. PMID: 7624311; PMCID: PMC41402.
  129. Rivière I, Brose K, Mulligan RC. Effects of retroviral vector design on expression of human adenosine deaminase in murine bone marrow transplant recipients engrafted with genetically modified cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jul 18; 92(15):6733-7. PMID: 7624312; PMCID: PMC41403.
  130. Willemsen R, Tybulewicz V, Sidransky E, Eliason WK, Martin BM, LaMarca ME, Reuser AJ, Tremblay M, Westphal H, Mulligan RC, et al. A biochemical and ultrastructural evaluation of the type 2 Gaucher mouse. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1995 Feb-Apr; 24(2-3):179-92. PMID: 7632321.
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  131. Carmeliet P, Bouché A, De Clercq C, Janssen S, Pollefeyt S, Wyns S, Mulligan RC, Collen D. Biological effects of disruption of the tissue-type plasminogen activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 genes in mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Jan 17; 748:367-81; discussion 381-2. PMID: 7695179.
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  132. Dranoff G, Mulligan RC. Gene transfer as cancer therapy. Adv Immunol. 1995; 58:417-54. PMID: 7741031.
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  133. Shworak NW, Shirakawa M, Colliec-Jouault S, Liu J, Mulligan RC, Birinyi LK, Rosenberg RD. Pathway-specific regulation of the synthesis of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 07; 269(40):24941-52. PMID: 7929177.
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  134. Carmeliet P, Mulligan RC, Collen D. Transgenic animals as tools for the study of fibrinolysis in vivo. J Intern Med. 1994 Oct; 236(4):455-9. PMID: 7931048.
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  135. Vogt PM, Thompson S, Andree C, Liu P, Breuing K, Hatzis D, Brown H, Mulligan RC, Eriksson E. Genetically modified keratinocytes transplanted to wounds reconstitute the epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 27; 91(20):9307-11. PMID: 7937761; PMCID: PMC44801.
  136. Shworak NW, Shirakawa M, Mulligan RC, Rosenberg RD. Characterization of ryudocan glycosaminoglycan acceptor sites. J Biol Chem. 1994 Aug 19; 269(33):21204-14. PMID: 7520439.
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  137. Conte MS, Birinyi LK, Miyata T, Fallon JT, Gold HK, Whittemore AD, Mulligan RC. Efficient repopulation of denuded rabbit arteries with autologous genetically modified endothelial cells. Circulation. 1994 May; 89(5):2161-9. PMID: 8181141.
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  138. Carmeliet P, Schoonjans L, Kieckens L, Ream B, Degen J, Bronson R, De Vos R, van den Oord JJ, Collen D, Mulligan RC. Physiological consequences of loss of plasminogen activator gene function in mice. Nature. 1994 Mar 31; 368(6470):419-24. PMID: 8133887.
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  139. Sanda MG, Ayyagari SR, Jaffee EM, Epstein JI, Clift SL, Cohen LK, Dranoff G, Pardoll DM, Mulligan RC, Simons JW. Demonstration of a rational strategy for human prostate cancer gene therapy. J Urol. 1994 Mar; 151(3):622-8. PMID: 8308972.
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  140. Karaplis AC, Luz A, Glowacki J, Bronson RT, Tybulewicz VL, Kronenberg HM, Mulligan RC. Lethal skeletal dysplasia from targeted disruption of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide gene. Genes Dev. 1994 Feb 01; 8(3):277-89. PMID: 8314082.
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  141. Dranoff G, Mulligan RC. Activities of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor revealed by gene transfer and gene knockout studies. Stem Cells. 1994; 12 Suppl 1:173-82; discussion 182-4. PMID: 7696961.
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  142. Carmeliet P, Kieckens L, Schoonjans L, Ream B, van Nuffelen A, Prendergast G, Cole M, Bronson R, Collen D, Mulligan RC. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene-deficient mice. I. Generation by homologous recombination and characterization. J Clin Invest. 1993 Dec; 92(6):2746-55. PMID: 8254028; PMCID: PMC288473.
