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Michael Fox, M.D.,Ph.D.

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Overview
Michael Fox, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School and the Director of the Laboratory for Brain Network Imaging and Modulation. He is Associate Director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Co-Director of the BIDMC Deep Brain Stimulation Program, Assistant Neuroscientist at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a practicing clinical neurologist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Dr. Fox received a bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering from the Ohio State University in 2001 followed by an MD and PhD from Washington University in St. Louis in 2008. Following a medical internship at Barnes Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, he completed his Neurology Residency and Movement Disorders Fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. He joined the faculty of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School in 2014.

Clinically, Dr. Fox specializes in the use of both invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of brain disease. His practice includes deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, essential tremor, and dystonia as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment of medication-refractory depression.

Dr. Fox's research focuses on the development of new and improved treatments for brain disease based on understanding brain networks and the effects of brain stimulation. He is a recognized expert in the use of brain network imaging techniques such as resting state functional connectivity MRI and a leader in applying these techniques towards improved brain stimulation therapies. He is the author of numerous highly cited articles in the fields of brain imaging and brain stimulation, teaches courses on these topics at the Martino's Center for Biomedical Imaging at MGH and the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation at BIDMC, holds multiple patents, and has won several awards for his work.

Mentoring
Available: 07/01/17, Expires: 08/01/19

A major advance in the past decade has been the generation of a wiring diagram for the human brain. My lab uses this wiring diagram to understand why lesions cause the symptoms they do and why brain stimulation therapies can relieve these symptoms. Interested students would identify a symptom of interest, outline lesions causing this symptom, then use tools in my lab to determine what the lesions are connected to. A similar approach can be used for brain stimulation therapies (deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation). See Fischer et al. 2016 Neurology for a recent example by a medical student using this approach.


Research
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
  1. R01MH113929 (FOX, MICHAEL D) Sep 19, 2017 - Aug 31, 2022
    NIH/NIMH
    Using human brain connectivity to identify the causal neuroanatomical substrate of depression symptoms
    Role: Principal Investigator
  2. K23NS083741 (FOX, MICHAEL D) Aug 15, 2013 - May 31, 2018
    NIH/NINDS
    Use of Resting-State Networks to Predict the Ideal Site for Brain Stimulation
    Role: Principal Investigator
  3. F30NS054398 (FOX, MICHAEL D) Jan 1, 2006 - Dec 31, 2009
    NIH/NINDS
    Functional Relevance of Spontaneous BOLD Fluctuations
    Role: Principal Investigator

Bibliographic
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Darby RR, Joutsa J, Burke MJ, Fox MD. Lesion network localization of free will. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 10 16; 115(42):10792-10797. PMID: 30275309.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Boes AD, Fischer D, Geerling JC, Bruss J, Saper CB, Fox MD. Connectivity of sleep- and wake-promoting regions of the human hypothalamus observed during resting wakefulness. Sleep. 2018 Sep 01; 41(9). PMID: 29850898.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Boyne P, Maloney T, DiFrancesco M, Fox MD, Awosika O, Aggarwal P, Woeste J, Jaroch L, Braswell D, Vannest J. Resting-state functional connectivity of subcortical locomotor centers explains variance in walking capacity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018 Dec; 39(12):4831-4843. PMID: 30052301.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Joutsa J, Horn A, Hsu J, Fox MD. Localizing parkinsonism based on focal brain lesions. Brain. 2018 Jul 02. PMID: 29982424.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Joutsa J, Shih LC, Horn A, Reich MM, Wu O, Rost NS, Fox MD. Identifying therapeutic targets from spontaneous beneficial brain lesions. Ann Neurol. 2018 Jul; 84(1):153-157. PMID: 30014594.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Boes AD, Uitermarkt BD, Albazron FM, Lan MJ, Liston C, Pascual-Leone A, Dubin MJ, Fox MD. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex is a structural correlate of repetitive TMS treatment response in depression. Brain Stimul. 2018 May - Jun; 11(3):575-581. PMID: 29454551.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Darby RR, Horn A, Cushman F, Fox MD. Lesion network localization of criminal behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 01 16; 115(3):601-606. PMID: 29255017.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Weigand A, Horn A, Caballero R, Cooke D, Stern AP, Taylor SF, Press D, Pascual-Leone A, Fox MD. Prospective Validation That Subgenual Connectivity Predicts Antidepressant Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Sites. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Jul 01; 84(1):28-37. PMID: 29274805.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Drysdale AT, Grosenick L, Downar J, Dunlop K, Mansouri F, Meng Y, Fetcho RN, Zebley B, Oathes DJ, Etkin A, Schatzberg AF, Sudheimer K, Keller J, Mayberg HS, Gunning FM, Alexopoulos GS, Fox MD, Pascual-Leone A, Voss HU, Casey BJ, Dubin MJ, Liston C. Erratum: Resting-state connectivity biomarkers define neurophysiological subtypes of depression. Nat Med. 2017 02 07; 23(2):264. PMID: 28170383.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Darby RR, Laganiere S, Pascual-Leone A, Prasad S, Fox MD. Finding the imposter: brain connectivity of lesions causing delusional misidentifications. Brain. 2017 02; 140(2):497-507. PMID: 28082298.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Golestanirad L, Iacono MI, Keil B, Angelone LM, Bonmassar G, Fox MD, Herrington T, Adalsteinsson E, LaPierre C, Mareyam A, Wald LL. Construction and modeling of a reconfigurable MRI coil for lowering SAR in patients with deep brain stimulation implants. Neuroimage. 2017 02 15; 147:577-588. PMID: 28011252.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Drysdale AT, Grosenick L, Downar J, Dunlop K, Mansouri F, Meng Y, Fetcho RN, Zebley B, Oathes DJ, Etkin A, Schatzberg AF, Sudheimer K, Keller J, Mayberg HS, Gunning FM, Alexopoulos GS, Fox MD, Pascual-Leone A, Voss HU, Casey BJ, Dubin MJ, Liston C. Resting-state connectivity biomarkers define neurophysiological subtypes of depression. Nat Med. 2017 01; 23(1):28-38. PMID: 27918562.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Murphy K, Fox MD. Towards a consensus regarding global signal regression for resting state functional connectivity MRI. Neuroimage. 2017 07 01; 154:169-173. PMID: 27888059.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Fischer DB, Boes AD, Demertzi A, Evrard HC, Laureys S, Edlow BL, Liu H, Saper CB, Pascual-Leone A, Fox MD, Geerling JC. A human brain network derived from coma-causing brainstem lesions. Neurology. 2016 Dec 06; 87(23):2427-2434. PMID: 27815400.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Caulfield KA, Bernstein MH, Stern AP, Pascual-Leone A, Press DZ, Fox MD. Antidepressant Effect of Low-Frequency Right-Sided rTMS in Two Patients with Left Frontal Stroke. Brain Stimul. 2017 Jan - Feb; 10(1):150-151. PMID: 28104083.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Brys M, Fox MD, Agarwal S, Biagioni M, Dacpano G, Kumar P, Pirraglia E, Chen R, Wu A, Fernandez H, Wagle Shukla A, Lou JS, Gray Z, Simon DK, Di Rocco A, Pascual-Leone A. Multifocal repetitive TMS for motor and mood symptoms of Parkinson disease: A randomized trial. Neurology. 2016 11 01; 87(18):1907-1915. PMID: 27708129.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Wurzman R, Hamilton RH, Pascual-Leone A, Fox MD. An open letter concerning do-it-yourself users of transcranial direct current stimulation. Ann Neurol. 2016 07; 80(1):1-4. PMID: 27216434.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Laganiere S, Boes AD, Fox MD. Network localization of hemichorea-hemiballismus. Neurology. 2016 06 07; 86(23):2187-95. PMID: 27170566.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Opitz A, Fox MD, Craddock RC, Colcombe S, Milham MP. An integrated framework for targeting functional networks via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroimage. 2016 Feb 15; 127:86-96. PMID: 26608241; PMCID: PMC4836057 [Available on 02/15/17].
  20. Wang D, Buckner RL, Fox MD, Holt DJ, Holmes AJ, Stoecklein S, Langs G, Pan R, Qian T, Li K, Baker JT, Stufflebeam SM, Wang K, Wang X, Hong B, Liu H. Parcellating cortical functional networks in individuals. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Dec; 18(12):1853-60. PMID: 26551545; PMCID: PMC4661084.
  21. Fox MD, Qian T, Madsen JR, Wang D, Li M, Ge M, Zuo HC, Groppe DM, Mehta AD, Hong B, Liu H. Combining task-evoked and spontaneous activity to improve pre-operative brain mapping with fMRI. Neuroimage. 2016 Jan 01; 124(Pt A):714-723. PMID: 26408860; PMCID: PMC4831649 [Available on 01/01/17].
  22. Klein MM, Treister R, Raij T, Pascual-Leone A, Park L, Nurmikko T, Lenz F, Lefaucheur JP, Lang M, Hallett M, Fox M, Cudkowicz M, Costello A, Carr DB, Ayache SS, Oaklander AL. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the brain: guidelines for pain treatment research. Pain. 2015 Sep; 156(9):1601-14. PMID: 25919472; PMCID: PMC4545735.
  23. Mueller S, Wang D, Fox MD, Pan R, Lu J, Li K, Sun W, Buckner RL, Liu H. Reliability correction for functional connectivity: Theory and implementation. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 Nov; 36(11):4664-80. PMID: 26493163; PMCID: PMC4803495 [Available on 11/01/16].
  24. Boes AD, Prasad S, Liu H, Liu Q, Pascual-Leone A, Caviness VS, Fox MD. Network localization of neurological symptoms from focal brain lesions. Brain. 2015 Oct; 138(Pt 10):3061-75. PMID: 26264514; PMCID: PMC4671478 [Available on 10/01/16].
  25. Mir-Moghtadaei A, Caballero R, Fried P, Fox MD, Lee K, Giacobbe P, Daskalakis ZJ, Blumberger DM, Downar J. Concordance Between BeamF3 and MRI-neuronavigated Target Sites for Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. Brain Stimul. 2015 Sep-Oct; 8(5):965-73. PMID: 26115776; PMCID: PMC4833442.
  26. Fox MD, Buckner RL, Liu H, Chakravarty MM, Lozano AM, Pascual-Leone A. Resting-state networks link invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation across diverse psychiatric and neurological diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 14; 111(41):E4367-75. PMID: 25267639; PMCID: PMC4205651.
  27. Zeng LL, Wang D, Fox MD, Sabuncu M, Hu D, Ge M, Buckner RL, Liu H. Neurobiological basis of head motion in brain imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22; 111(16):6058-62. PMID: 24711399; PMCID: PMC4000812.
  28. Ruffini G, Fox MD, Ripolles O, Miranda PC, Pascual-Leone A. Optimization of multifocal transcranial current stimulation for weighted cortical pattern targeting from realistic modeling of electric fields. Neuroimage. 2014 Apr 01; 89:216-25. PMID: 24345389; PMCID: PMC3944133.
  29. Mueller S, Wang D, Fox MD, Yeo BT, Sepulcre J, Sabuncu MR, Shafee R, Lu J, Liu H. Individual variability in functional connectivity architecture of the human brain. Neuron. 2013 Feb 06; 77(3):586-95. PMID: 23395382.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Fox MD, Liu H, Pascual-Leone A. Identification of reproducible individualized targets for treatment of depression with TMS based on intrinsic connectivity. Neuroimage. 2013 Feb 01; 66:151-60. PMID: 23142067; PMCID: PMC3594474.
  31. Fox MD, Cohen AB. "Bright tongue sign" in ALS. Neurology. 2012 Oct 02; 79(14):1520. PMID: 23033505.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Fox MD, Buckner RL, White MP, Greicius MD, Pascual-Leone A. Efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation targets for depression is related to intrinsic functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Oct 01; 72(7):595-603. PMID: 22658708; PMCID: PMC4120275.
  33. Fox MD, Halko MA, Eldaief MC, Pascual-Leone A. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Neuroimage. 2012 Oct 01; 62(4):2232-43. PMID: 22465297; PMCID: PMC3518426.
  34. Shafi MM, Westover MB, Fox MD, Pascual-Leone A. Exploration and modulation of brain network interactions with noninvasive brain stimulation in combination with neuroimaging. Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Mar; 35(6):805-25. PMID: 22429242; PMCID: PMC3313459.
  35. Fox MD, Greicius M. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity. Front Syst Neurosci. 2010; 4:19. PMID: 20592951; PMCID: PMC2893721.
  36. Zhang D, Johnston JM, Fox MD, Leuthardt EC, Grubb RL, Chicoine MR, Smyth MD, Snyder AZ, Raichle ME, Shimony JS. Preoperative sensorimotor mapping in brain tumor patients using spontaneous fluctuations in neuronal activity imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging: initial experience. Neurosurgery. 2009 Dec; 65(6 Suppl):226-36. PMID: 19934999; PMCID: PMC2796594.
  37. Zhang D, Snyder AZ, Shimony JS, Fox MD, Raichle ME. Noninvasive functional and structural connectivity mapping of the human thalamocortical system. Cereb Cortex. 2010 May; 20(5):1187-94. PMID: 19729393; PMCID: PMC2852505.
  38. Shimony JS, Zhang D, Johnston JM, Fox MD, Roy A, Leuthardt EC. Resting-state spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity: a new paradigm for presurgical planning using fMRI. Acad Radiol. 2009 May; 16(5):578-83. PMID: 19345899; PMCID: PMC2818666.
  39. Fox MD, Zhang D, Snyder AZ, Raichle ME. The global signal and observed anticorrelated resting state brain networks. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Jun; 101(6):3270-83. PMID: 19339462; PMCID: PMC2694109.
  40. Zhang D, Snyder AZ, Fox MD, Sansbury MW, Shimony JS, Raichle ME. Intrinsic functional relations between human cerebral cortex and thalamus. J Neurophysiol. 2008 Oct; 100(4):1740-8. PMID: 18701759; PMCID: PMC2576214.
  41. Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Vincent JL, Raichle ME. Intrinsic fluctuations within cortical systems account for intertrial variability in human behavior. Neuron. 2007 Oct 04; 56(1):171-84. PMID: 17920023.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Fox MD, Raichle ME. Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007 Sep; 8(9):700-11. PMID: 17704812.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Dosenbach NU, Fair DA, Miezin FM, Cohen AL, Wenger KK, Dosenbach RA, Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Vincent JL, Raichle ME, Schlaggar BL, Petersen SE. Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26; 104(26):11073-8. PMID: 17576922; PMCID: PMC1904171.
  44. Vincent JL, Patel GH, Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Baker JT, Van Essen DC, Zempel JM, Snyder LH, Corbetta M, Raichle ME. Intrinsic functional architecture in the anaesthetized monkey brain. Nature. 2007 May 03; 447(7140):83-6. PMID: 17476267.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Fair DA, Schlaggar BL, Cohen AL, Miezin FM, Dosenbach NU, Wenger KK, Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Raichle ME, Petersen SE. A method for using blocked and event-related fMRI data to study "resting state" functional connectivity. Neuroimage. 2007 Mar; 35(1):396-405. PMID: 17239622; PMCID: PMC2563954.
  46. Vincent JL, Snyder AZ, Fox MD, Shannon BJ, Andrews JR, Raichle ME, Buckner RL. Coherent spontaneous activity identifies a hippocampal-parietal memory network. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Dec; 96(6):3517-31. PMID: 16899645.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Fox MD, Corbetta M, Snyder AZ, Vincent JL, Raichle ME. Spontaneous neuronal activity distinguishes human dorsal and ventral attention systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 27; 103(26):10046-51. PMID: 16788060; PMCID: PMC1480402.
  48. Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Zacks JM, Raichle ME. Coherent spontaneous activity accounts for trial-to-trial variability in human evoked brain responses. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jan; 9(1):23-5. PMID: 16341210.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Barch DM, Gusnard DA, Raichle ME. Transient BOLD responses at block transitions. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec; 28(4):956-66. PMID: 16043368.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Vincent JL, Corbetta M, Van Essen DC, Raichle ME. The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 05; 102(27):9673-8. PMID: 15976020; PMCID: PMC1157105.
  51. Fox MD, Snyder AZ, McAvoy MP, Barch DM, Raichle ME. The BOLD onset transient: identification of novel functional differences in schizophrenia. Neuroimage. 2005 Apr 15; 25(3):771-82. PMID: 15808978.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Deanglis AP, Fox MD, Retzinger GS. Accumulation of fibrinogen-coated microparticles at a fibrin(ogen)-rich inflammatory site. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 1999 Jun; 29 ( Pt 3):251-61. PMID: 10334956.
    View in: PubMed
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Funded by the NIH/NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, grant number UL1TR001102, and through institutional support from Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.