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Sat Bir Singh Khalsa, Ph.D.

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Biography
University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaPh.D.11/1985Physiology
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VAPostdoctoral fellowship12/1995Biological Rhythms and Sleep
1979 - 1980
Graduate Fellowship
1980 - 1984
Ontario Graduate Scholarship
2019
Doctor of Science (Yoga)

Overview
The major focus of my research interest lies in the field of Mind-Body Medicine. Specifically, I am interested in the evaluation of the clinical effectiveness and basic psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the practice of yoga and meditation techniques. These behavioral techniques include specific manipulations of respiratory frequency and tidal volume, maintenance of body postures and stretching exercises, and meditation and mindfulness, which involves relaxed control of attention. These practices are known to produce a coordinated psychophysiological response that has been called the relaxation response, which is associated with a reduction in psychophysiological arousal and a sense of relaxation and well-being. These techniques have been found to be effective for many disorders that have a psychosomatic component and are exacerbated by stress. As behavioral techniques, these practices provide patients with the opportunity for direct involvement in their healthcare, not only reducing the severity of their disorder, but also improving their quality of life. In many cases, these techniques are more effective than existing pharmacological treatments, many of which have side effects.

I have practiced a yoga lifestyle since 1972 and I am a certified instructor in Kundalini Yoga as taught by Yogi Bhajan. I am the Director of Yoga Research for the Yoga Alliance and the Kundalini Research Institute, Research Associate at the Benson Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, Research Affiliate of the Osher Center for Integrative Medicine. I have conducted clinical research trials evaluating yoga interventions for insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic stress, and anxiety disorders and in both public school and occupational settings. I work with the International Association of Yoga Therapists to promote research on yoga and yoga therapy as the chair of the scientific program committee for the annual Symposium on Yoga Research and as editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Yoga Therapy. I am medical editor of the Harvard Medical School Special Report An Introduction to Yoga and chief editor of the medical textbook The Principles and Practice of Yoga in Health Care.

Mentoring
Effect of Yoga on Autonomic Physiology and Sleep Onset
Summer, 06/11/01 - 08/31/01

Bibliographic
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Dyer NL, Borden S, Dusek JA, Khalsa SBS. Long-Term Improvements in Psychological Health Following a Yoga-Based Program for Professionals. J Altern Complement Med. 2020 Feb; 26(2):154-157. PMID: 31913648.
    Citations:    
  2. Trent NL, Borden S, Miraglia M, Pasalis E, Dusek JA, Khalsa SBS. Improvements in Psychological and Occupational Well-being Following a Brief Yoga-Based Program for Education Professionals. Glob Adv Health Med. 2019; 8:2164956119856856. PMID: 31218118.
    Citations:    
  3. Trent NL, Borden S, Miraglia M, Pasalis E, Dusek JA, Khalsa SBS. Improvements in Psychological and Occupational Well-Being in a Pragmatic Controlled Trial of a Yoga-Based Program for Professionals. J Altern Complement Med. 2019 Jun; 25(6):593-605. PMID: 31033341.
    Citations:    
  4. Gabriel MG, Curtiss J, Hofmann SG, Khalsa SBS. Kundalini Yoga for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Exploration of Treatment Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms. Int J Yoga Therap. 2018 Nov; 28(1):97-105. PMID: 29698081.
    Citations:    
  5. Trent NL, Miraglia M, Dusek JA, Pasalis E, Khalsa SBS. Improvements in Psychological Health Following a Residential Yoga-Based Program for Frontline Professionals. J Occup Environ Med. 2018 04; 60(4):357-367. PMID: 29111989.
