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Michael Levin, Ph.D.

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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Lee FJ, Williams KB, Levin M, Wolfe BE. The Bacterial Metabolite Indole Inhibits Regeneration of the Planarian Flatworm Dugesia japonica. iScience. 2018 Dec 21; 10:135-148. PMID: 30521984.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Herrera-Rincon C, Golding AS, Moran KM, Harrison C, Martyniuk CJ, Guay JA, Zaltsman J, Carabello H, Kaplan DL, Levin M. Brief Local Application of Progesterone via a Wearable Bioreactor Induces Long-Term Regenerative Response in Adult Xenopus Hindlimb. Cell Rep. 2018 Nov 06; 25(6):1593-1609.e7. PMID: 30404012.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Busse SM, McMillen PT, Levin M. Cross-limb communication during Xenopus hindlimb regenerative response: non-local bioelectric injury signals. Development. 2018 Oct 08; 145(19). PMID: 30126906.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Cairns DM, Giordano JE, Conte S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Ivermectin Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration during Wound Healing. ACS Omega. 2018 Oct 31; 3(10):12392-12402. PMID: 30411007.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Hart MR, Anderson DJ, Porter CC, Neff T, Levin M, Horwitz MS. Activating PAX gene family paralogs to complement PAX5 leukemia driver mutations. PLoS Genet. 2018 09; 14(9):e1007642. PMID: 30216339.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Levin M, Pietak AM, Bischof J. Planarian regeneration as a model of anatomical homeostasis: Recent progress in biophysical and computational approaches. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2018 Apr 30. PMID: 29635019.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Mathews J, Levin M. The body electric 2.0: recent advances in developmental bioelectricity for regenerative and synthetic bioengineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2018 Aug; 52:134-144. PMID: 29684787.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Cervera J, Pietak A, Levin M, Mafe S. Bioelectrical coupling in multicellular domains regulated by gap junctions: A conceptual approach. Bioelectrochemistry. 2018 Oct; 123:45-61. PMID: 29723806.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Pietak A, Levin M. Bioelectrical control of positional information in development and regeneration: A review of conceptual and computational advances. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2018 Sep; 137:52-68. PMID: 29626560.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Pai VP, Pietak A, Willocq V, Ye B, Shi NQ, Levin M. HCN2 Rescues brain defects by enforcing endogenous voltage pre-patterns. Nat Commun. 2018 03 08; 9(1):998. PMID: 29519998.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Sullivan KG, Levin M. Inverse Drug Screening of Bioelectric Signaling and Neurotransmitter Roles: Illustrated Using a Xenopus Tail Regeneration Assay. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2018 Mar 01; 2018(3):pdb.prot099937. PMID: 29437995.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Herrera-Rincon C, Levin M. Booting up the organism during development: Pre-behavioral functions of the vertebrate brain in guiding body morphogenesis. Commun Integr Biol. 2018; 11(1):e1433440. PMID: 29497473.
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  13. Cairns DM, Boorgu DSSK, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Niclosamide rescues microcephaly in a humanized in vivo model of Zika infection using human induced neural stem cells. Biol Open. 2018 Jan 29; 7(1). PMID: 29378701.
    View in: PubMed
  14. McLaughlin KA, Levin M. Bioelectric signaling in regeneration: Mechanisms of ionic controls of growth and form. Dev Biol. 2018 01 15; 433(2):177-189. PMID: 29291972.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Levin M, Morokuma J, Finkelstein J. Space travel has effects on planarian regeneration that cannot be explained by a null hypothesis. Regeneration (Oxf). 2017 08; 4(4):156-158. PMID: 29299321.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Pezzulo G, Levin M. Embodying Markov blankets: Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al. Phys Life Rev. 2018 03; 24:32-36. PMID: 29191410.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Pai VP, Willocq V, Pitcairn EJ, Lemire JM, Paré JF, Shi NQ, McLaughlin KA, Levin M. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner. Biol Open. 2017 Oct 15; 6(10):1445-1457. PMID: 28818840.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Herrera-Rincon C, Pai VP, Moran KM, Lemire JM, Levin M. The brain is required for normal muscle and nerve patterning during early Xenopus development. Nat Commun. 2017 09 25; 8(1):587. PMID: 28943634.
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  19. Levin M, Martyniuk CJ. The bioelectric code: An ancient computational medium for dynamic control of growth and form. Biosystems. 2018 Feb; 164:76-93. PMID: 28855098.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Pietak A, Levin M. Bioelectric gene and reaction networks: computational modelling of genetic, biochemical and bioelectrical dynamics in pattern regulation. J R Soc Interface. 2017 09; 14(134). PMID: 28954851.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Thurber AE, Nelson M, Frost CL, Levin M, Brackenbury WJ, Kaplan DL. IK channel activation increases tumor growth and induces differential behavioral responses in two breast epithelial cell lines. Oncotarget. 2017 Jun 27; 8(26):42382-42397. PMID: 28415575.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Levin M, Pezzulo G, Finkelstein JM. Endogenous Bioelectric Signaling Networks: Exploiting Voltage Gradients for Control of Growth and Form. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2017 06 21; 19:353-387. PMID: 28633567.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Morokuma J, Durant F, Williams KB, Finkelstein JM, Blackiston DJ, Clements T, Reed DW, Roberts M, Jain M, Kimel K, Trauger SA, Wolfe BE, Levin M. Planarian regeneration in space: Persistent anatomical, behavioral, and bacteriological changes induced by space travel. Regeneration (Oxf). 2017 04; 4(2):85-102. PMID: 28616247.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Paré JF, Martyniuk CJ, Levin M. Bioelectric regulation of innate immune system function in regenerating and intact Xenopus laevis. NPJ Regen Med. 2017; 2:15. PMID: 29302351.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Durant F, Morokuma J, Fields C, Williams K, Adams DS, Levin M. Long-Term, Stochastic Editing of Regenerative Anatomy via Targeting Endogenous Bioelectric Gradients. Biophys J. 2017 May 23; 112(10):2231-2243. PMID: 28538159.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Pitcairn E, Harris H, Epiney J, Pai VP, Lemire JM, Ye B, Shi NQ, Levin M, McLaughlin KA. Coordinating heart morphogenesis: A novel role for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels during cardiogenesis in Xenopus laevis. Commun Integr Biol. 2017; 10(3):e1309488. PMID: 28702127.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Bryant DM, Sousounis K, Farkas JE, Bryant S, Thao N, Guzikowski AR, Monaghan JR, Levin M, Whited JL. Repeated removal of developing limb buds permanently reduces appendage size in the highly-regenerative axolotl. Dev Biol. 2017 04 01; 424(1):1-9. PMID: 28235582.