  143. Carmeliet P, Stassen JM, Schoonjans L, Ream B, van den Oord JJ, De Mol M, Mulligan RC, Collen D. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene-deficient mice. II. Effects on hemostasis, thrombosis, and thrombolysis. J Clin Invest. 1993 Dec; 92(6):2756-60. PMID: 8254029; PMCID: PMC288474.
  144. Sekhsaria S, Gallin JI, Linton GF, Mallory RM, Mulligan RC, Malech HL. Peripheral blood progenitors as a target for genetic correction of p47phox-deficient chronic granulomatous disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 15; 90(16):7446-50. PMID: 8395049; PMCID: PMC47158.
  145. Silver DP, Spanopoulou E, Mulligan RC, Baltimore D. Dispensable sequence motifs in the RAG-1 and RAG-2 genes for plasmid V(D)J recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul 01; 90(13):6100-4. PMID: 8327489; PMCID: PMC46875.
  146. Jaffee EM, Dranoff G, Cohen LK, Hauda KM, Clift S, Marshall FF, Mulligan RC, Pardoll DM. High efficiency gene transfer into primary human tumor explants without cell selection. Cancer Res. 1993 May 15; 53(10 Suppl):2221-6. PMID: 8485707.
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  147. Mulligan RC. The basic science of gene therapy. Science. 1993 May 14; 260(5110):926-32. PMID: 8493530.
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  148. Dranoff G, Jaffee E, Lazenby A, Golumbek P, Levitsky H, Brose K, Jackson V, Hamada H, Pardoll D, Mulligan RC. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15; 90(8):3539-43. PMID: 8097319; PMCID: PMC46336.
  149. Berinyi LK, Conte MS, Mulligan RC. Repopulation of injured arteries with genetically modified endothelial cells. J Vasc Surg. 1992 May; 15(5):932-4. PMID: 1578575.
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  150. Wilson JM, Grossman M, Thompson AR, Lupassikis C, Rosenberg A, Potts JT, Kronenberg HM, Mulligan RC, Nussbaum SR. Somatic gene transfer in the development of an animal model for primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrinology. 1992 May; 130(5):2947-54. PMID: 1315263.
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  151. Spain LM, Mulligan RC. Purification and characterization of retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 01; 89(9):3790-4. PMID: 1570297; PMCID: PMC525576.
  152. Cone RD, Mulligan RC. High-efficiency gene transfer into mammalian cells: generation of helper-free recombinant retrovirus with broad mammalian host range. 1984. Biotechnology. 1992; 24:420-4. PMID: 1384843.
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  153. Berger HA, Anderson MP, Gregory RJ, Thompson S, Howard PW, Maurer RA, Mulligan R, Smith AE, Welsh MJ. Identification and regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-generated chloride channel. J Clin Invest. 1991 Oct; 88(4):1422-31. PMID: 1717515; PMCID: PMC295615.
  154. Anderson MP, Gregory RJ, Thompson S, Souza DW, Paul S, Mulligan RC, Smith AE, Welsh MJ. Demonstration that CFTR is a chloride channel by alteration of its anion selectivity. Science. 1991 Jul 12; 253(5016):202-5. PMID: 1712984.
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  155. Tybulewicz VL, Crawford CE, Jackson PK, Bronson RT, Mulligan RC. Neonatal lethality and lymphopenia in mice with a homozygous disruption of the c-abl proto-oncogene. Cell. 1991 Jun 28; 65(7):1153-63. PMID: 2065352.
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  156. Wilson JM, Chowdhury NR, Grossman M, Wajsman R, Epstein A, Mulligan RC, Chowdhury JR. Temporary amelioration of hyperlipidemia in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient rabbits transplanted with genetically modified hepatocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov; 87(21):8437-41. PMID: 2236051; PMCID: PMC54971.