    Citations:    
  6. Spadola CE, Rottapel R, Khandpur N, Kontos E, Bertisch SM, Johnson DA, Quante M, Khalsa SBS, Saper RB, Redline S. Enhancing yoga participation: A qualitative investigation of barriers and facilitators to yoga among predominantly racial/ethnic minority, low-income adults. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017 Nov; 29:97-104. PMID: 29122272.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  7. Reinhardt KM, Noggle Taylor JJ, Johnston J, Zameer A, Cheema S, Khalsa SBS. Kripalu Yoga for Military Veterans With PTSD: A Randomized Trial. J Clin Psychol. 2018 Jan; 74(1):93-108. PMID: 28524358.
    Citations:    
  8. Butzer B, LoRusso AM, Windsor R, Riley F, Frame K, Khalsa SBS, Conboy L. A Qualitative Examination of Yoga for Middle School Adolescents. Adv Sch Ment Health Promot. 2017; 10(3):195-219. PMID: 28757897.
    Citations: 1     
  9. Butzer B, Ahmed K, Khalsa SB. Yoga Enhances Positive Psychological States in Young Adult Musicians. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2016 06; 41(2):191-202. PMID: 26721471.
    Citations:    
  10. Butzer B, LoRusso A, Shin SH, Khalsa SB. Evaluation of Yoga for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Risk Factors in a Middle School Setting: A Preliminary Group-Randomized Controlled Trial. J Youth Adolesc. 2017 03; 46(3):603-632. PMID: 27246653.
    Citations:    
  11. Khalsa SBS, Cohen L, McCall T, Telles S, Editors. The Principles and Practice of Yoga in Health Care. 2016. View Publication.
  12. Khalsa SB, Butzer B. Yoga in school settings: a research review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 06; 1373(1):45-55. PMID: 26919395.
    Citations:    
  13. Jindani F, Turner N, Khalsa SB. A Yoga Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress: A Preliminary Randomized Control Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015:351746. PMID: 26366179.
    Citations:    
  14. Butzer B, van Over M, Noggle Taylor JJ, Khalsa SB. Yoga May Mitigate Decreases in High School Grades. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015:259814. PMID: 26347787.
    Citations:    
  15. Hofmann SG, Curtiss J, Khalsa SBS, Hoge E, Rosenfield D, Bui E, Keshaviah A, Simon N. Yoga for generalized anxiety disorder: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Sep; 44:70-76. PMID: 26255236.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  16. Jeter PE, Slutsky J, Singh N, Khalsa SB. Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention: A Bibliometric Analysis of Published Research Studies from 1967 to 2013. J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Oct; 21(10):586-92. PMID: 26196166.
    Citations:    
  17. Johnston JM, Minami T, Greenwald D, Li C, Reinhardt K, Khalsa SB. Yoga for military service personnel with PTSD: A single arm study. Psychol Trauma. 2015 Nov; 7(6):555-62. PMID: 26010108.
    Citations:    
  18. Butzer B, Ebert M, Telles S, Khalsa SB. School-based Yoga Programs in the United States: A Survey. Adv Mind Body Med. 2015; 29(4):18-26. PMID: 26535474.
    Citations:    
  19. Butzer B, Day D, Potts A, Ryan C, Coulombe S, Davies B, Weidknecht K, Ebert M, Flynn L, Khalsa SB. Effects of a classroom-based yoga intervention on cortisol and behavior in second- and third-grade students: a pilot study. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015 Jan; 20(1):41-9. PMID: 25412616.
    Citations:    
  20. Felver JC, Butzer B, Olson KJ, Smith IM, Khalsa SB. Yoga in public school improves adolescent mood and affect. Contemp Sch Psychol. 2015 Sep; 19(3):184-192. PMID: 26478825.
    Citations:    
  21. Khalsa MK, Greiner-Ferris JM, Hofmann SG, Khalsa SB. Yoga-enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (Y-CBT) for anxiety management: a pilot study. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2015 Jul-Aug; 22(4):364-71. PMID: 24804619.
    Citations:    
  22. Hagins M, Rundle A, Consedine NS, Khalsa SB. A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga with an active control on ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014 Jan; 16(1):54-62. PMID: 24387700.
