Harvard Catalyst Profiles

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Steven Paul Balk, Ph.D., M.D.


Available: 07/24/19, Expires: 07/31/21

The lab has a broad interest in further understanding the molecular basis of prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression in order to identify new therapies for prevention and treatment. The androgen receptor (AR) is required for PCa development, and the standard systemic treatment for PCa is androgen deprivation therapy to suppress AR function. However, patients invariably relapse and AR activity generally persists in these resistant tumors. Therefore, one focus is on molecular biology of AR and mechanisms driving its activity in patients who relapse despite AR targeted therapies. We also have projects related to SOX9, WNT signaling, and apoptotic pathways in PCa. Our studies employ cell line and mouse models, patient derived xenografts, and clinical samples from patients on clinical trials. Depending on experience, students would in most cases initially participate in an ongoing project in collaboration with a senior postdoctoral fellow or junior faculty member, and subsequently develop an aspect of the work into an independent project.

The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
  1. R01CA168393 (BALK, STEVEN P) May 13, 2014 - Apr 30, 2019
    SOX9 Mediation of AR and ERG Driven Prostate Cancer
    Role: Principal Investigator
  2. P01CA163227 (BALK, STEVEN P) May 24, 2013 - Jan 31, 2024
    Androgen Receptor Action in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer
    Role: Principal Investigator
  3. R01CA111803 (BALK, STEVEN P.) May 1, 2007 - Mar 30, 2012
    Targeting AR-NCoR Interaction in Prostate Cancer
    Role: Principal Investigator
  4. R21NS057051 (BALK, STEVEN P.) Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2008
    HTS for Androgen Receptor Antagonists that Recruit NCoR
    Role: Principal Investigator
  5. R01DK061047 (BALK, STEVEN P.) Jul 1, 2002 - May 31, 2007
    AR Transgene Model of Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia
    Role: Principal Investigator

Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Rafiei S, Fitzpatrick K, Liu D, Cai MY, Elmarakeby HA, Park J, Ricker C, Kochupurakkal BS, Choudhury AD, Hahn WC, Balk SP, Hwang JH, Van Allen EM, Mouw KW. ATM Loss Confers Greater Sensitivity to ATR Inhibition than PARP Inhibition in Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res. 2020 Mar 03. PMID: 32127357.
  2. Russo JW, Nouri M, Balk SP. Androgen Receptor Interaction with Mediator Complex Is Enhanced in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer by CDK7 Phosphorylation of MED1. Cancer Discov. 2019 11; 9(11):1490-1492. PMID: 31676563.
  3. Hennigan ST, Trostel SY, Terrigino NT, Voznesensky OS, Schaefer RJ, Whitlock NC, Wilkinson S, Carrabba NV, Atway R, Shema S, Lake R, Sweet AR, Einstein DJ, Karzai F, Gulley JL, Chang P, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Ye H, Sowalsky AG. Low Abundance of Circulating Tumor DNA in Localized Prostate Cancer. JCO Precis Oncol. 2019; 3. PMID: 31528835.
  4. Han D, Chen S, Han W, Gao S, Owiredu JN, Li M, Balk SP, He HH, Cai C. ZBTB7A Mediates the Transcriptional Repression Activity of the Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res. 2019 10 15; 79(20):5260-5271. PMID: 31444154.
  5. Patterson JC, Joughin BA, Prota AE, Mühlethaler T, Jonas OH, Whitman MA, Varmeh S, Chen S, Balk SP, Steinmetz MO, Lauffenburger DA, Yaffe MB. VISAGE Reveals a Targetable Mitotic Spindle Vulnerability in Cancer Cells. Cell Syst. 2019 07 24; 9(1):74-92.e8. PMID: 31302152.
  6. Einstein DJ, Arai S, Balk SP. Targeting the androgen receptor and overcoming resistance in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 2019 05; 31(3):175-182. PMID: 30893145.
  7. Alsinnawi M, Zhang A, Bianchi-Frias D, Burns J, Cho E, Zhang X, Sowalsky A, Ye H, Slee AE, True L, Porter C, Taplin ME, Balk S, Nelson PS, Montgomery RB, Mostaghel EA. Association of prostate cancer SLCO gene expression with Gleason grade and alterations following androgen deprivation therapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 12; 22(4):560-568. PMID: 30890759.
  8. Poluben L, Bryke CR, Hsu Y, Shumeiko O, Neumerzhitska L, Klimuk B, Rybchenko L, Klymenko S, Balk SP, Fraenkel PG. Copy number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity in Ukrainian patients with primary myelofibrosis. Exp Oncol. 2019 Mar; 41(1):53-56. PMID: 30932413.
  9. Cato L, de Tribolet-Hardy J, Lee I, Rottenberg JT, Coleman I, Melchers D, Houtman R, Xiao T, Li W, Uo T, Sun S, Kuznik NC, Göppert B, Ozgun F, van Royen ME, Houtsmuller AB, Vadhi R, Rao PK, Li L, Balk SP, Den RB, Trock BJ, Karnes RJ, Jenkins RB, Klein EA, Davicioni E, Gruhl FJ, Long HW, Liu XS, Cato ACB, Lack NA, Nelson PS, Plymate SR, Groner AC, Brown M. ARv7 Represses Tumor-Suppressor Genes in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancer Cell. 2019 03 18; 35(3):401-413.e6. PMID: 30773341.