  157. Robbins PD, Horowitz JM, Mulligan RC. Negative regulation of human c-fos expression by the retinoblastoma gene product. Nature. 1990 Aug 16; 346(6285):668-71. PMID: 2117257.
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  158. Collins MK, Malde P, Miyajima A, Arai K, Smith KA, Mulligan RC. Evidence that the level of the p55 component of the interleukin (IL) 2 receptor can control IL 2 responsiveness in a murine IL 3-dependent cell. Eur J Immunol. 1990 Mar; 20(3):573-8. PMID: 2318250.
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  159. Wilson JM, Danos O, Grossman M, Raulet DH, Mulligan RC. Expression of human adenosine deaminase in mice reconstituted with retrovirus-transduced hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan; 87(1):439-43. PMID: 2296599; PMCID: PMC53279.
  160. Ch'ng JL, Mulligan RC, Schimmel P, Holmes EW. Antisense RNA complementary to 3' coding and noncoding sequences of creatine kinase is a potent inhibitor of translation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec; 86(24):10006-10. PMID: 2481308; PMCID: PMC298631.
  161. Stuhlmann H, Jaenisch R, Mulligan RC. Transfer of a mutant dihydrofolate reductase gene into pre- and postimplantation mouse embryos by a replication-competent retrovirus vector. J Virol. 1989 Nov; 63(11):4857-65. PMID: 2795720; PMCID: PMC251124.
  162. Wilson JM, Birinyi LK, Salomon RN, Libby P, Callow AD, Mulligan RC. Implantation of vascular grafts lined with genetically modified endothelial cells. Science. 1989 Jun 16; 244(4910):1344-6. PMID: 2734614.
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  163. Barrandon Y, Morgan JR, Mulligan RC, Green H. Restoration of growth potential in paraclones of human keratinocytes by a viral oncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jun; 86(11):4102-6. PMID: 2471195; PMCID: PMC287397.
  164. Lenardo MJ, Staudt L, Robbins P, Kuang A, Mulligan RC, Baltimore D. Repression of the IgH enhancer in teratocarcinoma cells associated with a novel octamer factor. Science. 1989 Jan 27; 243(4890):544-6. PMID: 2536195.
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  165. Stuhlmann H, Jaenisch R, Mulligan RC. Construction and properties of replication-competent murine retroviral vectors encoding methotrexate resistance. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Jan; 9(1):100-8. PMID: 2927389; PMCID: PMC362150.
  166. Wilson JM, Birinyi LK, Salomon RN, Libby P, Callow AD, Mulligan RC. Genetically modified endothelial cells in the treatment of human diseases. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1989; 102:139-47. PMID: 2638522.
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  167. Dostatni N, Yaniv M, Danos O, Mulligan RC. Use of retroviral vectors for mapping of splice sites in cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. J Gen Virol. 1988 Dec; 69 ( Pt 12):3093-100. PMID: 2848927.
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  168. Hartman SC, Mulligan RC. Two dominant-acting selectable markers for gene transfer studies in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Nov; 85(21):8047-51. PMID: 3054879; PMCID: PMC282351.
  169. Collins MK, Downward J, Miyajima A, Maruyama K, Arai K, Mulligan RC. Transfer of functional EGF receptors to an IL3-dependent cell line. J Cell Physiol. 1988 Nov; 137(2):293-8. PMID: 3263970.
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  170. Guild BC, Finer MH, Housman DE, Mulligan RC. Development of retrovirus vectors useful for expressing genes in cultured murine embryonal cells and hematopoietic cells in vivo. J Virol. 1988 Oct; 62(10):3795-801. PMID: 3418785; PMCID: PMC253524.
  171. Danos O, Mulligan RC. Safe and efficient generation of recombinant retroviruses with amphotropic and ecotropic host ranges. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Sep; 85(17):6460-4. PMID: 3413107; PMCID: PMC281992.
  172. Wilson JM, Johnston DE, Jefferson DM, Mulligan RC. Correction of the genetic defect in hepatocytes from the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jun; 85(12):4421-5. PMID: 2454468; PMCID: PMC280441.
  173. Weber-Benarous A, Cone RD, London IM, Mulligan RC. Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of human beta-globin genes in cultured murine and human erythroid cells. J Biol Chem. 1988 May 05; 263(13):6142-5. PMID: 3162912.
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  174. Wilson JM, Jefferson DM, Chowdhury JR, Novikoff PM, Johnston DE, Mulligan RC. Retrovirus-mediated transduction of adult hepatocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 May; 85(9):3014-8. PMID: 2834728; PMCID: PMC280133.
  175. Guild BC, Mulligan RC, Gros P, Housman DE. Retroviral transfer of a murine cDNA for multidrug resistance confers pleiotropic drug resistance to cells without prior drug selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar; 85(5):1595-9. PMID: 3422751; PMCID: PMC279820.
  176. Dzierzak EA, Papayannopoulou T, Mulligan RC. Lineage-specific expression of a human beta-globin gene in murine bone marrow transplant recipients reconstituted with retrovirus-transduced stem cells. Nature. 1988 Jan 07; 331(6151):35-41. PMID: 2893284.
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  177. Dzierzak EA, Mulligan RC. Lineage specific expression of a human beta-globin gene in murine bone marrow transplant recipients. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988; 241:41-3. PMID: 3066166.
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  178. Yang Z, Korman AJ, Cooper J, Pious D, Accolla RS, Mulligan RC, Strominger JL. Expression of HLA-DR antigen in human class II mutant B-cell lines by double infection with retrovirus vectors. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Nov; 7(11):3923-8. PMID: 2828920; PMCID: PMC368060.
  179. Morgan JR, Barrandon Y, Green H, Mulligan RC. Expression of an exogenous growth hormone gene by transplantable human epidermal cells. Science. 1987 Sep 18; 237(4821):1476-9. PMID: 3629250.
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  180. Yamada G, Kitamura Y, Sonoda H, Harada H, Taki S, Mulligan RC, Osawa H, Diamantstein T, Yokoyama S, Taniguchi T. Retroviral expression of the human IL-2 gene in a murine T cell line results in cell growth autonomy and tumorigenicity. EMBO J. 1987 Sep; 6(9):2705-9. PMID: 3119325; PMCID: PMC553693.
  181. Stacey A, Mulligan R, Jaenisch R. Rescue of type I collagen-deficient phenotype by retroviral-vector-mediated transfer of human pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene into Mov-13 cells. J Virol. 1987 Aug; 61(8):2549-54. PMID: 3599181; PMCID: PMC255693.
  182. Williams DA, Hsieh K, DeSilva A, Mulligan RC. Protection of bone marrow transplant recipients from lethal doses of methotrexate by the generation of methotrexate-resistant bone marrow. J Exp Med. 1987 Jul 01; 166(1):210-8. PMID: 3298524; PMCID: PMC2188648.
  183. Cone RD, Reilly EB, Eisen HN, Mulligan RC. Tissue-specific expression of functionally rearranged lambda 1 Ig gene through a retrovirus vector. Science. 1987 May 22; 236(4804):954-7. PMID: 3107128.
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  184. Korman AJ, Frantz JD, Strominger JL, Mulligan RC. Expression of human class II major histocompatibility complex antigens using retrovirus vectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr; 84(8):2150-4. PMID: 3031667; PMCID: PMC304606.
  185. Cone RD, Weber-Benarous A, Baorto D, Mulligan RC. Regulated expression of a complete human beta-globin gene encoded by a transmissible retrovirus vector. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Feb; 7(2):887-97. PMID: 3029570; PMCID: PMC365147.
  186. Schwarzbauer JE, Mulligan RC, Hynes RO. Efficient and stable expression of recombinant fibronectin polypeptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Feb; 84(3):754-8. PMID: 3027700; PMCID: PMC304294.
  187. Auffray C, Lillie JW, Korman AJ, Boss JM, Fréchin N, Guillemot F, Cooper J, Mulligan RC, Strominger JL. Structure and expression of HLA-DQ alpha and -DX alpha genes: interallelic alternate splicing of the HLA-DQ alpha gene and functional splicing of the HLA-DQ alpha gene using a retroviral vector. Immunogenetics. 1987; 26(1-2):63-73. PMID: 3610256.
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  188. Soriano P, Cone RD, Mulligan RC, Jaenisch R. Tissue-specific and ectopic expression of genes introduced into transgenic mice by retroviruses. Science. 1986 Dec 12; 234(4782):1409-13. PMID: 3024318.
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  189. Barklis E, Mulligan RC, Jaenisch R. Chromosomal position or virus mutation permits retrovirus expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell. 1986 Nov 07; 47(3):391-9. PMID: 3768959.
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  190. Lemischka IR, Raulet DH, Mulligan RC. Developmental potential and dynamic behavior of hematopoietic stem cells. Cell. 1986 Jun 20; 45(6):917-27. PMID: 2871944.
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  191. Choudary PV, Barranger JA, Tsuji S, Mayor J, LaMarca ME, Cepko CL, Mulligan RC, Ginns EI. Retrovirus-mediated transfer of the human glucocerebrosidase gene to Gaucher fibroblasts. Mol Biol Med. 1986 Jun; 3(3):293-9. PMID: 3736391.
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  192. Jat PS, Cepko CL, Mulligan RC, Sharp PA. Recombinant retroviruses encoding simian virus 40 large T antigen and polyomavirus large and middle T antigens. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Apr; 6(4):1204-17. PMID: 3023876; PMCID: PMC367632.
  193. Williams DA, Orkin SH, Mulligan RC. Retrovirus-mediated transfer of human adenosine deaminase gene sequences into cells in culture and into murine hematopoietic cells in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr; 83(8):2566-70. PMID: 3458218; PMCID: PMC323339.
  194. Uchida N, Cone RD, Freeman GJ, Mulligan RC, Cantor H. High efficiency gene transfer into murine T cell clones using a retroviral vector. J Immunol. 1986 Mar 01; 136(5):1876-9. PMID: 3005404.
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  195. Bond JF, Fridovich-Keil JL, Pillus L, Mulligan RC, Solomon F. A chicken-yeast chimeric beta-tubulin protein is incorporated into mouse microtubules in vivo. Cell. 1986 Feb 14; 44(3):461-8. PMID: 3753663.
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  196. Danos O, Mulligan RC, Yaniv M. Production of spliced DNA copies of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus genome in a retroviral vector. Ciba Found Symp. 1986; 120:68-82. PMID: 3013527.
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  197. Choudary PV, Tsuji S, Martin BM, Guild BC, Mulligan RC, Murray GJ, Barranger JA, Ginns EI. The molecular biology of Gaucher disease and the potential for gene therapy. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1986; 51 Pt 2:1047-52. PMID: 3472751.
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  198. Roberts BE, Miller JS, Kimelman D, Cepko CL, Lemischka IR, Mulligan RC. Individual adenovirus type 5 early region 1A gene products elicit distinct alterations of cellular morphology and gene expression. J Virol. 1985 Nov; 56(2):404-13. PMID: 4057356; PMCID: PMC252593.
  199. Jähner D, Haase K, Mulligan R, Jaenisch R. Insertion of the bacterial gpt gene into the germ line of mice by retroviral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Oct; 82(20):6927-31. PMID: 2413448; PMCID: PMC390801.
  200. Weis JH, Reiss CS, Mulligan RC, Burakoff SJ, Seidman JG. H-2Ld antigen encoded by a recombinant retrovirus genome is expressed on the surface of infected cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Jun; 5(6):1379-84. PMID: 2993861; PMCID: PMC366867.
  201. Stuhlmann H, Cone R, Mulligan RC, Jaenisch R. Introduction of a selectable gene into different animal tissue by a retrovirus recombinant vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Nov; 81(22):7151-5. PMID: 6095271; PMCID: PMC392095.
  202. Cone RD, Mulligan RC. High-efficiency gene transfer into mammalian cells: generation of helper-free recombinant retrovirus with broad mammalian host range. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct; 81(20):6349-53. PMID: 6093098; PMCID: PMC391921.
  203. Hellerman JG, Cone RC, Potts JT, Rich A, Mulligan RC, Kronenberg HM. Secretion of human parathyroid hormone from rat pituitary cells infected with a recombinant retrovirus encoding preproparathyroid hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Sep; 81(17):5340-4. PMID: 6089196; PMCID: PMC391699.
  204. Williams DA, Lemischka IR, Nathan DG, Mulligan RC. Introduction of new genetic material into pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells of the mouse. Nature. 1984 Aug 9-15; 310(5977):476-80. PMID: 6087158.
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  205. Weis JH, Nelson DL, Przyborski MJ, Chaplin DD, Mulligan RC, Housman DE, Seidman JG. Eukaryotic chromosome transfer: linkage of the murine major histocompatibility complex to an inserted dominant selectable marker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Aug; 81(15):4879-83. PMID: 6589632; PMCID: PMC391595.
  206. Cepko CL, Roberts BE, Mulligan RC. Construction and applications of a highly transmissible murine retrovirus shuttle vector. Cell. 1984 Jul; 37(3):1053-62. PMID: 6331674.
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  207. Nelson DL, Weis JH, Przyborski MJ, Mulligan RC, Seidman JG, Housman DE. Metaphase chromosome transfer of introduced selectable markers. J Mol Appl Genet. 1984; 2(6):563-77. PMID: 6099401.
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  208. Mann R, Mulligan RC, Baltimore D. Construction of a retrovirus packaging mutant and its use to produce helper-free defective retrovirus. Cell. 1983 May; 33(1):153-9. PMID: 6678608.
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  209. Lee F, Mulligan R, Berg P, Ringold G. Glucocorticoids regulate expression of dihydrofolate reductase cDNA in mouse mammary tumour virus chimaeric plasmids. Nature. 1981 Nov 19; 294(5838):228-32. PMID: 6272123.
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  210. Subramani S, Mulligan R, Berg P. Expression of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in simian virus 40 vectors. Mol Cell Biol. 1981 Sep; 1(9):854-64. PMID: 9279398; PMCID: PMC369369.
  211. Mulligan RC, Berg P. Factors governing the expression of a bacterial gene in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1981 May; 1(5):449-59. PMID: 6100966; PMCID: PMC369340.
  212. Mulligan RC, Berg P. Selection for animal cells that express the Escherichia coli gene coding for xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr; 78(4):2072-6. PMID: 7017722; PMCID: PMC319285.
  213. Mulligan RC, Berg P. Expression of a bacterial gene in mammalian cells. Science. 1980 Sep 19; 209(4463):1422-7. PMID: 6251549.
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  214. Mulligan RC, Howard BH, Berg P. Synthesis of rabbit beta-globin in cultured monkey kidney cells following infection with a SV40 beta-globin recombinant genome. Nature. 1979 Jan 11; 277(5692):108-14. PMID: 215915.
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  215. Roberts BE, Gorecki M, Mulligan RC, Danna KJ, Rozenblatt S, Rich A. Simian virus 40 DNA directs synthesis of authentic viral polypeptides in a linked transcription-translation cell-free system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 May; 72(5):1922-6. PMID: 168582; PMCID: PMC432660.
  216. Kemper B, Habener JF, Mulligan RC, Potts JT, Rich A. Pre-proparathyroid hormone: a direct translation product of parathyroid messenger RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Sep; 71(9):3731-5. PMID: 4530333; PMCID: PMC433850.
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