    View in: PubMed
  28. McDowell G, Rajadurai S, Levin M. From cytoskeletal dynamics to organ asymmetry: a nonlinear, regulative pathway underlies left-right patterning. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2016 12 19; 371(1710). PMID: 27821521.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Levin M, Klar AJ, Ramsdell AF. Introduction to provocative questions in left-right asymmetry. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2016 12 19; 371(1710). PMID: 27821529.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Pezzulo G, Levin M. Top-down models in biology: explanation and control of complex living systems above the molecular level. J R Soc Interface. 2016 11; 13(124). PMID: 27807271.
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  31. Neuhof M, Levin M, Rechavi O. Vertically- and horizontally-transmitted memories - the fading boundaries between regeneration and inheritance in planaria. Biol Open. 2016 Sep 15; 5(9):1177-88. PMID: 27565761.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Sullivan KG, Emmons-Bell M, Levin M. Physiological inputs regulate species-specific anatomy during embryogenesis and regeneration. Commun Integr Biol. 2016 Jul-Aug; 9(4):e1192733. PMID: 27574538; PMCID: PMC4988443.
  33. Pietak A, Levin M. Exploring Instructive Physiological Signaling with the Bioelectric Tissue Simulation Engine. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2016; 4:55. PMID: 27458581; PMCID: PMC4933718.
  34. Mathews J, Levin M. Gap junctional signaling in pattern regulation: Physiological network connectivity instructs growth and form. Dev Neurobiol. 2017 05; 77(5):643-673. PMID: 27265625.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Golding A, Guay JA, Herrera-Rincon C, Levin M, Kaplan DL. A Tunable Silk Hydrogel Device for Studying Limb Regeneration in Adult Xenopus Laevis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0155618. PMID: 27257960; PMCID: PMC4892606.
  36. Lobo D, Morokuma J, Levin M. Computational discovery and in vivo validation of hnf4 as a regulatory gene in planarian regeneration. Bioinformatics. 2016 09 01; 32(17):2681-5. PMID: 27166245.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Durant F, Lobo D, Hammelman J, Levin M. Physiological controls of large-scale patterning in planarian regeneration: a molecular and computational perspective on growth and form. Regeneration (Oxf). 2016 Apr; 3(2):78-102. PMID: 27499881; PMCID: PMC4895326.
  38. Adams DS, Uzel SG, Akagi J, Wlodkowic D, Andreeva V, Yelick PC, Devitt-Lee A, Pare JF, Levin M. Bioelectric signalling via potassium channels: a mechanism for craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in KCNJ2-associated Andersen-Tawil Syndrome. J Physiol. 2016 06 15; 594(12):3245-70. PMID: 26864374; PMCID: PMC4908029 [Available on 06/15/17].
  39. Chernet BT, Adams DS, Lobikin M, Levin M. Use of genetically encoded, light-gated ion translocators to control tumorigenesis. Oncotarget. 2016 Apr 12; 7(15):19575-88. PMID: 26988909; PMCID: PMC4991402.
  40. Sullivan KG, Levin M. Neurotransmitter signaling pathways required for normal development in Xenopus laevis embryos: a pharmacological survey screen. J Anat. 2016 10; 229(4):483-502. PMID: 27060969; PMCID: PMC5013058 [Available on 04/01/17].
  41. Edelstein L, Fuxe K, Levin M, Popescu BO, Smythies J. Telocytes in their context with other intercellular communication agents. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016 07; 55:9-13. PMID: 27013113.
    View in: PubMed
  42. McDowell GS, Lemire JM, Paré JF, Cammarata G, Lowery LA, Levin M. Conserved roles for cytoskeletal components in determining laterality. Integr Biol (Camb). 2016 Mar 14; 8(3):267-86. PMID: 26928161; PMCID: PMC4792684.
  43. Davison A, McDowell GS, Holden JM, Johnson HF, Koutsovoulos GD, Liu MM, Hulpiau P, Van Roy F, Wade CM, Banerjee R, Yang F, Chiba S, Davey JW, Jackson DJ, Levin M, Blaxter ML. Formin Is Associated with Left-Right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog. Curr Biol. 2016 Mar 07; 26(5):654-60. PMID: 26923788; PMCID: PMC4791482.
  44. Li C, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 12; 6:21044. PMID: 26869018; PMCID: PMC4751571.
  45. Sundelacruz S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Comparison of the depolarization response of human mesenchymal stem cells from different donors. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 14; 5:18279. PMID: 26658512.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Pai VP, Martyniuk CJ, Echeverri K, Sundelacruz S, Kaplan DL, Levin M. Genome-wide analysis reveals conserved transcriptional responses downstream of resting potential change in Xenopus embryos, axolotl regeneration, and human mesenchymal cell differentiation. Regeneration (Oxf). 2016 Feb; 3(1):3-25. PMID: 27499876; PMCID: PMC4857752.
  47. Emmons-Bell M, Durant F, Hammelman J, Bessonov N, Volpert V, Morokuma J, Pinet K, Adams DS, Pietak A, Lobo D, Levin M. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Nov 24; 16(11):27865-96. PMID: 26610482; PMCID: PMC4661923.
  48. Pang J, Özkucur N, Ren M, Kaplan DL, Levin M, Miller EL. Automatic neuron segmentation and neural network analysis method for phase contrast microscopy images. Biomed Opt Express. 2015 Nov 01; 6(11):4395-416. PMID: 26601004; PMCID: PMC4646548.
  49. Lobikin M, Lobo D, Blackiston DJ, Martyniuk CJ, Tkachenko E, Levin M. Serotonergic regulation of melanocyte conversion: A bioelectrically regulated network for stochastic all-or-none hyperpigmentation. Sci Signal. 2015 Oct 06; 8(397):ra99. PMID: 26443706.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Blackiston DJ, Shomrat T, Levin M. The stability of memories during brain remodeling: A perspective. Commun Integr Biol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 8(5):e1073424. PMID: 27066165; PMCID: PMC4802789.
  51. Schatzberg D, Lawton M, Hadyniak SE, Ross EJ, Carney T, Beane WS, Levin M, Bradham CA. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos. Dev Biol. 2015 Oct 15; 406(2):259-70. PMID: 26282894.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Lobo D, Levin M. Inferring regulatory networks from experimental morphological phenotypes: a computational method reverse-engineers planarian regeneration. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Jun; 11(6):e1004295. PMID: 26042810; PMCID: PMC4456145.
  53. Friston K, Levin M, Sengupta B, Pezzulo G. Knowing one's place: a free-energy approach to pattern regulation. J R Soc Interface. 2015 Apr 06; 12(105). PMID: 25788538.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Pai VP, Lemire JM, Paré JF, Lin G, Chen Y, Levin M. Endogenous gradients of resting potential instructively pattern embryonic neural tissue via Notch signaling and regulation of proliferation. J Neurosci. 2015 Mar 11; 35(10):4366-85. PMID: 25762681; PMCID: PMC4355204.
  55. Chernet BT, Fields C, Levin M. Long-range gap junctional signaling controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis in Xenopus laevis embryos. Front Physiol. 2014; 5:519. PMID: 25646081; PMCID: PMC4298169.
  56. Blackiston DJ, Anderson GM, Rahman N, Bieck C, Levin M. A novel method for inducing nerve growth via modulation of host resting potential: gap junction-mediated and serotonergic signaling mechanisms. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Jan; 12(1):170-84. PMID: 25449797; PMCID: PMC4322068.
  57. Pai VP, Lemire JM, Chen Y, Lin G, Levin M. Local and long-range endogenous resting potential gradients antagonistically regulate apoptosis and proliferation in the embryonic CNS. Int J Dev Biol. 2015; 59(7-9):327-40. PMID: 26198142.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Lobikin M, Paré JF, Kaplan DL, Levin M. Selective depolarization of transmembrane potential alters muscle patterning and muscle cell localization in Xenopus laevis embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2015; 59(7-9):303-11. PMID: 26198143.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Levin M. Molecular bioelectricity: how endogenous voltage potentials control cell behavior and instruct pattern regulation in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2014 Dec 01; 25(24):3835-50. PMID: 25425556; PMCID: PMC4244194.
  60. Özkucur N, Quinn KP, Pang JC, Du C, Georgakoudi I, Miller E, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Membrane potential depolarization causes alterations in neuron arrangement and connectivity in cocultures. Brain Behav. 2015 Jan; 5(1):24-38. PMID: 25722947; PMCID: PMC4321392.
  61. Jewhurst K, Levin M, McLaughlin KA. Optogenetic Control of Apoptosis in Targeted Tissues of Xenopus laevis Embryos. J Cell Death. 2014; 7:25-31. PMID: 25374461; PMCID: PMC4213186.
  62. Lan JY, Williams C, Levin M, Black LD. Depolarization of Cellular Resting Membrane Potential Promotes Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Proliferation In Vitro. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2014 Sep 01; 7(3):432-445. PMID: 25295125.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Lobo D, Feldman EB, Shah M, Malone TJ, Levin M. Limbform: a functional ontology-based database of limb regeneration experiments. Bioinformatics. 2014 Dec 15; 30(24):3598-600. PMID: 25170026; PMCID: PMC4253831.
  64. Levin M. Endogenous bioelectrical networks store non-genetic patterning information during development and regeneration. J Physiol. 2014 Jun 01; 592(11):2295-305. PMID: 24882814; PMCID: PMC4048089.
  65. Chernet BT, Levin M. Transmembrane voltage potential of somatic cells controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis at long-range. Oncotarget. 2014 May 30; 5(10):3287-306. PMID: 24830454; PMCID: PMC4102810.
  66. Lobo D, Solano M, Bubenik GA, Levin M. A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration. J R Soc Interface. 2014 Mar 06; 11(92):20130918. PMID: 24402915; PMCID: PMC3899861.
  67. Vandenberg LN, Blackiston DJ, Rea AC, Dore TM, Levin M. Left-right patterning in Xenopus conjoined twin embryos requires serotonin signaling and gap junctions. Int J Dev Biol. 2014; 58(10-12):799-809. PMID: 25896280.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Spencer Adams D, Lemire JM, Kramer RH, Levin M. Optogenetics in Developmental Biology: using light to control ion flux-dependent signals in Xenopus embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2014; 58(10-12):851-61. PMID: 25896279.
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  69. Vandenberg LN, Lemire JM, Levin M. It's never too early to get it Right: A conserved role for the cytoskeleton in left-right asymmetry. Commun Integr Biol. 2013 Nov 01; 6(6):e27155. PMID: 24505508.
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  70. Blackiston DJ, Levin M. Inversion of left-right asymmetry alters performance of Xenopus tadpoles in nonlateralized cognitive tasks. Anim Behav. 2013 Aug 01; 86(2):459-466. PMID: 24039274.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Levin M. Reprogramming cells and tissue patterning via bioelectrical pathways: molecular mechanisms and biomedical opportunities. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2013 Nov-Dec; 5(6):657-76. PMID: 23897652.
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  72. Shomrat T, Levin M. An automated training paradigm reveals long-term memory in planarians and its persistence through head regeneration. J Exp Biol. 2013 Oct 15; 216(Pt 20):3799-810. PMID: 23821717.
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  73. Sundelacruz S, Li C, Choi YJ, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Bioelectric modulation of wound healing in a 3D in vitro model of tissue-engineered bone. Biomaterials. 2013 Sep; 34(28):6695-705. PMID: 23764116; PMCID: PMC3724996.
  74. Sundelacruz S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Depolarization alters phenotype, maintains plasticity of predifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013 Sep; 19(17-18):1889-908. PMID: 23738690; PMCID: PMC3726227.
  75. Vandenberg LN, Levin M. A unified model for left-right asymmetry? Comparison and synthesis of molecular models of embryonic laterality. Dev Biol. 2013 Jul 01; 379(1):1-15. PMID: 23583583; PMCID: PMC3698617.
  76. Sundelacruz S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Depolarization alters phenotype, maintains plasticity of pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013 Mar 27. PMID: 23530932.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Blackiston DJ, Levin M. Ectopic eyes outside the head in Xenopus tadpoles provide sensory data for light-mediated learning. J Exp Biol. 2013 Mar 15; 216(Pt 6):1031-40. PMID: 23447666; PMCID: PMC3587383.
  78. Lobo D, Malone TJ, Levin M. Planform: an application and database of graph-encoded planarian regenerative experiments. Bioinformatics. 2013 Apr 15; 29(8):1098-100. PMID: 23426257; PMCID: PMC3624808.
  79. Chernet BT, Levin M. Transmembrane voltage potential is an essential cellular parameter for the detection and control of tumor development in a Xenopus model. Dis Model Mech. 2013 May; 6(3):595-607. PMID: 23471912; PMCID: PMC3634644.
  80. Koustubhan P, Kaplan DL, Levin M. Humane anesthesia and pain management in amphibian limb surgery of Rana pipiens. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2013 Feb 01; 2013(2):149-55. PMID: 23378649; PMCID: PMC3768120.
  81. Vandenberg LN, Morrie RD, Seebohm G, Lemire JM, Levin M. Rab GTPases are required for early orientation of the left-right axis in Xenopus. Mech Dev. 2013 Apr-May; 130(4-5):254-71. PMID: 23354119.
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  82. Adams DS, Tseng AS, Levin M. Light-activation of the Archaerhodopsin H(+)-pump reverses age-dependent loss of vertebrate regeneration: sparking system-level controls in vivo. Biol Open. 2013 Mar 15; 2(3):306-13. PMID: 23519324; PMCID: PMC3603412.
  83. Beane WS, Morokuma J, Lemire JM, Levin M. Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration. Development. 2013 Jan 15; 140(2):313-22. PMID: 23250205; PMCID: PMC3597208.
  84. Tseng A, Levin M. Cracking the bioelectric code: Probing endogenous ionic controls of pattern formation. Commun Integr Biol. 2013 Jan 01; 6(1):e22595. PMID: 23802040; PMCID: PMC3689572.
  85. Pai VP, Vandenberg LN, Blackiston D, Levin M. Neurally Derived Tissues in Xenopus laevis Embryos Exhibit a Consistent Bioelectrical Left-Right Asymmetry. Stem Cells Int. 2012; 2012:353491. PMID: 23346115; PMCID: PMC3544345.
  86. Vandenberg LN, Stevenson C, Levin M. Low frequency vibrations induce malformations in two aquatic species in a frequency-, waveform-, and direction-specific manner. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51473. PMID: 23251546; PMCID: PMC3519728.
  87. Lobikin M, Chernet B, Lobo D, Levin M. Resting potential, oncogene-induced tumorigenesis, and metastasis: the bioelectric basis of cancer in vivo. Phys Biol. 2012 Dec; 9(6):065002. PMID: 23196890; PMCID: PMC3528107.
  88. Lobo D, Malone TJ, Levin M. Towards a bioinformatics of patterning: a computational approach to understanding regulative morphogenesis. Biol Open. 2013 Feb 15; 2(2):156-69. PMID: 23429669; PMCID: PMC3575650.
  89. Tseng AS, Levin M. Transducing bioelectric signals into epigenetic pathways during tadpole tail regeneration. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012 Oct; 295(10):1541-51. PMID: 22933452; PMCID: PMC3442154.
  90. Vandenberg LN, Lemire JM, Levin M. Serotonin has early, cilia-independent roles in Xenopus left-right patterning. Dis Model Mech. 2013 Jan; 6(1):261-8. PMID: 22899856; PMCID: PMC3529356.
  91. Lobikin M, Wang G, Xu J, Hsieh YW, Chuang CF, Lemire JM, Levin M. Early, nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left-right patterning is conserved across kingdoms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31; 109(31):12586-91. PMID: 22802643; PMCID: PMC3412009.
  92. Chernet BT, Adams DS, Levin M. Photoconversion for tracking the dynamics of cell movement in Xenopus laevis embryos. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012 Jun 01; 2012(6):683-90. PMID: 22661444; PMCID: PMC4061756.
  93. Blackiston DJ, Levin M. Aversive training methods in Xenopus laevis: general principles. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012 May 01; 2012(5). PMID: 22550289; PMCID: PMC3617481.
  94. Lobo D, Beane WS, Levin M. Modeling planarian regeneration: a primer for reverse-engineering the worm. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012; 8(4):e1002481. PMID: 22570595; PMCID: PMC3343107.
  95. Levin M. Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: non-local control of complex patterning. Biosystems. 2012 Sep; 109(3):243-61. PMID: 22542702.
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  96. Levin ME, Holt JR. The function and molecular identity of inward rectifier channels in vestibular hair cells of the mouse inner ear. J Neurophysiol. 2012 Jul; 108(1):175-86. PMID: 22496522; PMCID: PMC3434605.
  97. Adams DS, Levin M. Measuring resting membrane potential using the fluorescent voltage reporters DiBAC4(3) and CC2-DMPE. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012 Apr 01; 2012(4):459-64. PMID: 22474652; PMCID: PMC4001116.
  98. Chernet BT, Levin M. A versatile protocol for mRNA electroporation of Xenopus laevis embryos. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012 Apr 01; 2012(4):447-52. PMID: 22474651; PMCID: PMC3970573.
  99. Adams DS, Levin M. General principles for measuring resting membrane potential and ion concentration using fluorescent bioelectricity reporters. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012 Apr 01; 2012(4):385-97. PMID: 22474653; PMCID: PMC4001120.
  100. Beane WS, Tseng AS, Morokuma J, Lemire JM, Levin M. Inhibition of planar cell polarity extends neural growth during regeneration, homeostasis, and development. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Aug 10; 21(12):2085-94. PMID: 22339734; PMCID: PMC3411359.
  101. Vandenberg LN, Adams DS, Levin M. Normalized shape and location of perturbed craniofacial structures in the Xenopus tadpole reveal an innate ability to achieve correct morphology. Dev Dyn. 2012 May; 241(5):863-78. PMID: 22411736; PMCID: PMC3428595.
  102. Adams DS, Levin M. Endogenous voltage gradients as mediators of cell-cell communication: strategies for investigating bioelectrical signals during pattern formation. Cell Tissue Res. 2013 Apr; 352(1):95-122. PMID: 22350846; PMCID: PMC3869965.
  103. Levin M. Molecular bioelectricity in developmental biology: new tools and recent discoveries: control of cell behavior and pattern formation by transmembrane potential gradients. Bioessays. 2012 Mar; 34(3):205-17. PMID: 22237730; PMCID: PMC3430077.
  104. Levin M, Stevenson CG. Regulation of cell behavior and tissue patterning by bioelectrical signals: challenges and opportunities for biomedical engineering. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2012; 14:295-323. PMID: 22809139.
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  105. Vandenberg LN, Levin M. Polarity proteins are required for left-right axis orientation and twin-twin instruction. Genesis. 2012 Mar; 50(3):219-34. PMID: 22086838; PMCID: PMC3294047.
  106. Pai VP, Aw S, Shomrat T, Lemire JM, Levin M. Transmembrane voltage potential controls embryonic eye patterning in Xenopus laevis. Development. 2012 Jan; 139(2):313-23. PMID: 22159581; PMCID: PMC3243095.
  107. Levin M. The wisdom of the body: future techniques and approaches to morphogenetic fields in regenerative medicine, developmental biology and cancer. Regen Med. 2011 Nov; 6(6):667-73. PMID: 22050517.
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  108. Tseng AS, Carneiro K, Lemire JM, Levin M. HDAC activity is required during Xenopus tail regeneration. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26382. PMID: 22022609; PMCID: PMC3194833.
  109. Mondia JP, Levin M, Omenetto FG, Orendorff RD, Branch MR, Adams DS. Long-distance signals are required for morphogenesis of the regenerating Xenopus tadpole tail, as shown by femtosecond-laser ablation. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24953. PMID: 21949803.
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  110. Vandenberg LN, Pennarola BW, Levin M. Low frequency vibrations disrupt left-right patterning in the Xenopus embryo. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23306. PMID: 21826245.
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  111. Carneiro K, Donnet C, Rejtar T, Karger BL, Barisone GA, Díaz E, Kortagere S, Lemire JM, Levin M. Histone deacetylase activity is necessary for left-right patterning during vertebrate development. BMC Dev Biol. 2011 May 20; 11:29. PMID: 21599922; PMCID: PMC3113753.
  112. Beane WS, Morokuma J, Adams DS, Levin M. A chemical genetics approach reveals H,K-ATPase-mediated membrane voltage is required for planarian head regeneration. Chem Biol. 2011 Jan 28; 18(1):77-89. PMID: 21276941; PMCID: PMC3278711.
  113. Blackiston D, Shomrat T, Nicolas CL, Granata C, Levin M. A second-generation device for automated training and quantitative behavior analyses of molecularly-tractable model organisms. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 17; 5(12):e14370. PMID: 21179424; PMCID: PMC3003703.
  114. Blackiston D, Vandenberg LN, Levin M. High-throughput Xenopus laevis immunohistochemistry using agarose sections. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2010 Dec 01; 2010(12):pdb.prot5532. PMID: 21123419; PMCID: PMC3654656.
  115. Vandenberg LN, Levin M. Far from solved: a perspective on what we know about early mechanisms of left-right asymmetry. Dev Dyn. 2010 Dec; 239(12):3131-46. PMID: 21031419.
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  116. Blackiston D, Adams DS, Lemire JM, Lobikin M, Levin M. Transmembrane potential of GlyCl-expressing instructor cells induces a neoplastic-like conversion of melanocytes via a serotonergic pathway. Dis Model Mech. 2011 Jan; 4(1):67-85. PMID: 20959630; PMCID: PMC3008964.
  117. Tseng AS, Beane WS, Lemire JM, Masi A, Levin M. Induction of vertebrate regeneration by a transient sodium current. J Neurosci. 2010 Sep 29; 30(39):13192-200. PMID: 20881138; PMCID: PMC2965411.
  118. Hechavarria D, Dewilde A, Braunhut S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. BioDome regenerative sleeve for biochemical and biophysical stimulation of tissue regeneration. Med Eng Phys. 2010 Nov; 32(9):1065-73. PMID: 20708956; PMCID: PMC2967604.
  119. Aw S, Koster JC, Pearson W, Nichols CG, Shi NQ, Carneiro K, Levin M. The ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel (K(ATP)) controls early left-right patterning in Xenopus and chick embryos. Dev Biol. 2010 Oct 01; 346(1):39-53. PMID: 20643119; PMCID: PMC2937067.
  120. Vandenberg LN, Levin M. Consistent left-right asymmetry cannot be established by late organizers in Xenopus unless the late organizer is a conjoined twin. Development. 2010 Apr; 137(7):1095-105. PMID: 20215347; PMCID: PMC2835325.
  121. Oviedo NJ, Morokuma J, Walentek P, Kema IP, Gu MB, Ahn JM, Hwang JS, Gojobori T, Levin M. Long-range neural and gap junction protein-mediated cues control polarity during planarian regeneration. Dev Biol. 2010 Mar 01; 339(1):188-99. PMID: 20026026; PMCID: PMC2823934.
  122. Zhang Y, Levin M. Left-right asymmetry in the chick embryo requires core planar cell polarity protein Vangl2. Genesis. 2009 Nov; 47(11):719-28. PMID: 19621439; PMCID: PMC2790031.
  123. Blackiston DJ, McLaughlin KA, Levin M. Bioelectric controls of cell proliferation: ion channels, membrane voltage and the cell cycle. Cell Cycle. 2009 Nov 01; 8(21):3527-36. PMID: 19823012; PMCID: PMC2862582.
  124. Zhang Y, Levin M. Particle tracking model of electrophoretic morphogen movement reveals stochastic dynamics of embryonic gradient. Dev Dyn. 2009 Aug; 238(8):1923-35. PMID: 19618466.
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  125. Sundelacruz S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Role of membrane potential in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Stem Cell Rev. 2009 Sep; 5(3):231-46. PMID: 19562527.
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  126. Levin M. Errors of geometry: regeneration in a broader perspective. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Aug; 20(6):643-5. PMID: 19490948; PMCID: PMC2720595.
  127. Levin M. Bioelectric mechanisms in regeneration: Unique aspects and future perspectives. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jul; 20(5):543-56. PMID: 19406249; PMCID: PMC2706303.
  128. Levin M. Regeneration: Recent advances, major puzzles, and biomedical opportunities. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jul; 20(5):515-6. PMID: 19398032.
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  129. Aw S, Levin M. Is left-right asymmetry a form of planar cell polarity? Development. 2009 Feb; 136(3):355-66. PMID: 19141667; PMCID: PMC2687587.
  130. Aw S, Levin M. What's left in asymmetry? Dev Dyn. 2008 Dec; 237(12):3453-63. PMID: 18488999.
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  131. Vandenberg LN, Levin M. Perspectives and open problems in the early phases of left-right patterning. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun; 20(4):456-63. PMID: 19084609; PMCID: PMC2748239.
  132. Sundelacruz S, Levin M, Kaplan DL. Membrane potential controls adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. PLoS One. 2008; 3(11):e3737. PMID: 19011685; PMCID: PMC2581599.
  133. Oviedo NJ, Nicolas CL, Adams DS, Levin M. Planarians: a versatile and powerful model system for molecular studies of regeneration, adult stem cell regulation, aging, and behavior. CSH Protoc. 2008 Oct 01; 2008:pdb.emo101. PMID: 21356684.
    View in: PubMed
  134. Oviedo NJ, Nicolas CL, Adams DS, Levin M. Live Imaging of Planarian Membrane Potential Using DiBAC4(3). CSH Protoc. 2008 Oct 01; 2008:pdb.prot5055. PMID: 21356693.
    View in: PubMed
  135. Oviedo NJ, Nicolas CL, Adams DS, Levin M. Establishing and maintaining a colony of planarians. CSH Protoc. 2008 Oct 01; 2008:pdb.prot5053. PMID: 21356691.
    View in: PubMed
  136. Oviedo NJ, Nicolas CL, Adams DS, Levin M. Gene knockdown in planarians using RNA interference. CSH Protoc. 2008 Oct 01; 2008:pdb.prot5054. PMID: 21356692.
    View in: PubMed
  137. Oviedo NJ, Pearson BJ, Levin M, Sánchez Alvarado A. Planarian PTEN homologs regulate stem cells and regeneration through TOR signaling. Dis Model Mech. 2008 Sep-Oct; 1(2-3):131-43; discussion 141. PMID: 19048075; PMCID: PMC2562200.
  138. Morokuma J, Blackiston D, Levin M. KCNQ1 and KCNE1 K+ channel components are involved in early left-right patterning in Xenopus laevis embryos. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008; 21(5-6):357-72. PMID: 18453744; PMCID: PMC3632048.
  139. Aw S, Adams DS, Qiu D, Levin M. H,K-ATPase protein localization and Kir4.1 function reveal concordance of three axes during early determination of left-right asymmetry. Mech Dev. 2008 Mar-Apr; 125(3-4):353-72. PMID: 18160269; PMCID: PMC2346612.
  140. Oviedo NJ, Levin M. smedinx-11 is a planarian stem cell gap junction gene required for regeneration and homeostasis. Development. 2007 Sep; 134(17):3121-31. PMID: 17670787.
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  141. Ingber DE, Levin M. What lies at the interface of regenerative medicine and developmental biology? Development. 2007 Jul; 134(14):2541-7. PMID: 17553905.
    View in: PubMed
  142. Oviedo NJ, Levin M. Gap junctions provide new links in left-right patterning. Cell. 2007 May 18; 129(4):645-7. PMID: 17512395.
    View in: PubMed
  143. Levin M. Large-scale biophysics: ion flows and regeneration. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 17(6):261-70. PMID: 17498955.
    View in: PubMed
  144. Levin M. Gap junctional communication in morphogenesis. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2007 May-Jun; 94(1-2):186-206. PMID: 17481700; PMCID: PMC2292839.
  145. Levin M, Palmer AR. Left-right patterning from the inside out: widespread evidence for intracellular control. Bioessays. 2007 Mar; 29(3):271-87. PMID: 17295291.
    View in: PubMed
  146. Adams DS, Masi A, Levin M. H+ pump-dependent changes in membrane voltage are an early mechanism necessary and sufficient to induce Xenopus tail regeneration. Development. 2007 Apr; 134(7):1323-35. PMID: 17329365.
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  147. Tseng AS, Adams DS, Qiu D, Koustubhan P, Levin M. Apoptosis is required during early stages of tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol. 2007 Jan 01; 301(1):62-9. PMID: 17150209; PMCID: PMC3136124.
  148. Adams DS, Levin M. Inverse drug screens: a rapid and inexpensive method for implicating molecular targets. Genesis. 2006 Nov; 44(11):530-40. PMID: 17078061; PMCID: PMC3142945.
  149. Levin M. Is the early left-right axis like a plant, a kidney, or a neuron? The integration of physiological signals in embryonic asymmetry. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2006 Sep; 78(3):191-223. PMID: 17061264.
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  150. Hicks C, Sorocco D, Levin M. Automated analysis of behavior: a computer-controlled system for drug screening and the investigation of learning. J Neurobiol. 2006 Aug; 66(9):977-90. PMID: 16779826.
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  151. Shimeld SM, Levin M. Evidence for the regulation of left-right asymmetry in Ciona intestinalis by ion flux. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jun; 235(6):1543-53. PMID: 16586445.
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  152. Adams DS, Robinson KR, Fukumoto T, Yuan S, Albertson RC, Yelick P, Kuo L, McSweeney M, Levin M. Early, H+-V-ATPase-dependent proton flux is necessary for consistent left-right patterning of non-mammalian vertebrates. Development. 2006 May; 133(9):1657-71. PMID: 16554361; PMCID: PMC3136117.
  153. Hibino T, Ishii Y, Levin M, Nishino A. Ion flow regulates left-right asymmetry in sea urchin development. Dev Genes Evol. 2006 May; 216(5):265-76. PMID: 16534626.
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  154. Levin M, Buznikov GA, Lauder JM. Of minds and embryos: left-right asymmetry and the serotonergic controls of pre-neural morphogenesis. Dev Neurosci. 2006; 28(3):171-85. PMID: 16679764.
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  155. Nogi T, Levin M. Characterization of innexin gene expression and functional roles of gap-junctional communication in planarian regeneration. Dev Biol. 2005 Nov 15; 287(2):314-35. PMID: 16243308.
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  156. Qiu D, Cheng SM, Wozniak L, McSweeney M, Perrone E, Levin M. Localization and loss-of-function implicates ciliary proteins in early, cytoplasmic roles in left-right asymmetry. Dev Dyn. 2005 Sep; 234(1):176-89. PMID: 16059906.
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  157. Gamer LW, Nove J, Levin M, Rosen V. BMP-3 is a novel inhibitor of both activin and BMP-4 signaling in Xenopus embryos. Dev Biol. 2005 Sep 01; 285(1):156-68. PMID: 16054124.
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  158. Fukumoto T, Kema IP, Levin M. Serotonin signaling is a very early step in patterning of the left-right axis in chick and frog embryos. Curr Biol. 2005 May 10; 15(9):794-803. PMID: 15886096.
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  159. Nogi T, Yuan YE, Sorocco D, Perez-Tomas R, Levin M. Eye regeneration assay reveals an invariant functional left-right asymmetry in the early bilaterian, Dugesia japonica. Laterality. 2005 May; 10(3):193-205. PMID: 16028337.
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  160. Fukumoto T, Levin M. Asymmetric expression of Syndecan-2 in early chick embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005 Apr; 5(4):525-8. PMID: 15749081.
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  161. Fukumoto T, Blakely R, Levin M. Serotonin transporter function is an early step in left-right patterning in chick and frog embryos. Dev Neurosci. 2005; 27(6):349-63. PMID: 16280633.
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  162. Levin M. Left-right asymmetry in embryonic development: a comprehensive review. Mech Dev. 2005 Jan; 122(1):3-25. PMID: 15582774.
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  163. Levin M. The embryonic origins of left-right asymmetry. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2004 Jul 01; 15(4):197-206. PMID: 15284185.
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  164. Levin M. A novel immunohistochemical method for evaluation of antibody specificity and detection of labile targets in biological tissue. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2004 Jan 30; 58(1):85-96. PMID: 14597192.
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  165. Adams, D., and Levin, M., . Embryonic Left-right asymmetry. Gastrulation, C. Stern ed. 2004.
  166. Levin, M., . Left-Right Asymmetry in Amphibian Embryogenesis. Developmental Biology, Vol. 6 of Biology of the Amphibia, edited by Harold Heatwole and Brenda Brizuela. 2004.
  167. Levin M. Motor protein control of ion flux is an early step in embryonic left-right asymmetry. Bioessays. 2003 Oct; 25(10):1002-10. PMID: 14505367.
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  168. Bunney TD, De Boer AH, Levin M. Fusicoccin signaling reveals 14-3-3 protein function as a novel step in left-right patterning during amphibian embryogenesis. Development. 2003 Oct; 130(20):4847-58. PMID: 12930777.
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  169. Levin M. Bioelectromagnetics in morphogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics. 2003 Jul; 24(5):295-315. PMID: 12820288.
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  170. Levin, M., . Electromagnetic fields in morphogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics. 2003; 24:295-315.
  171. Rutenberg J, Cheng SM, Levin M. Early embryonic expression of ion channels and pumps in chick and Xenopus development. Dev Dyn. 2002 Dec; 225(4):469-84. PMID: 12454924.
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  172. Cheng SM, Chen I, Levin M. K(ATP) channel activity is required for hatching in Xenopus embryos. Dev Dyn. 2002 Dec; 225(4):588-91. PMID: 12454935.
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  173. Levin M, Thorlin T, Robinson KR, Nogi T, Mercola M. Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning. Cell. 2002 Oct 04; 111(1):77-89. PMID: 12372302.
    View in: PubMed
  174. Levin M. Isolation and community: a review of the role of gap-junctional communication in embryonic patterning. J Membr Biol. 2002 Feb 01; 185(3):177-92. PMID: 11891576.
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  175. Cheng, S. M., I. Chen, and M. Levin. Katp channel activity is required for hatching in Xenopus. Developmental Dynamics. 2002; 225(4):588-591.
  176. Levin, M., T. Thorlin, K. Robinson, T. Nogi, and M. Mercola. H+/K+-ATPase activity comprises an early step of left-right asymmetry during development. Cell. 2002; 111:77-89.
  177. Levin, M., . Gap-junctional communication and embryonic development. Journal of Membrane Biology. 2002; 185(3):177-192.
  178. Rutenberg, J., S. M. Cheng, and M. Levin. Early embryonic expression of ion channels and pumps in chick and Xenopus embryogenesis. Developmental Dynamics. 2002; 225(4):469-484.
  179. Mercola M, Levin M. Left-right asymmetry determination in vertebrates. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2001; 17:779-805. PMID: 11687504.
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  180. Levin, M., . Asymmetry of Body and Brain: Embryological and Twin Studies. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Smelser N, Baltes P (eds.). 2001; 853-9.
  181. Levin, M., and M. Mercola. Expression of Connexin30 in Xenopus embryos and its involvement in hatching gland function. Developmental Dynamics. 2000; 219(1):96-101.
  182. Levin M, Mercola M. Gap junction-mediated transfer of left-right patterning signals in the early chick blastoderm is upstream of Shh asymmetry in the node. Development. 1999 Nov; 126(21):4703-14. PMID: 10518488.
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  183. Levin M. Twinning and embryonic left-right asymmetry. Laterality. 1999 Jul; 4(3):197-208. PMID: 15513114.
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  184. Levin, M., . Left-right asymmetry in animal embryogenesis. Advances in Biochirality, edited by G. Palyi, C. Zucchi, and L. Caglioti. 1999; ch. 12:137-152.
  185. Zhu, L., M. J. Marvin, A. Gardiner, A. B. Lassar, M. Mercola, C. D. Stern, and M. Levin. Cerberus regulates left/right asymmetry of the embryonic head and heart. Current Biology. 1999; 9(17):931-938.
  186. Levin M, Mercola M. Gap junctions are involved in the early generation of left-right asymmetry. Dev Biol. 1998 Nov 01; 203(1):90-105. PMID: 9806775.
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  187. Levin M. Left-right asymmetry and the chick embryo. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1998 Feb; 9(1):67-76. PMID: 9572116.
    View in: PubMed
  188. Levin, M., and M. Mercola, . The compulsion of chirality. Genes & Development. 1998; 23:763-769.
  189. Levin, M., and M. Mercola. Events upstream of asymmetrical Nodal expression: reconciling the chick and frog. Developmental Genetics. 1998; 23(3):185-193.
  190. Levin, M., . Follistatin mimics the endogenous streak inhibitory activity in early chick embryos. International Journal of Developmental Biology. 1998; 42:553-559 .
  191. Levin M, Pagan S, Roberts DJ, Cooke J, Kuehn MR, Tabin CJ. Left/right patterning signals and the independent regulation of different aspects of situs in the chick embryo. Dev Biol. 1997 Sep 01; 189(1):57-67. PMID: 9281337.
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  192. Levin, M., and Ernst, S. G. DC magnetic field effects on early sea urchin development. Bioelectromagnetics. 1997; 18(3):255-263 .
  193. Levin, M., and N. Nascone. Two models of initial Left-Right Asymmetry Determination. Medical Hypotheses. 1997; 49:429-435.
  194. Levin, M., . Left-Right Asymmetry in Embryonic Morphogenesis. BioEssays. 1997; 19(4):287-296.
  195. Levin M, Roberts DJ, Holmes LB, Tabin C. Laterality defects in conjoined twins. Nature. 1996 Nov 28; 384(6607):321. PMID: 8934513.
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  196. Levin M, Johnson RL, Stern CD, Kuehn M, Tabin C. A molecular pathway determining left-right asymmetry in chick embryogenesis. Cell. 1995 Sep 08; 82(5):803-14. PMID: 7671308.
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  197. Levin, M.,. A genetic algorithm model of the evolution of animal communication. BioSystems. 1995; 36:167-178.
  198. Levin, M., . Locating putative protein signal sequences using genetic algorithms. Applications Handbook of Genetic Algorithms. 1995; 2:53-66.
  199. Levin, M. Use of Genetic Algorithms to solve biomedical Problems . M. D. Computing. 1995; 12(3):193-198.
  200. Levin, M., Ernst, S. G. AC magnetic field effects on early sea urchin development. Bioelectromagnetics. 1995; 16:231-240.
  201. Levin, M. A Julia set model of field-directed morphogenesis. Computer Applications in the Biosciences. 1994; 10(2):85-103.
  202. Levin, M., . Current and potential applications of bioelectromagnetics in medicine. ISSEEM Journal. 1993; 4(1):77-87.
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Funded by the NIH/NCATS Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, grant number UL1TR001102, and through institutional support from Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute.