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profileSarah Merritt Fortune, M.D.

TitleProfessor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases
InstitutionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
DepartmentImmunology and Infectious Diseases
AddressRagon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard
400 Technology Square
Cambridge MA 02139
Phone857/268-7078
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Other Positions
TitleProfessor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases
InstitutionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
DepartmentImmunology and Infectious Diseases


Collapse Research 
Collapse research activities and funding
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
R01AI123286     (BEHAR, SAMUEL M)Feb 15, 2016 - Jan 31, 2021
NIH/NIAID
Tuberculosis and T cell Recognition
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

R01AI114674     (FLYNN, JOANNE L.)Jul 1, 2015 - Dec 31, 2019
NIH/NIAID
The Consequences of Reinfection with M. tuberculosis
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

U19AI107774     (RUBIN, ERIC J.)Jul 2, 2013 - Jun 30, 2018
NIH/NIAID
Decoding the roles of critical genes of unknown function in M. tuberculosis
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

R01AI097191     (DERBYSHIRE, KEITH M)May 15, 2012 - Apr 30, 2017
NIH/NIAID
A Community Mycobacterial Systems Resource
Role: Co-Principal Investigator

DP2OD001378     (FORTUNE, SARAH M)Sep 30, 2007 - Aug 31, 2012
NIH
Variation in M. tuberculosis in response to host selection
Role: Principal Investigator

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Kurthkoti K, Amin H, Marakalala MJ, Ghanny S, Subbian S, Sakatos A, Livny J, Fortune SM, Berney M, Rodriguez GM. The Capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis To Survive Iron Starvation Might Enable It To Persist in Iron-Deprived Microenvironments of Human Granulomas. MBio. 2017 Aug 15; 8(4). PMID: 28811344.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Cadena AM, Fortune SM, Flynn JL. Heterogeneity in tuberculosis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Jul 24. PMID: 28736436.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Martin CJ, Cadena AM, Leung VW, Lin PL, Maiello P, Hicks N, Chase MR, Flynn JL, Fortune SM. Digitally Barcoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals In Vivo Infection Dynamics in the Macaque Model of Tuberculosis. MBio. 2017 May 09; 8(3). PMID: 28487426.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Gierahn TM, Wadsworth MH, Hughes TK, Bryson BD, Butler A, Satija R, Fortune S, Love JC, Shalek AK. Seq-Well: portable, low-cost RNA sequencing of single cells at high throughput. Nat Methods. 2017 Apr; 14(4):395-398. PMID: 28192419.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Rock JM, Hopkins FF, Chavez A, Diallo M, Chase MR, Gerrick ER, Pritchard JR, Church GM, Rubin EJ, Sassetti CM, Schnappinger D, Fortune SM. Programmable transcriptional repression in mycobacteria using an orthogonal CRISPR interference platform. Nat Microbiol. 2017 Feb 06; 2:16274. PMID: 28165460.
    View in: PubMed
  6. DeJesus MA, Gerrick ER, Xu W, Park SW, Long JE, Boutte CC, Rubin EJ, Schnappinger D, Ehrt S, Fortune SM, Sassetti CM, Ioerger TR. Comprehensive Essentiality Analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genome via Saturating Transposon Mutagenesis. MBio. 2017 Jan 17; 8(1). PMID: 28096490.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Lu LL, Chung AW, Rosebrock TR, Ghebremichael M, Yu WH, Grace PS, Schoen MK, Tafesse F, Martin C, Leung V, Mahan AE, Sips M, Kumar MP, Tedesco J, Robinson H, Tkachenko E, Draghi M, Freedberg KJ, Streeck H, Suscovich TJ, Lauffenburger DA, Restrepo BI, Day C, Fortune SM, Alter G. A Functional Role for Antibodies in Tuberculosis. Cell. 2016 Oct 06; 167(2):433-443.e14. PMID: 27667685.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Lin PL, Maiello P, Gideon HP, Coleman MT, Cadena AM, Rodgers MA, Gregg R, O'Malley M, Tomko J, Fillmore D, Frye LJ, Rutledge T, DiFazio RM, Janssen C, Klein E, Andersen PL, Fortune SM, Flynn JL. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jul; 12(7):e1005739. PMID: 27379816; PMCID: PMC4933353.
  9. Kaufmann SH, Fortune S, Pepponi I, Ruhwald M, Schrager LK, Ottenhoff TH. TB biomarkers, TB correlates and human challenge models: New tools for improving assessment of new TB vaccines. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016 Aug; 99 Suppl 1:S8-S11. PMID: 27402312.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Boutte CC, Baer CE, Papavinasasundaram K, Liu W, Chase MR, Meniche X, Fortune SM, Sassetti CM, Ioerger TR, Rubin EJ. A cytoplasmic peptidoglycan amidase homologue controls mycobacterial cell wall synthesis. Elife. 2016 Jun 15; 5. PMID: 27304077; PMCID: PMC4946905.
  11. Lahiri N, Shah RR, Layre E, Young D, Ford C, Murray MB, Fortune SM, Moody DB. Rifampin Resistance Mutations Are Associated with Broad Chemical Remodeling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2016 Jul 01; 291(27):14248-56. PMID: 27226566; PMCID: PMC4933180 [Available on 07/01/17].
  12. Ma S, Bryson BD, Sun C, Fortune SM, Lu C. RNA Extraction from a Mycobacterium under Ultrahigh Electric Field Intensity in a Microfluidic Device. Anal Chem. 2016 May 17; 88(10):5053-7. PMID: 27081872; PMCID: PMC4872636 [Available on 04/15/17].
  13. Cadena AM, Flynn JL, Fortune SM. The Importance of First Impressions: Early Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Influence Outcome. MBio. 2016 Apr 05; 7(2):e00342-16. PMID: 27048801; PMCID: PMC4817258.
  14. Grad YH, Fortune SM. Biodiversity and hypervirulence of Listeria monocytogenes. Nat Genet. 2016 Mar; 48(3):229-30. PMID: 26906682.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Martin CJ, Carey AF, Fortune SM. A bug's life in the granuloma. Semin Immunopathol. 2016 Mar; 38(2):213-20. PMID: 26577238; PMCID: PMC4834868 [Available on 03/01/17].
  16. Shell SS, Wang J, Lapierre P, Mir M, Chase MR, Pyle MM, Gawande R, Ahmad R, Sarracino DA, Ioerger TR, Fortune SM, Derbyshire KM, Wade JT, Gray TA. Leaderless Transcripts and Small Proteins Are Common Features of the Mycobacterial Translational Landscape. PLoS Genet. 2015 Nov; 11(11):e1005641. PMID: 26536359; PMCID: PMC4633059.
  17. Kieser KJ, Boutte CC, Kester JC, Baer CE, Barczak AK, Meniche X, Chao MC, Rego EH, Sassetti CM, Fortune SM, Rubin EJ. Phosphorylation of the Peptidoglycan Synthase PonA1 Governs the Rate of Polar Elongation in Mycobacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun; 11(6):e1005010. PMID: 26114871; PMCID: PMC4483258.
  18. Datta P, Ravi J, Guerrini V, Chauhan R, Neiditch MB, Shell SS, Fortune SM, Hancioglu B, Igoshin OA, Gennaro ML. The Psp system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis integrates envelope stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions. Mol Microbiol. 2015 Aug; 97(3):408-22. PMID: 25899163; PMCID: PMC4642893.
  19. Rock JM, Lang UF, Chase MR, Ford CB, Gerrick ER, Gawande R, Coscolla M, Gagneux S, Fortune SM, Lamers MH. DNA replication fidelity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by an ancestral prokaryotic proofreader. Nat Genet. 2015 Jun; 47(6):677-81. PMID: 25894501; PMCID: PMC4449270.
  20. Gideon HP, Phuah J, Myers AJ, Bryson BD, Rodgers MA, Coleman MT, Maiello P, Rutledge T, Marino S, Fortune SM, Kirschner DE, Lin PL, Flynn JL. Variability in tuberculosis granuloma T cell responses exists, but a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is associated with sterilization. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jan; 11(1):e1004603. PMID: 25611466; PMCID: PMC4303275.
  21. Shell SS, Chase MR, Ioerger TR, Fortune SM. RNA sequencing for transcript 5'-end mapping in mycobacteria. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1285:31-45. PMID: 25779309.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Aldridge BB, Keren I, Fortune SM. The Spectrum of Drug Susceptibility in Mycobacteria. Microbiol Spectr. 2014 Oct; 2(5). PMID: 26104360.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Ramsdell TL, Huppert LA, Sysoeva TA, Fortune SM, Burton BM. Linked domain architectures allow for specialization of function in the FtsK/SpoIIIE ATPases of ESX secretion systems. J Mol Biol. 2015 Mar 13; 427(5):1119-32. PMID: 24979678; PMCID: PMC4277743.
  24. Huppert LA, Ramsdell TL, Chase MR, Sarracino DA, Fortune SM, Burton BM. The ESX system in Bacillus subtilis mediates protein secretion. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96267. PMID: 24798022; PMCID: PMC4010439.
  25. Layre E, Lee HJ, Young DC, Martinot AJ, Buter J, Minnaard AJ, Annand JW, Fortune SM, Snider BB, Matsunaga I, Rubin EJ, Alber T, Moody DB. Molecular profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies tuberculosinyl nucleoside products of the virulence-associated enzyme Rv3378c. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 25; 111(8):2978-83. PMID: 24516143; PMCID: PMC3939896.
  26. Lin PL, Ford CB, Coleman MT, Myers AJ, Gawande R, Ioerger T, Sacchettini J, Fortune SM, Flynn JL. Sterilization of granulomas is common in active and latent tuberculosis despite within-host variability in bacterial killing. Nat Med. 2014 Jan; 20(1):75-9. PMID: 24336248; PMCID: PMC3947310.
  27. Kester JC, Fortune SM. Persisters and beyond: mechanisms of phenotypic drug resistance and drug tolerance in bacteria. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 49(2):91-101. PMID: 24328927.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Shell SS, Prestwich EG, Baek SH, Shah RR, Sassetti CM, Dedon PC, Fortune SM. DNA methylation impacts gene expression and ensures hypoxic survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(7):e1003419. PMID: 23853579; PMCID: PMC3701705.
  29. Ford CB, Shah RR, Maeda MK, Gagneux S, Murray MB, Cohen T, Johnston JC, Gardy J, Lipsitch M, Fortune SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rate estimates from different lineages predict substantial differences in the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nat Genet. 2013 Jul; 45(7):784-90. PMID: 23749189; PMCID: PMC3777616.
  30. Ragheb MN, Ford CB, Chase MR, Lin PL, Flynn JL, Fortune SM. The mutation rate of mycobacterial repetitive unit loci in strains of M. tuberculosis from cynomolgus macaque infection. BMC Genomics. 2013 Mar 05; 14:145. PMID: 23496945; PMCID: PMC3635867.
  31. Chao MC, Kieser KJ, Minami S, Mavrici D, Aldridge BB, Fortune SM, Alber T, Rubin EJ. Protein complexes and proteolytic activation of the cell wall hydrolase RipA regulate septal resolution in mycobacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Feb; 9(2):e1003197. PMID: 23468634; PMCID: PMC3585148.
  32. Liong M, Hoang AN, Chung J, Gural N, Ford CB, Min C, Shah RR, Ahmad R, Fernandez-Suarez M, Fortune SM, Toner M, Lee H, Weissleder R. Magnetic barcode assay for genetic detection of pathogens. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1752. PMID: 23612293; PMCID: PMC3635151.
  33. Fong EJ, Sharma Y, Fallica B, Tierney DB, Fortune SM, Zaman MH. Decoupling directed and passive motion in dynamic systems: particle tracking microrheology of sputum. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013 Apr; 41(4):837-46. PMID: 23271563; PMCID: PMC3763957.
  34. De Leon J, Jiang G, Ma Y, Rubin E, Fortune S, Sun J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 exhibits a unique membrane-interacting activity that is not found in its ortholog from non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 28; 287(53):44184-91. PMID: 23150662; PMCID: PMC3531734.
  35. Fortune SM. The surprising diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: change you can believe in. J Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 01; 206(11):1642-4. PMID: 22984117.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Martin CJ, Booty MG, Rosebrock TR, Nunes-Alves C, Desjardins DM, Keren I, Fortune SM, Remold HG, Behar SM. Efferocytosis is an innate antibacterial mechanism. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Sep 13; 12(3):289-300. PMID: 22980326; PMCID: PMC3517204.
  37. Lee HJ, Lang PT, Fortune SM, Sassetti CM, Alber T. Cyclic AMP regulation of protein lysine acetylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012 Aug; 19(8):811-8. PMID: 22773105; PMCID: PMC3414669.
  38. Wirth SE, Krywy JA, Aldridge BB, Fortune SM, Fernandez-Suarez M, Gray TA, Derbyshire KM. Polar assembly and scaffolding proteins of the virulence-associated ESX-1 secretory apparatus in mycobacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2012 Feb; 83(3):654-64. PMID: 22233444; PMCID: PMC3277861.
  39. Ford C, Yusim K, Ioerger T, Feng S, Chase M, Greene M, Korber B, Fortune S. Mycobacterium tuberculosis--heterogeneity revealed through whole genome sequencing. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012 May; 92(3):194-201. PMID: 22218163; PMCID: PMC3323677.
  40. Aldridge BB, Fernandez-Suarez M, Heller D, Ambravaneswaran V, Irimia D, Toner M, Fortune SM. Asymmetry and aging of mycobacterial cells lead to variable growth and antibiotic susceptibility. Science. 2012 Jan 06; 335(6064):100-4. PMID: 22174129; PMCID: PMC3397429.
  41. Liong M, Fernandez-Suarez M, Issadore D, Min C, Tassa C, Reiner T, Fortune SM, Toner M, Lee H, Weissleder R. Specific pathogen detection using bioorthogonal chemistry and diagnostic magnetic resonance. Bioconjug Chem. 2011 Dec 21; 22(12):2390-4. PMID: 22043803; PMCID: PMC3263317.
  42. Sillé FC, Martin C, Jayaraman P, Rothchild A, Fortune S, Besra GS, Behar SM, Boes M. Requirement for invariant chain in macrophages for Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication and CD1d antigen presentation. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3053-63. PMID: 21576321; PMCID: PMC3147586.
  43. Ford CB, Lin PL, Chase MR, Shah RR, Iartchouk O, Galagan J, Mohaideen N, Ioerger TR, Sacchettini JC, Lipsitch M, Flynn JL, Fortune SM. Use of whole genome sequencing to estimate the mutation rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latent infection. Nat Genet. 2011 May; 43(5):482-6. PMID: 21516081; PMCID: PMC3101871.
  44. Millington KA, Fortune SM, Low J, Garces A, Hingley-Wilson SM, Wickremasinghe M, Kon OM, Lalvani A. Rv3615c is a highly immunodominant RD1 (Region of Difference 1)-dependent secreted antigen specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 05; 108(14):5730-5. PMID: 21427227; PMCID: PMC3078386.
  45. Woodworth JS, Shin D, Volman M, Nunes-Alves C, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis directs immunofocusing of CD8+ T cell responses despite vaccination. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 01; 186(3):1627-37. PMID: 21178003; PMCID: PMC3133636.
  46. Fortune SM, Rubin EJ. Host transcription in active and latent tuberculosis. Genome Biol. 2010; 11(9):135. PMID: 20920149; PMCID: PMC2965379.
  47. Garces A, Atmakuri K, Chase MR, Woodworth JS, Krastins B, Rothchild AC, Ramsdell TL, Lopez MF, Behar SM, Sarracino DA, Fortune SM. EspA acts as a critical mediator of ESX1-dependent virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by affecting bacterial cell wall integrity. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jun 24; 6(6):e1000957. PMID: 20585630; PMCID: PMC2891827.
  48. Ioerger TR, Feng Y, Ganesula K, Chen X, Dobos KM, Fortune S, Jacobs WR, Mizrahi V, Parish T, Rubin E, Sassetti C, Sacchettini JC. Variation among genome sequences of H37Rv strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from multiple laboratories. J Bacteriol. 2010 Jul; 192(14):3645-53. PMID: 20472797; PMCID: PMC2897344.
  49. Bitter W, Houben EN, Bottai D, Brodin P, Brown EJ, Cox JS, Derbyshire K, Fortune SM, Gao LY, Liu J, Gey van Pittius NC, Pym AS, Rubin EJ, Sherman DR, Cole ST, Brosch R. Systematic genetic nomenclature for type VII secretion systems. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Oct; 5(10):e1000507. PMID: 19876390; PMCID: PMC2763215.
  50. Siegrist MS, Unnikrishnan M, McConnell MJ, Borowsky M, Cheng TY, Siddiqi N, Fortune SM, Moody DB, Rubin EJ. Mycobacterial Esx-3 is required for mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 03; 106(44):18792-7. PMID: 19846780; PMCID: PMC2774023.
  51. Pandey AK, Yang Y, Jiang Z, Fortune SM, Coulombe F, Behr MA, Fitzgerald KA, Sassetti CM, Kelliher MA. NOD2, RIP2 and IRF5 play a critical role in the type I interferon response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Jul; 5(7):e1000500. PMID: 19578435; PMCID: PMC2698121.
  52. Divangahi M, Chen M, Gan H, Desjardins D, Hickman TT, Lee DM, Fortune S, Behar SM, Remold HG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades macrophage defenses by inhibiting plasma membrane repair. Nat Immunol. 2009 Aug; 10(8):899-906. PMID: 19561612; PMCID: PMC2730354.
  53. Atmakuri K, Fortune SM. Regulation of protein secretion by ... protein secretion? Cell Host Microbe. 2008 Sep 11; 4(3):190-1. PMID: 18779042.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Woodworth JS, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Bacterial protein secretion is required for priming of CD8+ T cells specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen CFP10. Infect Immun. 2008 Sep; 76(9):4199-205. PMID: 18591224; PMCID: PMC2519428.
  55. Hett EC, Chao MC, Steyn AJ, Fortune SM, Deng LL, Rubin EJ. A partner for the resuscitation-promoting factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Nov; 66(3):658-68. PMID: 17919286.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Fortune SM, Rubin EJ. The complex relationship between mycobacteria and macrophages: it's not all bliss. Cell Host Microbe. 2007 Jul 12; 2(1):5-6. PMID: 18005712.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Joshi SM, Pandey AK, Capite N, Fortune SM, Rubin EJ, Sassetti CM. Characterization of mycobacterial virulence genes through genetic interaction mapping. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 01; 103(31):11760-5. PMID: 16868085; PMCID: PMC1544243.
  58. Fortune SM, Chase MR, Rubin EJ. Dividing oceans into pools: strategies for the global analysis of bacterial genes. Microbes Infect. 2006 May; 8(6):1631-6. PMID: 16697239.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Fortune SM, Jaeger A, Sarracino DA, Chase MR, Sassetti CM, Sherman DR, Bloom BR, Rubin EJ. Mutually dependent secretion of proteins required for mycobacterial virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26; 102(30):10676-81. PMID: 16030141; PMCID: PMC1176248.
  60. Fortune SM, Solache A, Jaeger A, Hill PJ, Belisle JT, Bloom BR, Rubin EJ, Ernst JD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma through myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Immunol. 2004 May 15; 172(10):6272-80. PMID: 15128816.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Wain J, Diem Nga LT, Kidgell C, James K, Fortune S, Song Diep T, Ali T, O Gaora P, Parry C, Parkhill J, Farrar J, White NJ, Dougan G. Molecular analysis of incHI1 antimicrobial resistance plasmids from Salmonella serovar Typhi strains associated with typhoid fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Sep; 47(9):2732-9. PMID: 12936967; PMCID: PMC182646.
  62. Fortune SM, Kaelin CM, Gulizia JM, Daily JP. Cat scratch disease presenting as a breast mass. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun; 95(6 Pt 2):1027. PMID: 10808015.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Cleary AM, Fortune SM, Yellin MJ, Chess L, Lederman S. Opposing roles of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and CD40 in the death and rescue of human low density tonsillar B cells. J Immunol. 1995 Oct 01; 155(7):3329-37. PMID: 7561026.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Yellin MJ, Winikoff S, Fortune SM, Baum D, Crow MK, Lederman S, Chess L. Ligation of CD40 on fibroblasts induces CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) up-regulation and IL-6 production and proliferation. J Leukoc Biol. 1995 Aug; 58(2):209-16. PMID: 7543921.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Lederman S, Yellin MJ, Cleary AM, Fortune SM, Chess L. The understanding of contact-dependent T-cell helper function in molecular, cellular and physiological detail. Res Immunol. 1994 Mar-Apr; 145(3):215-21; discussion 244-9. PMID: 7527578.
    View in: PubMed
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