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Keith H. Baker, Ph.D., M.D.

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Phi Beta Kappa
Spencer T. and Ann W. Olin Fellow
1997 - 1999
Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research Starter Grant Recipient
Beecher Award: Teacher of the Year
1998 - 2000
Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research New Investigator Grant Recipient
Beecher Award - Teacher of the Year
Beecher Award - Teacher of the Year
Beecher Award: Teacher of the Year
Partners in Excellence
Partners Outstanding Program Director Award-Honor Roll
Partners Outstanding Program Director Award
Beecher Award - Teacher of the Year Award
ACGME Parker J Palmer “Courage to Teach” Award
Endowed Scholar for Education and Trainee Development


I have been actively involved in teaching residents at the Massachusetts General Hospital since 1996. My primary venue for teaching residents is in the perioperative setting. Most of my teaching occurs on the Thoracic Anesthesia Service as well as the General Surgical Anesthesia Service. his teaching involves full pre-operative discussion regarding the patients’ medical conditions and plans regarding the anesthetic for the patient. Contingencies are discussed, medical plans are evaluated and current literature is discussed as it pertains to the case. Various medical aspects of the patients and their ramifications regarding patient care are also discussed in detail. ovel aspects of the case are always reviewed in full prior to each case. In the intra-operative setting, germane aspects of the case are reviewed and I assess each resident for their ability to understand various aspects of the case and the implications thereof. The resident is required to critically evaluate their understanding of the medical decisions regarding the anesthetic care. When appropriate, the relevant literature is discussed. In addition, we hold a weekly on the Thoracic Anesthesia Service conference, and I lecture to the Anesthesia Residents at about 25-30% of these conferences. During these conferences we go over all aspects of thoracic anesthesia and cardiopulmonary function. I have also been involved in running the Core Curriculum for Cardiovascular Physiology, which is a series of six lectures given to all of our residents. I organize and deliver all six of the lectures, and I am in charge of the evaluation process thereof.


I am presently the Vice Chair for Education for the
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine at the MGH.


I have no active research at this time.


My primary clinical contributions are made on the Thoracic Anesthesia Service. I am responsible for evaluating and anesthetizing patients for a wide variety of both minor and major thoracic surgical procedures. I am actively involved in taking care of patients for minor procedures that include bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, esophagoscopy, lung biopsy,rigid bronchoscopy with dilatation and flexible esophagoscopy with dilatation. Some of the patients are post-lung transplantations. In addition, I am responsible for taking care of patients having major thoracic procedures such as video-assisted wedge resection, open-thoracotomy with lobectomies, pneumonectomies as well as total esophagectomies. In addition, I care for patients having complex airway surgery including tracheal resection and anastomosis and carinal resections including carinal pneumonectomies. In addition, I am an active member of the Lung Transplant Team and take call on a regular basis. Our lung transplants are done for cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, I have taken care of a number of patients for living-related lobar lung transplants. I also supervise thoracic epidural invasive placements. In addition, I am responsible for central line placement and pulmonary artery catheter placement for some patients. A regular part of my clinical work on the Thoracic Service involves endo-bronchial intubation with differential lung ventilation as well as fiberoptic bronchoscopy to ascertain tube position. I regularly participate in the initiation, maintenance and troubleshooting of one-lung ventilation. In addition, for lung transplants requiring circulatory support, I also am involved in managing patients who require circulatory support with cardiopulmonary bypass.

My other clinical duties involve contributions to the General Surgery Anesthesia Service as well as participating in the main operating room call schedule. In these venues, I am responsible for a wide range of medical conditions requiring surgery and anesthesia. I am responsible for primary care of the patient as well as supervising the residents in this capacity. Approximately 15% of my total clinical time is spent in a primary anesthesia provider role, the other 85% is in the supervisory role. On the General Surgical Service, I am responsible for taking care of patients having a wide range of co-morbid disease and undergoing a wide range of procedures. The extremes would include entirely healthy patients ranging up to patients who arrive in full arrest. The procedures again range from procedures as minor as a biopsy of a lymph node to patients whose surgeries are life-threatening. While on call, I’m also responsible for providing emergency backup for any emergency airway in the hospital where the Anesthesia resident, as the first responder, deems it necessary to have additional support at the time of airway management.

Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Saddawi-Konefka D, Baker KH. The American Board of Anesthesiology Gets a Passing Grade on Its New Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Anesth Analg. 2020 11; 131(5):1409-1411. PMID: 33079863.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  2. Lesicka A, Baker KH. In-Training Examination scores do not correlate with clinical experience during the first year of clinical training in anesthesiology: A retrospective educational observational pilot study. J Clin Anesth. 2021 Feb; 68:110061. PMID: 33035872.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  3. Saddawi-Konefka D, Baker KH. If You Thought That Night Float Solved Everything, Keep Dreaming. Anesthesiology. 2019 Aug; 131(2):236-237. PMID: 31149928.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  4. Fitzsimons MG, Baker K, Malhotra R, Gottlieb A, Lowenstein E, Zapol WM. Reducing the Incidence of Substance Use Disorders in Anesthesiology Residents: 13 Years of Comprehensive Urine Drug Screening. Anesthesiology. 2018 10; 129(4):821-828. PMID: 30020101.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  5. Blum RH, Muret-Wagstaff SL, Boulet JR, Cooper JB, Petrusa ER, Baker KH, Davidyuk G, Dearden JL, Feinstein DM, Jones SB, Kimball WR, Mitchell JD, Nadelberg RL, Wiser SH, Albrecht MA, Anastasi AK, Bose RR, Chang LY, Culley DJ, Fisher LJ, Grover M, Klainer SB, Kveraga R, Martel JP, McKenna SS, Minehart RD, Mitchell JD, Mountjoy JR, Pawlowski JB, Pilon RN, Shook DC, Silver DA, Warfield CA, Zaleski KL. Simulation-based Assessment to Reliably Identify Key Resident Performance Attributes. Anesthesiology. 2018 04; 128(4):821-831. PMID: 29369062.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  6. Mai CL, Baker K. Peer-Assisted Analysis of Resident Feedback Improves Clinical Teaching: A Case Report. A A Case Rep. 2017 Jul 01; 9(1):24-27. PMID: 28306577.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  7. Saddawi-Konefka D, Baker KH, Wiener-Kronish JP. Intubation With Video Laryngoscopy vs Direct Laryngoscopy. JAMA. 2017 05 23; 317(20):2130-2131. PMID: 28535225.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  8. Kim PY, Wanderer JP, Allbritton DW, Eikermann M, Baker K. Anesthesia Residents Preferentially Request Operating Room Case Assignments with Complex Cases. J Med Syst. 2017 Apr; 41(4):64. PMID: 28283998.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  9. Baker K, Haydar B, Mankad S. A Feedback and Evaluation System That Provokes Minimal Retaliation by Trainees. Anesthesiology. 2017 02; 126(2):327-337. PMID: 27977462.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  10. Goldhamer ME, Baker K, Cohen AP, Weinstein DF. Evaluating the Evaluators: Implementation of a Multi-Source Evaluation Program for Graduate Medical Education Program Directors. J Grad Med Educ. 2016 Oct; 8(4):592-596. PMID: 27777673.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  11. Saddawi-Konefka D, Schumacher DJ, Baker KH, Charnin JE, Gollwitzer PM. Changing Physician Behavior With Implementation Intentions: Closing the Gap Between Intentions and Actions. Acad Med. 2016 09; 91(9):1211-6. PMID: 27008360.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  12. Fitzsimons MG, Brookman JC, Arnholz SH, Baker K. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Successful Completion of Anesthesia Residency: A Case Report. Acad Med. 2016 Feb; 91(2):210-4. PMID: 26244258.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  13. Weidman J, Baker K. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner. Anesth Analg. 2015 Dec; 121(6):1586-99. PMID: 26579660.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  14. Shen T, Baker K. Venous return and clinical hemodynamics: how the body works during acute hemorrhage. Adv Physiol Educ. 2015 Dec; 39(4):267-71. PMID: 26628647.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  15. Haydar B, Charnin J, Voepel-Lewis T, Baker K. Resident characterization of better-than- and worse-than-average clinical teaching. Anesthesiology. 2014 Jan; 120(1):120-8. PMID: 23838713.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  16. Baker K. The tip of the iceberg: improving the quality of rank order lists for the match. Acad Med. 2013 Sep; 88(9):1206-8. PMID: 23887012.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  17. Fitzsimons MG, Ishizawa Y, Baker KH. Drug testing physicians for substances of abuse: case report of a false-positive result. J Clin Anesth. 2013 Dec; 25(8):669-71. PMID: 23988805.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  18. Wanderer JP, Charnin J, Driscoll WD, Bailin MT, Baker K. Decision support using anesthesia information management system records and accreditation council for graduate medical education case logs for resident operating room assignments. Anesth Analg. 2013 Aug; 117(2):494-9. PMID: 23749442.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  19. Baker K. Determining resident clinical performance: getting beyond the noise. Anesthesiology. 2011 Oct; 115(4):862-78. PMID: 21795965.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  20. Baker K. Clinical teaching improves with resident evaluation and feedback. Anesthesiology. 2010 Sep; 113(3):693-703. PMID: 20693873.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  21. Fitzsimons MG, Baker KH. Not all strikes are easy to call. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep; 109(3):693-4. PMID: 19690233.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  22. Fitzsimons MG, Baker KH, Lowenstein E, Zapol WM. Random drug testing to reduce the incidence of addiction in anesthesia residents: preliminary results from one program. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):630-5. PMID: 18633044.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  23. Dunn PF, Alston T, Baker K, Davison JK, Kwo J. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. 2006.
  24. Fitzsimons MG, Baker KH, Peralta R. Anesthetic implications of traumatic pulmonary hernia repair. J Clin Anesth. 2005 Dec; 17(8):627-9. PMID: 16427536.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Rottbauer W, Baker K, Wo ZG, Mohideen MA, Cantiello HF, Fishman MC. Growth and function of the embryonic heart depend upon the cardiac-specific L-type calcium channel alpha1 subunit. Dev Cell. 2001 Aug; 1(2):265-75. PMID: 11702785.
    Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  26. Baker K, Warren K and Fishman MC. The slow mo mutation reduces pacemaker current and heart rate in adult zebrafish. Am J Physiol. 2001; 281:H1711-H1719.
  27. Baker K, Warren KS, Yellen G, Fishman MC. Defective "pacemaker" current (Ih) in a zebrafish mutant with a slow heart rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 29; 94(9):4554-9. PMID: 9114028; PMCID: PMC20761.
    Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  28. Baker K. Potassium Channels in Drosophila. 1992.
  29. Pak MD, Baker K, Covarrubias M, Butler A, Ratcliffe A, Salkoff L. mShal, a subfamily of A-type K+ channel cloned from mammalian brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 15; 88(10):4386-90. PMID: 2034678; PMCID: PMC51664.
    Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  30. Wei A, Covarrubias M, Butler A, Baker K, Pak M, Salkoff L. K+ current diversity is produced by an extended gene family conserved in Drosophila and mouse. Science. 1990 May 04; 248(4955):599-603. PMID: 2333511.
    Citations: 93     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  31. Baker K and Salkoff L. Shaw, A K+ channel from Drosophila, has unusually low voltage sensitivity and poor K+ selectivity. Soc Neurosci. 1990.
  32. Baker K, Salkoff L. The Drosophila Shaker gene codes for a distinctive K+ current in a subset of neurons. Neuron. 1990 Jan; 4(1):129-40. PMID: 2310571.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  33. Zorumski CF, Yang J, Baker K, Covey DF, Clifford DB. Convulsant gamma-butyrolactones block GABA currents in cultured chick spinal cord neurons. Brain Res. 1989 Apr 10; 484(1-2):102-10. PMID: 2713674.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  34. Butler A, Wei AG, Baker K, Salkoff L. A family of putative potassium channel genes in Drosophila. Science. 1989 Feb 17; 243(4893):943-7. PMID: 2493160.
    Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  35. Covarrubias M, Wei A, Butler A, Baker K, Pak M and Salkoff L. Expression and characterization of K+ chennels encoded by new members of the Drosophila Shaker multigene family. Biophys Soc. 1989.
  36. Baker K, Yang J, Covey DF, Clifford DB, Zorumski CF. Alpha-substituted thiobutyrolactones potentiate GABA currents in voltage-clamped chick spinal cord neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Apr 22; 87(1-2):133-8. PMID: 2454424.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  37. Salkoff L, Butler A, Baker K, Wei A and Scavarda N. A Drosophila gene with homology to Shaker predicted by K+ currents observed in a Shaker deletion. Genetics Soc. 1988.
  38. Baker K and Salkoff L. Diverse transient K+ currents in Drosophila neurons deleted for the Shaker locus predicts other genes homologous to Shaker. Soc Neurosci. 1988.
  39. Baker K, Wei A, Butler A, Pak M and Salkoff L. A family of putative potassium channel genes revealed by a deletion of the Drosophila Shaker gene. Soc Neurosci. 1988.
  40. Edmonsdson DE, Baker K, Williamson G, Jackson G and Goldsmith DJ. Androst-5-ene-3beta-o1-17beta-sulfate: A water-soluble substrate for cholesterol oxidase. Am Soc Biol Chem. 1986.
  41. Baker KH. Synthesis of Androst-5-ene-3beta-o1-17beta-sulphate and its activity as a substrate for cholesterol oxidase. 1985.
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.