  10. Russo JW, Balk SP. Initiation and Evolution of Early Onset Prostate Cancer. Cancer Cell. 2018 12 10; 34(6):874-876. PMID: 30537509.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  11. Sharp A, Coleman I, Yuan W, Sprenger C, Dolling D, Rodrigues DN, Russo JW, Figueiredo I, Bertan C, Seed G, Riisnaes R, Uo T, Neeb A, Welti J, Morrissey C, Carreira S, Luo J, Nelson PS, Balk SP, True LD, de Bono JS, Plymate SR. Androgen receptor splice variant-7 expression emerges with castration resistance in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest. 2019 01 02; 129(1):192-208. PMID: 30334814.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  12. Poluben L, Puligandla M, Neuberg D, Bryke CR, Hsu Y, Shumeiko O, Yuan X, Voznesensky O, Pihan G, Adam M, Fraenkel E, Rasnic R, Linial M, Klymenko S, Balk SP, Fraenkel PG. Characteristics of myeloproliferative neoplasms in patients exposed to ionizing radiation following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Am J Hematol. 2019 01; 94(1):62-73. PMID: 30295334.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  13. Russo JW, Gao C, Bhasin SS, Voznesensky OS, Calagua C, Arai S, Nelson PS, Montgomery B, Mostaghel EA, Corey E, Taplin ME, Ye H, Bhasin M, Balk SP. Downregulation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Accelerates Progression to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res. 2018 11 15; 78(22):6354-6362. PMID: 30242112.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  14. Russo JW, Liu X, Ye H, Calagua C, Chen S, Voznesensky O, Condulis J, Ma F, Taplin ME, Einstein DJ, Balk SP, Chen S. Phosphorylation of androgen receptor serine 81 is associated with its reactivation in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Lett. 2018 12 01; 438:97-104. PMID: 30217568.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  15. Mostaghel EA, Zhang A, Hernandez S, Marck BT, Zhang X, Tamae D, Biehl HE, Tretiakova M, Bartlett J, Burns J, Dumpit R, Ang L, Matsumoto AM, Penning TM, Balk SP, Morrissey C, Corey E, True LD, Nelson PS. Contribution of Adrenal Glands to Intratumor Androgens and Growth of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 01 01; 25(1):426-439. PMID: 30181386.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  16. Kolodny G, Li X, Balk S. Addressing Cancer Chemotherapeutic Toxicity, Resistance, and Heterogeneity: Novel Theranostic Use of DNA-Encoded Small Molecule Libraries. Bioessays. 2018 10; 40(10):e1800057. PMID: 30101540.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  17. Arai S, Jonas O, Whitman MA, Corey E, Balk SP, Chen S. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Increase MCL1 Degradation and in Combination with BCLXL/BCL2 Inhibitors Drive Prostate Cancer Apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 11 01; 24(21):5458-5470. PMID: 30021909.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  18. Chen S, Cai C, Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Ma F, Yuan X, Simon NI, Gray NS, Balk SP. BMX-Mediated Regulation of Multiple Tyrosine Kinases Contributes to Castration Resistance in Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res. 2018 09 15; 78(18):5203-5215. PMID: 30012673.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  19. Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bhasin M, Van Allen EM, Loda M, Lis RT, Montaser-Kouhsari L, Calagua C, Ma F, Russo JW, Schaefer RJ, Voznesensky OS, Zhang Z, Bubley GJ, Montgomery B, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Taplin ME, Balk SP. Neoadjuvant-Intensive Androgen Deprivation Therapy Selects for Prostate Tumor Foci with Diverse Subclonal Oncogenic Alterations. Cancer Res. 2018 08 15; 78(16):4716-4730. PMID: 29921690.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  20. Xu X, Balk SP, Isaacs WB, Ma J. Calcium signaling: an underlying link between cardiac disease and carcinogenesis. Cell Biosci. 2018; 8:39. PMID: 29930797.