    Citations:    
  23. Khalsa SB. Yoga for psychiatry and mental health: an ancient practice with modern relevance. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013 Jul; 55(Suppl 3):S334-6. PMID: 24049194.
    Citations:    
  24. Quilty MT, Saper RB, Goldstein R, Khalsa SB. Yoga in the Real World: Perceptions, Motivators, Barriers, and patterns of Use. Glob Adv Health Med. 2013 Jan; 2(1):44-9. PMID: 24381824.
    Citations:    
  25. Moliver N, Mika E, Chartrand M, Haussmann R, Khalsa S. Yoga experience as a predictor of psychological wellness in women over 45 years. Int J Yoga. 2013 Jan; 6(1):11-9. PMID: 23440029.
    Citations:    
  26. Khalsa SB. Author response to manuscript: "religious behavior, sleep quantity, sleep quality, and sleep disorders in American adults". J Behav Health Serv Res. 2013 Jan; 40(1):135. PMID: 23188488.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  27. Büssing A, Khalsa SB, Michalsen A, Sherman KJ, Telles S. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:174291. PMID: 23243431.
    Citations: 2     
  28. Rüger M, St Hilaire MA, Brainard GC, Khalsa SB, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Human phase response curve to a single 6.5 h pulse of short-wavelength light. J Physiol. 2013 Jan 01; 591(1):353-63. PMID: 23090946.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  29. Büssing A, Michalsen A, Khalsa SB, Telles S, Sherman KJ. Effects of yoga on mental and physical health: a short summary of reviews. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:165410. PMID: 23008738.
    Citations: 37     
  30. Stern JR, Khalsa SB, Hofmann SG. A yoga intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students. Med Probl Perform Art. 2012 Sep; 27(3):123-8. PMID: 22983129.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  31. St Hilaire MA, Gooley JJ, Khalsa SB, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Human phase response curve to a 1 h pulse of bright white light. J Physiol. 2012 Jul 01; 590(13):3035-45. PMID: 22547633.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  32. Noggle JJ, Steiner NJ, Minami T, Khalsa SB. Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a US high school curriculum: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2012 Apr; 33(3):193-201. PMID: 22343481.
    Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  33. Silverthorne C, Khalsa SB, Gueth R, DeAvilla N, Pansini J. Respiratory, physical, and psychological benefits of breath-focused yoga for adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): a brief pilot study report. Int J Yoga Therap. 2012; (22):47-51. PMID: 23070671.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  34. Khalsa SB, Hickey-Schultz L, Cohen D, Steiner N, Cope S. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2012 Jan; 39(1):80-90. PMID: 21647811.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  35. Moliver N, Mika E, Chartrand M, Burrus S, Haussmann R, Khalsa S. Increased Hatha yoga experience predicts lower body mass index and reduced medication use in women over 45 years. Int J Yoga. 2011 Jul; 4(2):77-86. PMID: 22022126.
    Citations:    
  36. Gooley JJ, Chamberlain K, Smith KA, Khalsa SB, Rajaratnam SM, Van Reen E, Zeitzer JM, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar; 96(3):E463-72. PMID: 21193540.
    Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  37. Cain SW, Dennison CF, Zeitzer JM, Guzik AM, Khalsa SB, Santhi N, Schoen MW, Czeisler CA, Duffy JF. Sex differences in phase angle of entrainment and melatonin amplitude in humans. J Biol Rhythms. 2010 Aug; 25(4):288-96. PMID: 20679498.
    Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  38. Jung CM, Khalsa SB, Scheer FA, Cajochen C, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA, Wright KP. Acute effects of bright light exposure on cortisol levels. J Biol Rhythms. 2010 Jun; 25(3):208-16. PMID: 20484692.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  39. Hartfiel N, Havenhand J, Khalsa SB, Clarke G, Krayer A. The effectiveness of yoga for the improvement of well-being and resilience to stress in the workplace. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011 Jan; 37(1):70-6. PMID: 20369218.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  40. Khalsa SB, Shorter SM, Cope S, Wyshak G, Sklar E. Yoga ameliorates performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2009 Dec; 34(4):279-89. PMID: 19657730.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  41. Khalsa SB, Khalsa GS, Khalsa HK, Khalsa MK. Evaluation of a residential Kundalini yoga lifestyle pilot program for addiction in India. J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2008; 7(1):67-79. PMID: 19842301.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  42. St Hilaire MA, Klerman EB, Khalsa SB, Wright KP, Czeisler CA, Kronauer RE. Addition of a non-photic component to a light-based mathematical model of the human circadian pacemaker. J Theor Biol. 2007 Aug 21; 247(4):583-99. PMID: 17531270.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  43. Khalsa SB, Cope S. Effects of a yoga lifestyle intervention on performance-related characteristics of musicians: a preliminary study. Med Sci Monit. 2006 Aug; 12(8):CR325-31. PMID: 16865063.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  44. Zeitzer JM, Khalsa SB, Boivin DB, Duffy JF, Shanahan TL, Kronauer RE, Czeisler CA. Temporal dynamics of late-night photic stimulation of the human circadian timing system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Sep; 289(3):R839-44. PMID: 15890792.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  45. Khalsa SB. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Dec; 29(4):269-78. PMID: 15707256.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  46. Khalsa SB. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Jul; 48(3):269-85. PMID: 15648399.
    Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  47. Khalsa SB, Jewett ME, Cajochen C, Czeisler CA. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects. J Physiol. 2003 Jun 15; 549(Pt 3):945-52. PMID: 12717008.
    Citations: 153     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  48. Khalsa SB, Conroy DA, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ. Sleep- and circadian-dependent modulation of REM density. J Sleep Res. 2002 Mar; 11(1):53-9. PMID: 11869427.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  49. Klerman EB, Zeitzer JM, Duffy JF, Khalsa SB, Czeisler CA. Absence of an increase in the duration of the circadian melatonin secretory episode in totally blind human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul; 86(7):3166-70. PMID: 11443183.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  50. Jewett ME, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone. J Biol Rhythms. 2000 Dec; 15(6):524-30. PMID: 11106069.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  51. Cajochen C, Khalsa SB, Wyatt JK, Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ. EEG and ocular correlates of circadian melatonin phase and human performance decrements during sleep loss. Am J Physiol. 1999 Sep; 277(3 Pt 2):R640-9. PMID: 10484479.
    Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  52. Jewett ME, Wyatt JK, Ritz-De Cecco A, Khalsa SB, Dijk DJ, Czeisler CA. Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. J Sleep Res. 1999 Mar; 8(1):1-8. PMID: 10188130.
    Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  53. Khalsa SS. Experiences of an American Sikh chaplain in a Christian world. J Pastoral Care. 1999; 53(4):473-5. PMID: 11185297.
    Citations: 1     Translation:Humans
  54. Herzog ED, Geusz ME, Khalsa SB, Straume M, Block GD. Circadian rhythms in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus explants on multimicroelectrode plates. Brain Res. 1997 May 23; 757(2):285-90. PMID: 9200759.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  55. Khalsa SB, Michel S, Block GD. The role of extracellular sodium in the mechanism of a neuronal in vitro circadian pacemaker. Chronobiol Int. 1997 Jan; 14(1):1-8. PMID: 9042546.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  56. Khalsa SB, Whitmore D, Bogart B, Block GD. Evidence for a central role of transcription in the timing mechanism of a circadian clock. Am J Physiol. 1996 Nov; 271(5 Pt 1):C1646-51. PMID: 8944648.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  57. Block GD, Geusz M, Khalsa SB, Michel S, Whitmore D. Circadian rhythm generation, expression and entrainment in a molluscan model system. Prog Brain Res. 1996; 111:93-102. PMID: 8990909.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  58. Khalsa SB, Michel S, Block GD. The anesthetic agents pentobarbital and chloralose block phase shifts of a neuronal in vitro circadian pacemaker. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Feb 24; 187(1):41-4. PMID: 7617298.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  59. Khalsa SB, Michel S, Block GD. The effects of lithium on a neuronal in vitro circadian pacemaker. Chronobiol Int. 1993 Oct; 10(5):321-30. PMID: 8261531.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  60. Aronson BD, Bell-Pedersen D, Block GD, Bos NP, Dunlap JC, Eskin A, Garceau NY, Geusz ME, Johnson KA, Khalsa SB, et al. Circadian rhythms. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993 Sep-Dec; 18(3):315-33. PMID: 8401597.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  61. Block GD, Khalsa SB, McMahon DG, Michel S, Guesz M. Biological clocks in the retina: cellular mechanisms of biological timekeeping. Int Rev Cytol. 1993; 146:83-144. PMID: 8360015.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  62. Khalsa SB, Ralph MR, Block GD. The role of extracellular calcium in generating and in phase-shifting the Bulla ocular circadian rhythm. J Biol Rhythms. 1993; 8(2):125-39. PMID: 8369549.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  63. Khalsa SB, Whitmore D, Block GD. Stopping the circadian pacemaker with inhibitors of protein synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 15; 89(22):10862-6. PMID: 1438290.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  64. Michel S, Khalsa SB, Block GD. Phase shifting of the circadian rhythm in the eye of Bulla by inhibition of chloride conductance. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Nov 09; 146(2):219-22. PMID: 1283451.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  65. Colwell CS, Khalsa SB, Block GD. Cellular mechanisms of entrainment. Chronobiol Int. 1992 Jun; 9(3):163-79. PMID: 1611673.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  66. Khalsa SB, Block GD. Phase-shifting of a neuronal circadian pacemaker in Bulla gouldiana by pentylenetetrazol. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1992 Apr; 101(3):557-60. PMID: 1354133.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  67. Colwell CS, Khalsa SB, Block GD. FMRFamide modulates the action of phase shifting agents on the ocular circadian pacemakers of Aplysia and Bulla. J Comp Physiol A. 1992 Feb; 170(2):211-5. PMID: 1583606.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  68. Khalsa SB, Ralph MR, Block GD. Does low intracellular pH stop the motion of the Bulla circadian pacemaker? J Neurosci. 1991 Sep; 11(9):2672-9. PMID: 1880543.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  69. Khalsa SB, Ralph MR, Block GD. Chloride conductance contributes to period determination of a neuronal circadian pacemaker. Brain Res. 1990 Jun 18; 520(1-2):166-9. PMID: 1698502.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  70. Khalsa SB, Block GD. Calcium in phase control of the Bulla circadian pacemaker. Brain Res. 1990 Jan 01; 506(1):40-5. PMID: 2302556.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  71. Khalsa SB, Block GD. Calcium channels mediate phase shifts of the Bulla circadian pacemaker. J Comp Physiol A. 1988 Dec; 164(2):195-206. PMID: 2854162.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  72. Khalsa SB, Tomlinson RD, Schwarz DW. Secondary vestibular and neck position signals in the vestibular nuclei of alert rhesus monkeys performing active head movements. Acta Otolaryngol. 1988 Sep-Oct; 106(3-4):269-75. PMID: 2845709.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  73. Khalsa SB, Block GD. Phase-shifts of the Bulla ocular circadian pacemaker in the presence of calmodulin antagonists. Life Sci. 1988; 43(19):1551-6. PMID: 3193847.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  74. Khalsa SB, Tomlinson RD, Schwarz DW, Landolt JP. Vestibular nuclear neuron activity during active and passive head movement in the alert rhesus monkey. J Neurophysiol. 1987 May; 57(5):1484-97. PMID: 3585476.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.