  21. Luo J, Attard G, Balk SP, Bevan C, Burnstein K, Cato L, Cherkasov A, De Bono JS, Dong Y, Gao AC, Gleave M, Heemers H, Kanayama M, Kittler R, Lang JM, Lee RJ, Logothetis CJ, Matusik R, Plymate S, Sawyers CL, Selth LA, Soule H, Tilley W, Weigel NL, Zoubeidi A, Dehm SM, Raj GV. Role of Androgen Receptor Variants in Prostate Cancer: Report from the 2017 Mission Androgen Receptor Variants Meeting. Eur Urol. 2018 05; 73(5):715-723. PMID: 29258679.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  22. Exley MA, Wilson SB, Balk SP. Isolation and Functional Use of Human NKT Cells. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2017 Nov 01; 119:14.11.1-14.11.20. PMID: 29091262.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  23. Calagua C, Russo J, Sun Y, Schaefer R, Lis R, Zhang Z, Mahoney K, Bubley GJ, Loda M, Taplin ME, Balk SP, Ye H. Expression of PD-L1 in Hormone-naïve and Treated Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Abiraterone Acetate plus Prednisone and Leuprolide. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Nov 15; 23(22):6812-6822. PMID: 28893901.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  24. Zang T, Taplin ME, Tamae D, Xie W, Mesaros C, Zhang Z, Bubley G, Montgomery B, Balk SP, Mostaghel EA, Blair IA, Penning TM. Testicular vs adrenal sources of hydroxy-androgens in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017 08; 24(8):393-404. PMID: 28663228.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  25. Liu X, Gao Y, Ye H, Gerrin S, Ma F, Wu Y, Zhang T, Russo J, Cai C, Yuan X, Liu J, Chen S, Balk SP. Positive feedback loop mediated by protein phosphatase 1a mobilization of P-TEFb and basal CDK1 drives androgen receptor in prostate cancer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 04 20; 45(7):3738-3751. PMID: 28062857.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  26. Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Association Between Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Prostate Cancer Resistance to Abiraterone and Enzalutamide. J Clin Oncol. 2017 07 01; 35(19):2103-2105. PMID: 28414609.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  27. Mostaghel EA, Cho E, Zhang A, Alyamani M, Kaipainen A, Green S, Marck BT, Sharifi N, Wright JL, Gulati R, True LD, Loda M, Matsumoto AM, Tamae D, Penning TN, Balk SP, Kantoff PW, Nelson PS, Taplin ME, Montgomery RB. Association of Tissue Abiraterone Levels and SLCO Genotype with Intraprostatic Steroids and Pathologic Response in Men with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 15; 23(16):4592-4601. PMID: 28389510.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  28. Patnaik A, Swanson KD, Csizmadia E, Solanki A, Landon-Brace N, Gehring MP, Helenius K, Olson BM, Pyzer AR, Wang LC, Elemento O, Novak J, Thornley TB, Asara JM, Montaser L, Timmons JJ, Morgan TM, Wang Y, Levantini E, Clohessy JG, Kelly K, Pandolfi PP, Rosenblatt JM, Avigan DE, Ye H, Karp JM, Signoretti S, Balk SP, Cantley LC. Cabozantinib Eradicates Advanced Murine Prostate Cancer by Activating Antitumor Innate Immunity. Cancer Discov. 2017 07; 7(7):750-765. PMID: 28274958.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  29. Exley MA, Friedlander P, Alatrakchi N, Vriend L, Yue S, Sasada T, Zeng W, Mizukami Y, Clark J, Nemer D, LeClair K, Canning C, Daley H, Dranoff G, Giobbie-Hurder A, Hodi FS, Ritz J, Balk SP. Adoptive Transfer of Invariant NKT Cells as Immunotherapy for Advanced Melanoma: A Phase I Clinical Trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Jul 15; 23(14):3510-3519. PMID: 28193627.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
  30. DeLeonardis K, Sedgwick K, Voznesensky O, Matloff E, Hofstatter E, Balk S, Tung N. Challenges in Interpreting Germline Mutations in BARD1 and ATM in Breast and Ovarian Cancer Patients. Breast J. 2017 Jul; 23(4):461-464. PMID: 28139868.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  31. Sowalsky AG, Kissick HT, Gerrin SJ, Schaefer RJ, Xia Z, Russo JW, Arredouani MS, Bubley GJ, Sanda MG, Li W, Ye H, Balk SP. Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers Emerge through Branched Evolution of Clonal Gleason Pattern 3 and 4. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Jul 15; 23(14):3823-3833. PMID: 28119368.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  32. Kelly K, Balk SP. Reprogramming to resist. Science. 2017 01 06; 355(6320):29-30. PMID: 28059730.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  33. Montgomery B, Tretiakova MS, Joshua AM, Gleave ME, Fleshner N, Bubley GJ, Mostaghel EA, Chi KN, Lin DW, Sanda M, Novotny W, Wu K, Kantoff PW, Marck BT, Plymate S, Balk SP, Nelson PS, Matsumoto AM, Lis RT, Kibel A, Haas GP, Krivoshik A, Hannah A, Taplin ME. Neoadjuvant Enzalutamide Prior to Prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 May 01; 23(9):2169-2176. PMID: 28151719.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  34. Gao S, Gao Y, He HH, Han D, Han W, Avery A, Macoska JA, Liu X, Chen S, Ma F, Chen S, Balk SP, Cai C. Androgen Receptor Tumor Suppressor Function Is Mediated by Recruitment of Retinoblastoma Protein. Cell Rep. 2016 10 18; 17(4):966-976. PMID: 27760327.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  35. McKay RR, Werner L, Mostaghel EA, Lis R, Voznesensky O, Zhang Z, Marck BT, Matsumoto AM, Domachevsky L, Zukotynski KA, Bhasin M, Bubley GJ, Montgomery B, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Taplin ME. A Phase II Trial of Abiraterone Combined with Dutasteride for Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Feb 15; 23(4):935-945. PMID: 27683182.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  36. Gerrin SJ, Sowalsky AG, Balk SP, Ye H. Mutation Profiling Indicates High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia as Distant Precursors of Adjacent Invasive Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Prostate. 2016 09; 76(13):1227-36. PMID: 27272561.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  37. Li Z, Alyamani M, Li J, Rogacki K, Abazeed M, Upadhyay SK, Balk SP, Taplin ME, Auchus RJ, Sharifi N. Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy. Nature. 2016 05 26; 533(7604):547-51. PMID: 27225130.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  38. Ma F, Ye H, He HH, Gerrin SJ, Chen S, Tanenbaum BA, Cai C, Sowalsky AG, He L, Wang H, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 drives WNT pathway activation in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest. 2016 05 02; 126(5):1745-58. PMID: 27043282.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  39. Gao S, Ye H, Gerrin S, Wang H, Sharma A, Chen S, Patnaik A, Sowalsky AG, Voznesensky O, Han W, Yu Z, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Taplin ME, Balk SP, Cai C. ErbB2 Signaling Increases Androgen Receptor Expression in Abiraterone-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 07 15; 22(14):3672-82. PMID: 26936914.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  40. Liu X, Han W, Gulla S, Simon NI, Gao Y, Cai C, Yang H, Zhang X, Liu J, Balk SP, Chen S. Protein phosphatase 1 suppresses androgen receptor ubiquitylation and degradation. Oncotarget. 2016 Jan 12; 7(2):1754-64. PMID: 26636645.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  41. Taplin ME, Balk SP. Has the Time Arrived for Biomarker-Directed Therapy in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer? JAMA Oncol. 2015 Aug; 1(5):577-9. PMID: 26181796.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  42. Sowalsky AG, Sager R, Schaefer RJ, Bratslavsky G, Pandolfi PP, Balk SP, Kotula L. Loss of Wave1 gene defines a subtype of lethal prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2015 May 20; 6(14):12383-91. PMID: 25906751.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  43. Hsieh CL, Botta G, Gao S, Li T, Van Allen EM, Treacy DJ, Cai C, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Brown M, Balk SP, Nelson PS, Garraway LA, Kantoff PW. PLZF, a tumor suppressor genetically lost in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, is a mediator of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. Cancer Res. 2015 May 15; 75(10):1944-8. PMID: 25808865.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  44. Plymate SR, Bhatt RS, Balk SP. Taxane resistance in prostate cancer mediated by AR-independent GATA2 regulation of IGF2. Cancer Cell. 2015 Feb 09; 27(2):158-9. PMID: 25670076.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  45. Tamae D, Mostaghel E, Montgomery B, Nelson PS, Balk SP, Kantoff PW, Taplin ME, Penning TM. The DHEA-sulfate depot following P450c17 inhibition supports the case for AKR1C3 inhibition in high risk localized and advanced castration resistant prostate cancer. Chem Biol Interact. 2015 Jun 05; 234:332-8. PMID: 25514466.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  46. Cai C, He HH, Gao S, Chen S, Yu Z, Gao Y, Chen S, Chen MW, Zhang J, Ahmed M, Wang Y, Metzger E, Schüle R, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 has dual functions as a major regulator of androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Cell Rep. 2014 Dec 11; 9(5):1618-1627. PMID: 25482560.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  47. Chen EJ, Sowalsky AG, Gao S, Cai C, Voznesensky O, Schaefer R, Loda M, True LD, Ye H, Troncoso P, Lis RL, Kantoff PW, Montgomery RB, Nelson PS, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Taplin ME. Abiraterone treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer selects for progesterone responsive mutant androgen receptors. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Mar 15; 21(6):1273-80. PMID: 25320358.
    Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  48. Taplin ME, Montgomery B, Logothetis CJ, Bubley GJ, Richie JP, Dalkin BL, Sanda MG, Davis JW, Loda M, True LD, Troncoso P, Ye H, Lis RT, Marck BT, Matsumoto AM, Balk SP, Mostaghel EA, Penning TM, Nelson PS, Xie W, Jiang Z, Haqq CM, Tamae D, Tran N, Peng W, Kheoh T, Molina A, Kantoff PW. Intense androgen-deprivation therapy with abiraterone acetate plus leuprolide acetate in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer: results of a randomized phase II neoadjuvant study. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov 20; 32(33):3705-15. PMID: 25311217.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  49. Sowalsky AG, Xia Z, Wang L, Zhao H, Chen S, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Li W. Whole transcriptome sequencing reveals extensive unspliced mRNA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2015 Jan; 13(1):98-106. PMID: 25189356.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  50. Lu J, Lonergan PE, Nacusi LP, Wang L, Schmidt LJ, Sun Z, Van der Steen T, Boorjian SA, Kosari F, Vasmatzis G, Klee GG, Balk SP, Huang H, Wang C, Tindall DJ. The cistrome and gene signature of androgen receptor splice variants in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. J Urol. 2015 Feb; 193(2):690-8. PMID: 25132238.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  51. McKay RR, Zukotynski KA, Werner L, Voznesensky O, Wu JS, Smith SE, Jiang Z, Melnick K, Yuan X, Kantoff PW, Montgomery B, Balk SP, Taplin ME. Imaging, procedural and clinical variables associated with tumor yield on bone biopsy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2014 Dec; 17(4):325-31. PMID: 25091040.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  52. Porcelli S, Yockey CE, Brenner MB, Balk SP. Pillars article: analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- a/ß T cells demonstrates preferential use of several Vß genes and an invariant TCR a chain. J. Exp. Med. 1993. 178: 1-16. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 01; 193(3):977-92. PMID: 25049428.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  53. Balk SP. Androgen receptor functions in prostate cancer development and progression. Asian J Androl. 2014 Jul-Aug; 16(4):561-4. PMID: 24759584.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  54. Yu Z, Cai C, Gao S, Simon NI, Shen HC, Balk SP. Galeterone prevents androgen receptor binding to chromatin and enhances degradation of mutant androgen receptor. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Aug 01; 20(15):4075-85. PMID: 24874833.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  55. Chin YR, Yuan X, Balk SP, Toker A. PTEN-deficient tumors depend on AKT2 for maintenance and survival. Cancer Discov. 2014 Aug; 4(8):942-55. PMID: 24838891.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  56. Hsieh CL, Fei T, Chen Y, Li T, Gao Y, Wang X, Sun T, Sweeney CJ, Lee GS, Chen S, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M, Kantoff PW. Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 20; 111(20):7319-24. PMID: 24778216.
    Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  57. Yu Z, Chen S, Sowalsky AG, Voznesensky OS, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Cai C, Balk SP. Rapid induction of androgen receptor splice variants by androgen deprivation in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Mar 15; 20(6):1590-600. PMID: 24449822.
    Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  58. Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin DW, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, Kantoff P, Marck B, Tamae D, Matsumoto AM, True LD, Vessella R, Penning T, Hunter Merrill R, Gulati R, Montgomery B. Targeted androgen pathway suppression in localized prostate cancer: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jan 20; 32(3):229-37. PMID: 24323034.
    Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  59. Egan A, Dong Y, Zhang H, Qi Y, Balk SP, Sartor O. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: adaptive responses in the androgen axis. Cancer Treat Rev. 2014 Apr; 40(3):426-33. PMID: 24139549.
    Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  60. Cai C, Yuan X, Balk SP. Androgen receptor epigenetics. Transl Androl Urol. 2013 Sep 01; 2(3):148-157. PMID: 25580383.
    Citations: 7     
  61. Tamae D, Byrns M, Marck B, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin D, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, True L, Vessella R, Montgomery B, Blair IA, Penning TM. Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Nov; 138:281-9. PMID: 23851165.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  62. Sun T, Wang X, He HH, Sweeney CJ, Liu SX, Brown M, Balk S, Lee GS, Kantoff PW. MiR-221 promotes the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of HECTD2 and RAB1A. Oncogene. 2014 May 22; 33(21):2790-800. PMID: 23770851.
    Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  63. Yuan X, Cai C, Chen S, Chen S, Yu Z, Balk SP. Androgen receptor functions in castration-resistant prostate cancer and mechanisms of resistance to new agents targeting the androgen axis. Oncogene. 2014 May 29; 33(22):2815-25. PMID: 23752196.
    Citations: 87     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  64. Chen S, Jiang X, Gewinner CA, Asara JM, Simon NI, Cai C, Cantley LC, Balk SP. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. Sci Signal. 2013 May 28; 6(277):ra40. PMID: 23716717.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  65. Liu F, Zhang X, Weisberg E, Chen S, Hur W, Wu H, Zhao Z, Wang W, Mao M, Cai C, Simon NI, Sanda T, Wang J, Look AT, Griffin JD, Balk SP, Liu Q, Gray NS. Discovery of a selective irreversible BMX inhibitor for prostate cancer. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Jul 19; 8(7):1423-8. PMID: 23594111.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  66. Cai C, Wang H, He HH, Chen S, He L, Ma F, Mucci L, Wang Q, Fiore C, Sowalsky AG, Loda M, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP, Yuan X. ERG induces androgen receptor-mediated regulation of SOX9 in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Mar; 123(3):1109-22. PMID: 23426182.
    Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  67. Wang H, He L, Ma F, Regan MM, Balk SP, Richardson AL, Yuan X. SOX9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) expression and Wnt/ß-catenin activation in breast cancer. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 01; 288(9):6478-87. PMID: 23306204.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  68. Xu K, Wu ZJ, Groner AC, He HH, Cai C, Lis RT, Wu X, Stack EC, Loda M, Liu T, Xu H, Cato L, Thornton JE, Gregory RI, Morrissey C, Vessella RL, Montironi R, Magi-Galluzzi C, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M. EZH2 oncogenic activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells is Polycomb-independent. Science. 2012 Dec 14; 338(6113):1465-9. PMID: 23239736.
    Citations: 224     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  69. Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Clonal progression of prostate cancers from Gleason grade 3 to grade 4. Cancer Res. 2013 Feb 01; 73(3):1050-5. PMID: 23204237.
    Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  70. Shen HC, Shanmugasundaram K, Simon NI, Cai C, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP, Rigby AC. In silico discovery of androgen receptor antagonists with activity in castration resistant prostate cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Nov; 26(11):1836-46. PMID: 23023563.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  71. Lynch L, Nowak M, Varghese B, Clark J, Hogan AE, Toxavidis V, Balk SP, O'Shea D, O'Farrelly C, Exley MA. Adipose tissue invariant NKT cells protect against diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder through regulatory cytokine production. Immunity. 2012 Sep 21; 37(3):574-87. PMID: 22981538.
    Citations: 136     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  72. Wang H, Xu Y, Fang Z, Chen S, Balk SP, Yuan X. Doxycycline regulated induction of AKT in murine prostate drives proliferation independently of p27 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor downregulation. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41330. PMID: 22844460.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  73. Chen S, Gulla S, Cai C, Balk SP. Androgen receptor serine 81 phosphorylation mediates chromatin binding and transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Mar 09; 287(11):8571-83. PMID: 22275373.
    Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  74. Fang Z, Zhang T, Dizeyi N, Chen S, Wang H, Swanson KD, Cai C, Balk SP, Yuan X. Androgen Receptor Enhances p27 Degradation in Prostate Cancer Cells through Rapid and Selective TORC2 Activation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 13; 287(3):2090-8. PMID: 22139837.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  75. Sun T, Yang M, Chen S, Balk S, Pomerantz M, Hsieh CL, Brown M, Lee GM, Kantoff PW. The altered expression of MiR-221/-222 and MiR-23b/-27b is associated with the development of human castration resistant prostate cancer. Prostate. 2012 Jul 01; 72(10):1093-103. PMID: 22127852.
    Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  76. Cai C, He HH, Chen S, Coleman I, Wang H, Fang Z, Chen S, Nelson PS, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP. Androgen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer is directly suppressed by the androgen receptor through recruitment of lysine-specific demethylase 1. Cancer Cell. 2011 Oct 18; 20(4):457-71. PMID: 22014572.
    Citations: 132     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  77. Cai C, Balk SP. Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis in prostate cancer pathogenesis and response to therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011 Oct; 18(5):R175-82. PMID: 21712345.
    Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  78. Cai C, Chen S, Ng P, Bubley GJ, Nelson PS, Mostaghel EA, Marck B, Matsumoto AM, Simon NI, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP. Intratumoral de novo steroid synthesis activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer and is upregulated by treatment with CYP17A1 inhibitors. Cancer Res. 2011 Oct 15; 71(20):6503-13. PMID: 21868758.
    Citations: 124     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  79. Yang M, Xie W, Mostaghel E, Nakabayashi M, Werner L, Sun T, Pomerantz M, Freedman M, Ross R, Regan M, Sharifi N, Figg WD, Balk S, Brown M, Taplin ME, Oh WK, Lee GS, Kantoff PW. SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 may determine time to progression for patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jun 20; 29(18):2565-73. PMID: 21606417.
    Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  80. Exley MA, Lynch L, Varghese B, Nowak M, Alatrakchi N, Balk SP. Developing understanding of the roles of CD1d-restricted T cell subsets in cancer: reversing tumor-induced defects. Clin Immunol. 2011 Aug; 140(2):184-95. PMID: 21646050.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  81. Exley MA, Wilson B, Balk SP. Isolation and functional use of human NKT cells. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2010 Aug; Chapter 14:Unit 14.11. PMID: 20814940.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  82. Nowak M, Arredouani MS, Tun-Kyi A, Schmidt-Wolf I, Sanda MG, Balk SP, Exley MA. Defective NKT cell activation by CD1d+ TRAMP prostate tumor cells is corrected by interleukin-12 with a-galactosylceramide. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 25; 5(6):e11311. PMID: 20593019.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  83. Porcelli S, Brenner MB, Greenstein JL, Terhorst C, Balk SP, Bleicher PA. Recognition of Cluster of Differentiation 1 Antigens by Human CD4-CD8- CytolyticT Lymphocyte. Nature. 1989. 341: 447-450. 1989. J Immunol. 2010 Apr 01; 184(7):3306-9. PMID: 20304831.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  84. Jiang X, Chen S, Asara JM, Balk SP. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activation in phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient prostate cancer cells is independent of receptor tyrosine kinases and mediated by the p110beta and p110delta catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem. 2010 May 14; 285(20):14980-9. PMID: 20231295.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  85. Nowak M, Lynch L, Yue S, Ohta A, Sitkovsky M, Balk SP, Exley MA. The A2aR adenosine receptor controls cytokine production in iNKT cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Mar; 40(3):682-7. PMID: 20039304.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  86. Yue SC, Nowak M, Shaulov-Kask A, Wang R, Yue D, Balk SP, Exley MA. Direct CD1d-mediated stimulation of APC IL-12 production and protective immune response to virus infection in vivo. J Immunol. 2010 Jan 01; 184(1):268-76. PMID: 19949077.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  87. Taplin ME, Regan MM, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ, Duggan SE, Werner L, Beer TM, Ryan CW, Mathew P, Tu SM, Denmeade SR, Oh WK, Sartor O, Mantzoros CS, Rittmaster R, Kantoff PW, Balk SP. Phase II study of androgen synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride in asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15; 15(22):7099-105. PMID: 19887483.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  88. Sartor O, Nakabayashi M, Taplin ME, Ross RW, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Oh WK. Activity of dutasteride plus ketoconazole in castration-refractory prostate cancer after progression on ketoconazole alone. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Oct; 7(3):E90-2. PMID: 19815488.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  89. Lu B, Maqsodi B, Yang W, McMaster GK, Perner S, Regan M, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Rubin M, Sanda MG. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer specimens by a novel assay using branched DNA. Urology. 2009 Nov; 74(5):1156-61. PMID: 19647299.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  90. Wang Q, Li W, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Xu K, Yu J, Chen Z, Beroukhim R, Wang H, Lupien M, Wu T, Regan MM, Meyer CA, Carroll JS, Manrai AK, Jänne OA, Balk SP, Mehra R, Han B, Chinnaiyan AM, Rubin MA, True L, Fiorentino M, Fiore C, Loda M, Kantoff PW, Liu XS, Brown M. Androgen receptor regulates a distinct transcription program in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cell. 2009 Jul 23; 138(2):245-56. PMID: 19632176.
    Citations: 352     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  91. Chen S, Kesler CT, Paschal BM, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and activity are regulated by an association with protein phosphatase 1. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18; 284(38):25576-84. PMID: 19622840.
    Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  92. Cai C, Wang H, Xu Y, Chen S, Balk SP. Reactivation of androgen receptor-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 01; 69(15):6027-32. PMID: 19584279.
    Citations: 63     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  93. Cai C, Portnoy DC, Wang H, Jiang X, Chen S, Balk SP. Androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells is suppressed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2. Cancer Res. 2009 Jun 15; 69(12):5202-9. PMID: 19491261.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  94. Shen HC, Balk SP. Development of androgen receptor antagonists with promising activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Cell. 2009 Jun 02; 15(6):461-3. PMID: 19477425.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  95. Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee GS, Kantoff P. The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 15; 69(8):3356-63. PMID: 19351832.
    Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  96. Yuan X, Balk SP. Mechanisms mediating androgen receptor reactivation after castration. Urol Oncol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 27(1):36-41. PMID: 19111796.
    Citations: 89     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  97. Song W, van der Vliet HJ, Tai YT, Prabhala R, Wang R, Podar K, Catley L, Shammas MA, Anderson KC, Balk SP, Exley MA, Munshi NC. Generation of antitumor invariant natural killer T cell lines in multiple myeloma and promotion of their functions via lenalidomide: a strategy for immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 01; 14(21):6955-62. PMID: 18980990.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  98. Kaur R, Yuan X, Lu ML, Balk SP. Increased PAK6 expression in prostate cancer and identification of PAK6 associated proteins. Prostate. 2008 Oct 01; 68(14):1510-6. PMID: 18642328.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  99. Hodgson MC, Shen HC, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Structural basis for nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment by antagonist-liganded androgen receptor. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Oct; 7(10):3187-94. PMID: 18852122.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  100. Hur W, Velentza A, Kim S, Flatauer L, Jiang X, Valente D, Mason DE, Suzuki M, Larson B, Zhang J, Zagorska A, Didonato M, Nagle A, Warmuth M, Balk SP, Peters EC, Gray NS. Clinical stage EGFR inhibitors irreversibly alkylate Bmx kinase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Nov 15; 18(22):5916-9. PMID: 18667312.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  101. van der Vliet HJ, Wang R, Yue SC, Koon HB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Circulating myeloid dendritic cells of advanced cancer patients result in reduced activation and a biased cytokine profile in invariant NKT cells. J Immunol. 2008 Jun 01; 180(11):7287-93. PMID: 18490728.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  102. Exley MA, Hou R, Shaulov A, Tonti E, Dellabona P, Casorati G, Akbari O, Akman HO, Greenfield EA, Gumperz JE, Boyson JE, Balk SP, Wilson SB. Selective activation, expansion, and monitoring of human iNKT cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for the TCR alpha-chain CDR3 loop. Eur J Immunol. 2008 Jun; 38(6):1756-66. PMID: 18493987.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
  103. Bao BY, Chuang BF, Wang Q, Sartor O, Balk SP, Brown M, Kantoff PW, Lee GS. Androgen receptor mediates the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B15 and B17 genes. Prostate. 2008 Jun 01; 68(8):839-48. PMID: 18302198.
    Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  104. Taplin M, Ko Y, Regan MM, Beer TM, Carducci MA, Mathew P, Bubley G, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Balk SP. Phase II trial of ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride (KHAD) for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). J Clin Oncol. 2008 May 20; 26(15_suppl):5068. PMID: 27948754.
  105. Taplin ME, Manola J, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Bubley GJ, Smith M, Barb D, Mantzoros C, Gelmann EP, Balk SP. A phase II study of mifepristone (RU-486) in castration-resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU Int. 2008 May; 101(9):1084-9. PMID: 18399827.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  106. Bhatt RS, Landis DM, Zimmer M, Torregrossa J, Chen S, Sukhatme VP, Iliopoulos O, Balk S, Bubley GJ. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha: effect on radiation sensitivity and differential regulation by an mTOR inhibitor. BJU Int. 2008 Aug; 102(3):358-63. PMID: 18394010.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  107. Wang H, Leav I, Ibaragi S, Wegner M, Hu GF, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in human fetal prostate epithelium and enhances prostate cancer invasion. Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 15; 68(6):1625-30. PMID: 18339840.
    Citations: 68     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  108. Shaulov A, Yue S, Wang R, Joyce RM, Balk SP, Kim HT, Avigan DE, Uhl L, Sackstein R, Exley MA. Peripheral blood progenitor cell product contains Th1-biased noninvariant CD1d-reactive natural killer T cells: implications for posttransplant survival. Exp Hematol. 2008 Apr; 36(4):464-72. PMID: 18261838.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  109. Balk SP, Knudsen KE. AR, the cell cycle, and prostate cancer. Nucl Recept Signal. 2008 Feb 01; 6:e001. PMID: 18301781.
    Citations: 121     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  110. Barb D, Neuwirth A, Mantzoros CS, Balk SP. Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007 Dec; 14(4):995-1005. PMID: 18045951.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  111. Jiang X, Borgesi RA, McKnight NC, Kaur R, Carpenter CL, Balk SP. Activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 09; 282(45):32689-98. PMID: 17823122.
    Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  112. van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Exploiting regulatory T-cell populations for the immunotherapy of cancer. J Immunother. 2007 Sep; 30(6):591-5. PMID: 17667522.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  113. Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors. Cancer Res. 2007 Sep 01; 67(17):8388-95. PMID: 17804755.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  114. van der Vliet HJ, van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Yue SC, Uzunparmak B, Seery V, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Effects of the administration of high-dose interleukin-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 01; 13(7):2100-8. PMID: 17404092.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
  115. Masiello D, Mohi MG, McKnight NC, Smith B, Neel BG, Balk SP, Bubley GJ. Combining an mTOR antagonist and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb; 6(2):195-201. PMID: 17218776.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  116. Probert CS, Saubermann LJ, Balk S, Blumberg RS. Repertoire of the alpha beta T-cell receptor in the intestine. Immunol Rev. 2007 Feb; 215:215-25. PMID: 17291291.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  117. Wang H, McKnight NC, Zhang T, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in normal prostate basal cells and regulates androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15; 67(2):528-36. PMID: 17234760.
    Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  118. Reddy GK, Balk SP. Clinical utility of microarray-derived genetic signatures in predicting outcomes in prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2006 Dec; 5(3):187-9. PMID: 17239271.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  119. Chen S, Xu Y, Yuan X, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and stabilization in prostate cancer by cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 24; 103(43):15969-74. PMID: 17043241.
    Citations: 70     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  120. van der Vliet HJ, Balk SP, Exley MA. Natural killer T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15; 12(20 Pt 1):5921-3. PMID: 17062661.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  121. Cai C, Chen SY, Zheng Z, Omwancha J, Lin MF, Balk SP, Shemshedini L. Androgen regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclasealpha1 mediates prostate cancer cell proliferation. Oncogene. 2007 Mar 08; 26(11):1606-15. PMID: 16964290.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  122. Xu Y, Chen SY, Ross KN, Balk SP. Androgens induce prostate cancer cell proliferation through mammalian target of rapamycin activation and post-transcriptional increases in cyclin D proteins. Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 01; 66(15):7783-92. PMID: 16885382.
    Citations: 110     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  123. Yuan X, Li T, Wang H, Zhang T, Barua M, Borgesi RA, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP. Androgen receptor remains critical for cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent CWR22 prostate cancer cells. Am J Pathol. 2006 Aug; 169(2):682-96. PMID: 16877366.
    Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  124. Ilyinskii PO, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d mediates T-cell-dependent resistance to secondary infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in vitro and immune response to EMCV infection in vivo. J Virol. 2006 Jul; 80(14):7146-58. PMID: 16809320.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  125. Hayes JH, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Manola JB, Smith MR, Gelmann EP, Bubley G, Balk SP, Taplin M. Mifepristone (RU-486) in androgen independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jun 20; 24(18_suppl):14508. PMID: 27953925.
  126. Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG, Balk SP. Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 01; 66(5):2815-25. PMID: 16510604.
    Citations: 340     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  127. Chen SY, Wulf G, Zhou XZ, Rubin MA, Lu KP, Balk SP. Activation of beta-catenin signaling in prostate cancer by peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1-mediated abrogation of the androgen receptor-beta-catenin interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Feb; 26(3):929-39. PMID: 16428447.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  128. Sonoda KH, Sakamoto T, Qiao H, Hisatomi T, Oshima T, Tsutsumi-Miyahara C, Exley M, Balk SP, Taniguchi M, Ishibashi T. The analysis of systemic tolerance elicited by antigen inoculation into the vitreous cavity: vitreous cavity-associated immune deviation. Immunology. 2005 Nov; 116(3):390-9. PMID: 16236129.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  129. Yue SC, Shaulov A, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d ligation on human monocytes directly signals rapid NF-kappaB activation and production of bioactive IL-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 16; 102(33):11811-6. PMID: 16091469.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  130. Fu XS, Choi E, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Identification of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) polymorphism as a mutation in prostate cancer that prevents normoxia-induced degradation. Prostate. 2005 May 15; 63(3):215-21. PMID: 15538748.
    Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  131. Nieuwenhuis EE, Gillessen S, Scheper RJ, Exley MA, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Blumberg RS, Wilson SB. CD1d and CD1d-restricted iNKT-cells play a pivotal role in contact hypersensitivity. Exp Dermatol. 2005 Apr; 14(4):250-8. PMID: 15810882.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  132. Vlahopoulos S, Zimmer WE, Jenster G, Belaguli NS, Balk SP, Brinkmann AO, Lanz RB, Zoumpourlis VC, Schwartz RJ. Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 04; 280(9):7786-92. PMID: 15623502.
    Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  133. Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Cheng S, Lee LJ, Verhoeven MC, Choi E, Balk SP, Hollenberg AN. The androgen receptor recruits nuclear receptor CoRepressor (N-CoR) in the presence of mifepristone via its N and C termini revealing a novel molecular mechanism for androgen receptor antagonists. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 25; 280(8):6511-9. PMID: 15598662.
    Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  134. Kaur R, Liu X, Gjoerup O, Zhang A, Yuan X, Balk SP, Schneider MC, Lu ML. Activation of p21-activated kinase 6 by MAP kinase kinase 6 and p38 MAP kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 04; 280(5):3323-30. PMID: 15550393.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  135. Ko YJ, Balk SP. Targeting steroid hormone receptor pathways in the treatment of hormone dependent cancers. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2004 Oct; 5(5):459-70. PMID: 15544494.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation: