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Last Name

profileTheresa Stichick Betancourt, Sc.D.

TitleAdjunct Professor of Global Health
InstitutionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
DepartmentGlobal Health + Population
AddressHarvard School of Public Health
Bagnoud Bldg, Room 709D
651 Huntington Ave
Boston MA 02115
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Other Positions
TitleResearch Fellow in Psychiatry (EXT)
InstitutionBoston Children's Hospital

Collapse Overview 
Collapse overview
The Research Program on Children and Global Adversity that I direct at the FXB Center for Health and Human Rights focuses on forms of adversity that are exceptions to recent improvements in child health globally: regions affected by armed conflict and regions affected by HIV/AIDS (

My research is intended to help build the evidence base on mental health and preventive interventions for vulnerable children and families. I have been involved in the adaptation and testing of evidence-based interventions for mental health problems among war-affected youth, including serving as PI of an NIMH-funded Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) in Rwanda, and as PI of a USIP-funded Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Both projects are positioned to contribute to our understanding of how effective evidence-based mental health interventions are in low-resource settings in Africa compared to care as usual.

In our Family-Strengthening Intervention in Rwanda ( we are using a randomized controlled design to conduct a feasibility pilot, drawing study families (40 FSI, 40 controls) from social work referrals. Protective factors characterizing the family as well as mental health problems in children and caregivers will be assessed pre- and post-intervention using a culturally-validated assessment battery. We will examine feasibility and acceptability of an adapted family-based psychosocial intervention focused on building communication and resilience in families affected by HIV compared to usual care. Our findings will provide refined tools and evaluation materials for use in a future RCT. Our Specific Aims are to: 1) Adapt a US-developed, family-focused, and strengths-based prevention program to the context of HIV/AIDS in post-genocide Rwanda; 2) pilot test the intervention protocol within a small set of families to assess acceptability, feasibility and further refine an intervention manual; and 3) conduct a pilot feasibility study among 80 families to examine whether the intervention a) improves caregiver-child relationships using measures of family connectedness, good parenting and social support, and b) is associated with reduced mental health symptoms, HIV risk behaviors and increased functioning in children.

The Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone was developed as a Stage 1 trauma intervention with a focus on addressing the interpersonal skills, emotion regulation, and daily functional impairments that are typical among youth exposed to complex trauma such as war exposure in childhood. The YRI integrates common elements of evidence-based interventions for survivors of complex trauma that have demonstrated effectiveness in treatment of inpatient adolescents and survivors of childhood sexual abuse. In preliminary intervention development work, the YRI was culturally-adapted using focus groups and key informant interviews. Findings from our multi-wave longitudinal study of male and female child soldiers have informed the intervention development. The YRI itself is comprised of six empirically-supported treatment components that have demonstrated effectiveness in interventions for troubled youth in other diverse settings. Evaluations of intervention feasibility and acceptability, as well as preliminary evidence on treatment effectiveness as compared to usual care will contribute to gaps in our knowledge about interventions for youth in post-conflict settings. We are also in the process of refining the design to compare the effects of the YRI alone to the effects of secondary school access compared to combined YRI intervention and secondary school access.

In future research, we intend to move our intervention research towards the examination services delivered by well trained and supervised community health workers (task-shifting) to help address the extreme human resource constraints that characterize many low resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Once scientifically evaluated, such interventions are well positioned to go to scale given strong partnerships in the regions in which we work with national and international NGOs, UN Agencies, service agencies, and local government.

Collapse Research 
Collapse research activities and funding
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
U01MD010613     (BETANCOURT, THERESA STICHICK)Jun 1, 2016 - Jan 31, 2021
Addressing Mental Health Disparities in Refugee Children Through Family and Community-based Prevention: A CBPR Collaboration and Hybrid Implementation Effectiveness Trial
Role: Principal Investigator

U19MH109989     (BETANCOURT, THERESA STICHICK)May 1, 2016 - Apr 30, 2021
Youth FORWARD: Capacity Building in Alternate Delivery Platforms and Implementation Models for Bringing Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions to Scale for Youth Facing Adversity in West Africa
Role: Principal Investigator

R24MD008057     (BETANCOURT, THERESA STICHICK)May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2016
Addressing Mental Health Disparities in Refugee ChildrenL A CBPR Collaboration
Role: Principal Investigator

R01HD073349     (BETANCOURT, THERESA STICHICK)Sep 10, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
Intergenerational impact of war: A prospective longitudinal study
Role: Principal Investigator

R34MH084679     (BETANCOURT, THERESA STICHICK)Jul 22, 2011 - Jun 30, 2014
Family-Based Prevention of Mental Health Problems in HIV/AIDS Affected Children
Role: Principal Investigator

Collapse Bibliographic 
Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Tomlinson M, Jordans M, MacMillan H, Betancourt T, Hunt X, Mikton C. Research priority setting for integrated early child development and violence prevention (ECD+) in low and middle income countries: An expert opinion exercise. Child Abuse Negl. 2017 Aug 09; 72:131-139. PMID: 28802211.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Betancourt TS, Newnham EA, Birman D, Lee R, Ellis BH, Layne CM. Comparing Trauma Exposure, Mental Health Needs, and Service Utilization Across Clinical Samples of Refugee, Immigrant, and U.S.-Origin Children. J Trauma Stress. 2017 Jun; 30(3):209-218. PMID: 28585740.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Nduwimana E, Mukunzi S, Ng LC, Kirk CM, Bizimana JI, Betancourt TS. Mental Health of Children Living in Foster Families in Rural Rwanda: The Role of HIV and the Family Environment. AIDS Behav. 2017 Jun; 21(6):1518-1529. PMID: 27578000.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Betancourt TS, Ng LC, Kirk CM, Brennan RT, Beardslee WR, Stulac S, Mushashi C, Nduwimana E, Mukunzi S, Nyirandagijimana B, Kalisa G, Rwabukwisi CF, Sezibera V. Family-based promotion of mental health in children affected by HIV: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017 Aug; 58(8):922-930. PMID: 28504307.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Puffer ES, Annan J, Sim AL, Salhi C, Betancourt TS. The impact of a family skills training intervention among Burmese migrant families in Thailand: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0172611. PMID: 28350809.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Scorza P, Duarte CS, Stevenson A, Mushashi C, Kanyanganzi F, Munyana M, Betancourt TS. Individual-level factors associated with mental health in Rwandan youth affected by HIV/AIDS. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017 Jul; 52(7):867-875. PMID: 28275841.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Wu AC, Donnelly-McLay D, Weisskopf MG, McNeely E, Betancourt TS, Allen JG. Airplane pilot mental health and suicidal thoughts: a cross-sectional descriptive study via anonymous web-based survey. Environ Health. 2016 Dec 15; 15(1):121. PMID: 27974043.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Brown FL, de Graaff AM, Annan J, Betancourt TS. Annual Research Review: Breaking cycles of violence - a systematic review and common practice elements analysis of psychosocial interventions for children and youth affected by armed conflict. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr; 58(4):507-524. PMID: 27943284.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Sharma M, Fine SL, Brennan RT, Betancourt TS. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study. Dev Psychopathol. 2017 Feb; 29(1):11-23. PMID: 27866500.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Dubow EF, Aber JL, Betancourt TS, Cummings EM, Huesmann LR. Conducting longitudinal, process-oriented research with conflict-affected youth: Solving the inevitable challenges. Dev Psychopathol. 2017 Feb; 29(1):85-92. PMID: 27866491.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Annan J, Sim A, Puffer ES, Salhi C, Betancourt TS. Improving Mental Health Outcomes of Burmese Migrant and Displaced Children in Thailand: a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parenting and Family Skills Intervention. Prev Sci. 2016 Nov 17. PMID: 27858282.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Smith Fawzi MC, Ng L, Kanyanganzi F, Kirk C, Bizimana J, Cyamatare F, Mushashi C, Kim T, Kayiteshonga Y, Binagwaho A, Betancourt TS. Mental Health and Antiretroviral Adherence Among Youth Living With HIV in Rwanda. Pediatrics. 2016 Oct; 138(4). PMID: 27677570.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Betancourt TS, Smith Fawzi MC, Stevenson A, Kanyanganzi F, Kirk C, Ng L, Mushashi C, Bizimana J, Beardslee W, Raviola G, Smith S, Kayiteshonga Y, Binagwaho A. Correction: Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0163384. PMID: 27631364.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Tsai AC, Kohrt BA, Matthews LT, Betancourt TS, Lee JK, Papachristos AV, Weiser SD, Dworkin SL. Promises and pitfalls of data sharing in qualitative research. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Nov; 169:191-198. PMID: 27535900.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Betancourt TS, Brennan RT, Vinck P, VanderWeele TJ, Spencer-Walters D, Jeong J, Akinsulure-Smith AM, Pham P. Associations between Mental Health and Ebola-Related Health Behaviors: A Regionally Representative Cross-sectional Survey in Post-conflict Sierra Leone. PLoS Med. 2016 Aug; 13(8):e1002073. PMID: 27505186; PMCID: PMC4978463.
  16. Chaudhury S, Kirk CM, Ingabire C, Mukunzi S, Nyirandagijimana B, Godfrey K, Brennan RT, Betancourt TS. HIV Status Disclosure through Family-Based Intervention Supports Parenting and Child Mental Health in Rwanda. Front Public Health. 2016; 4:138. PMID: 27446902; PMCID: PMC4925695.
  17. Betancourt T, Smith Fawzi MC, Stevenson A, Kanyanganzi F, Kirk C, Ng L, Mushashi C, Bizimana JI, Beardslee W, Raviola G, Smith S, Kayiteshonga Y, Binagwaho A. Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157042. PMID: 27351337; PMCID: PMC4924793.
  18. Chaudhury S, Brown FL, Kirk CM, Mukunzi S, Nyirandagijimana B, Mukandanga J, Ukundineza C, Godfrey K, Ng LC, Brennan RT, Betancourt TS. Exploring the potential of a family-based prevention intervention to reduce alcohol use and violence within HIV-affected families in Rwanda. AIDS Care. 2016 Mar; 28 Suppl 2:118-29. PMID: 27392007; PMCID: PMC4964967.
  19. Betancourt TS, Chambers DA. Optimizing an Era of Global Mental Health Implementation Science. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Feb; 73(2):99-100. PMID: 26720304.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Betancourt TS, Zuilkowski SS, Ravichandran A, Einhorn H, Arora N, Bhattacharya Chakravarty A, Brennan RT. Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0141222. PMID: 26540159; PMCID: PMC4634981.
  21. McBain RK, Salhi C, Hann K, Kellie J, Kamara A, Salomon JA, Kim JJ, Betancourt TS. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone. Bull World Health Organ. 2015 Dec 01; 93(12):834-41. PMID: 26668435.
    View in: PubMed
  22. McBain RK, Salhi C, Hann K, Salomon JA, Kim JJ, Betancourt TS. Costs and cost-effectiveness of a mental health intervention for war-affected young persons: decision analysis based on a randomized controlled trial. Health Policy Plan. 2016 May; 31(4):415-24. PMID: 26345320; PMCID: PMC5007601 [Available on 05/01/17].
  23. Betancourt TS, Gilman SE, Brennan RT, Zahn I, VanderWeele TJ. Identifying Priorities for Mental Health Interventions in War-Affected Youth: A Longitudinal Study. Pediatrics. 2015 Aug; 136(2):e344-50. PMID: 26148954.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Ng LC, Kirk CM, Kanyanganzi F, Fawzi MC, Sezibera V, Shema E, Bizimana JI, Cyamatare FR, Betancourt TS. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and behaviour in Rwandan children. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Sep; 207(3):262-8. PMID: 26045350; PMCID: PMC4555444.
  25. Newnham EA, McBain RK, Hann K, Akinsulure-Smith AM, Weisz J, Lilienthal GM, Hansen N, Betancourt TS. The Youth Readiness Intervention for war-affected youth. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Jun; 56(6):606-11. PMID: 26003574.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Betancourt TS, Frounfelker R, Mishra T, Hussein A, Falzarano R. Addressing health disparities in the mental health of refugee children and adolescents through community-based participatory research: a study in 2 communities. Am J Public Health. 2015 Jul; 105 Suppl 3:S475-82. PMID: 25905818; PMCID: PMC4455528.
  27. Scorza P, Masyn KE, Salomon JA, Betancourt TS. A latent transition analysis for the assessment of structured diagnostic interviews. Psychol Assess. 2015 Sep; 27(3):975-84. PMID: 25894707.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Betancourt TS. The intergenerational effect of war. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 Mar; 72(3):199-200. PMID: 25565552.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Betancourt TS, McBain RK, Newnham EA, Brennan RT. The intergenerational impact of war: longitudinal relationships between caregiver and child mental health in postconflict Sierra Leone. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Oct; 56(10):1101-7. PMID: 25665018.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Santavirta T, Santavirta N, Betancourt TS, Gilman SE. Long term mental health outcomes of Finnish children evacuated to Swedish families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings: cohort study. BMJ. 2015 Jan 05; 350:g7753. PMID: 25569841; PMCID: PMC4283996.
  31. Li M, Betancourt T, Eustache E, Oswald C, Louis E, Mukherjee J, Surkan PJ, Smith Fawzi MC. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti. AIDS Care. 2015; 27(8):995-9. PMID: 25950916.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Newnham EA, Pearson RM, Stein A, Betancourt TS. Youth mental health after civil war: the importance of daily stressors. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Feb; 206(2):116-21. PMID: 25497299; PMCID: PMC4312966.
  33. Mimiaga MJ, Closson EF, Thomas B, Mayer KH, Betancourt T, Menon S, Safren SA. Garnering an in-depth understanding of men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative analysis of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Arch Sex Behav. 2015 Oct; 44(7):2077-86. PMID: 25358949; PMCID: PMC4441605 [Available on 10/01/16].
  34. Betancourt TS, McBain R, Newnham EA, Akinsulure-Smith AM, Brennan RT, Weisz JR, Hansen NB. A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Dec; 53(12):1288-97. PMID: 25457927; PMCID: PMC5022359.
  35. Subbaraman R, Nolan L, Shitole T, Sawant K, Shitole S, Sood K, Nanarkar M, Ghannam J, Betancourt TS, Bloom DE, Patil-Deshmukh A. The psychological toll of slum living in Mumbai, India: a mixed methods study. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Oct; 119:155-69. PMID: 25189736; PMCID: PMC4252879.
  36. Betancourt TS, Abdi S, Ito BS, Lilienthal GM, Agalab N, Ellis H. We left one war and came to another: resource loss, acculturative stress, and caregiver-child relationships in Somali refugee families. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2015 Jan; 21(1):114-25. PMID: 25090142; PMCID: PMC4315611 [Available on 01/01/16].
  37. Betancourt T, Scorza P, Kanyanganzi F, Fawzi MC, Sezibera V, Cyamatare F, Beardslee W, Stulac S, Bizimana JI, Stevenson A, Kayiteshonga Y. HIV and child mental health: a case-control study in Rwanda. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug; 134(2):e464-72. PMID: 25049342; PMCID: PMC4187226.
  38. Mikton C, MacMillan H, Dua T, Betancourt TS. Integration of prevention of violence against children and early child development. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Aug; 2(8):e442-3. PMID: 25103509.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Sherr L, Cluver LD, Betancourt TS, Kellerman SE, Richter LM, Desmond C. Evidence of impact: health, psychological and social effects of adult HIV on children. AIDS. 2014 Jul; 28 Suppl 3:S251-9. PMID: 24991898.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Betancourt TS, Ng LC, Kirk CM, Munyanah M, Mushashi C, Ingabire C, Teta S, Beardslee WR, Brennan RT, Zahn I, Stulac S, Cyamatare FR, Sezibera V. Family-based prevention of mental health problems in children affected by HIV and AIDS: an open trial. AIDS. 2014 Jul; 28 Suppl 3:S359-68. PMID: 24991909; PMCID: PMC4315615.
  41. Ng LC, Kanyanganzi F, Munyanah M, Mushashi C, Betancourt TS. Developing and validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: a mixed methods approach. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100549. PMID: 24949628; PMCID: PMC4065113.
  42. Muldoon KA, Muzaaya G, Betancourt TS, Ajok M, Akello M, Petruf Z, Nguyen P, Baines EK, Shannon K. After abduction: exploring access to reintegration programs and mental health status among young female abductees in Northern Uganda. Confl Health. 2014; 8:5. PMID: 24855489; PMCID: PMC4030522.
  43. O'Callaghan P, Branham L, Shannon C, Betancourt TS, Dempster M, McMullen J. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Child Abuse Negl. 2014 Jul; 38(7):1197-207. PMID: 24636358.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Betancourt TS, Yang F, Bolton P, Normand SL. Developing an African youth psychosocial assessment: an application of item response theory. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2014 Jun; 23(2):142-60. PMID: 24478113; PMCID: PMC4098666.
  45. Betancourt TS, Shaahinfar A, Kellner SE, Dhavan N, Williams TP. A qualitative case study of child protection issues in the Indian construction industry: investigating the security, health, and interrelated rights of migrant families. BMC Public Health. 2013 Sep 17; 13:858. PMID: 24044788; PMCID: PMC3848774.
  46. Betancourt TS, McBain R, Newnham EA, Brennan RT. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Mar; 55(3):217-26. PMID: 24102324; PMCID: PMC3944104.
  47. Betancourt TS, Newnham EA, McBain R, Brennan RT. Post-traumatic stress symptoms among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone: follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Sep; 203(3):196-202. PMID: 23887999; PMCID: PMC3759030.
  48. Nakimuli-Mpungu E, Alderman S, Kinyanda E, Allden K, Betancourt TS, Alderman JS, Pavia A, Okello J, Nakku J, Adaku A, Musisi S. Implementation and scale-up of psycho-trauma centers in a post-conflict area: a case study of a private-public partnership in northern Uganda. PLoS Med. 2013; 10(4):e1001427. PMID: 23610562; PMCID: PMC3627641.
  49. Callands TA, Sipsma HL, Betancourt TS, Hansen NB. Experiences and acceptance of intimate partner violence: associations with sexually transmitted infection symptoms and ability to negotiate sexual safety among young Liberian women. Cult Health Sex. 2013; 15(6):680-94. PMID: 23586393; PMCID: PMC3686894.
  50. Scorza P, Stevenson A, Canino G, Mushashi C, Kanyanganzi F, Munyanah M, Betancourt T. Validation of the "World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule for children, WHODAS-Child" in Rwanda. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57725. PMID: 23505437; PMCID: PMC3591425.
  51. Betancourt TS, Meyers-Ohki SE, Charrow AP, Tol WA. Interventions for children affected by war: an ecological perspective on psychosocial support and mental health care. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2013 Mar-Apr; 21(2):70-91. PMID: 23656831; PMCID: PMC4098699.
  52. Thomas B, Mimiaga MJ, Mayer KH, Closson EF, Johnson CV, Menon S, Mani J, Vijaylakshmi R, Dilip M, Betancourt T, Safren SA. Ensuring it works: a community-based approach to HIV prevention intervention development for men who have sex with men in Chennai, India. AIDS Educ Prev. 2012 Dec; 24(6):483-99. PMID: 23206199; PMCID: PMC3613222.
  53. Betancourt TS, Newnham EA, Layne CM, Kim S, Steinberg AM, Ellis H, Birman D. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States. J Trauma Stress. 2012 Dec; 25(6):682-90. PMID: 23225034.
    View in: PubMed
  54. McBain R, Salhi C, Morris JE, Salomon JA, Betancourt TS. Disease burden and mental health system capacity: WHO Atlas study of 117 low- and middle-income countries. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 Dec; 201(6):444-50. PMID: 23137730.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Betancourt T, Scorza P, Meyers-Ohki S, Mushashi C, Kayiteshonga Y, Binagwaho A, Stulac S, Beardslee WR. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Dec; 51(12):1284-92. PMID: 23200285.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Betancourt TS, Borisova I, Williams TP, Meyers-Ohki SE, Rubin-Smith JE, Annan J, Kohrt BA. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan; 54(1):17-36. PMID: 23061830; PMCID: PMC4167714.
  57. Betancourt TS, McBain R, Newnham EA, Brennan RT. Trajectories of internalizing problems in war-affected Sierra Leonean youth: examining conflict and postconflict factors. Child Dev. 2013 Mar-Apr; 84(2):455-70. PMID: 23002719; PMCID: PMC3656826.
  58. Betancourt TS, Meyers-Ohki SE, Charrow A, Hansen N. Annual Research Review: Mental health and resilience in HIV/AIDS-affected children-- a review of the literature and recommendations for future research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr; 54(4):423-44. PMID: 22943414; PMCID: PMC3656822.
  59. Ellis BH, Miller AB, Abdi S, Barrett C, Blood EA, Betancourt TS. Multi-tier mental health program for refugee youth. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2013 Feb; 81(1):129-40. PMID: 22924331.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Williams TP, Binagwaho A, Betancourt TS. Transactional sex as a form of child sexual exploitation and abuse in Rwanda: implications for child security and protection. Child Abuse Negl. 2012 Apr; 36(4):354-61. PMID: 22483363.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Betancourt TS, Newnham EA, Brennan RT, Verdeli H, Borisova I, Neugebauer R, Bass J, Bolton P. Moderators of treatment effectiveness for war-affected youth with depression in northern Uganda. J Adolesc Health. 2012 Dec; 51(6):544-50. PMID: 23174463.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Betancourt TS, Salhi C, Buka S, Leaning J, Dunn G, Earls F. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict. Disasters. 2012 Oct; 36(4):635-55. PMID: 22443099; PMCID: PMC3735440.
  63. Betancourt TS, Yudron M, Wheaton W, Smith-Fawzi MC. Caregiver and adolescent mental health in Ethiopian Kunama refugees participating in an emergency education program. J Adolesc Health. 2012 Oct; 51(4):357-65. PMID: 22999836.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Betancourt TS, Williams TP, Kellner SE, Gebre-Medhin J, Hann K, Kayiteshonga Y. Interrelatedness of child health, protection and well-being: an application of the SAFE model in Rwanda. Soc Sci Med. 2012 May; 74(10):1504-11. PMID: 22459187.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Kimmel AD, Daniels N, Betancourt TS, Wood R, Prosser LA. Decision maker priorities for providing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected South Africans: a qualitative assessment. AIDS Care. 2012; 24(6):778-92. PMID: 22304657; PMCID: PMC3352983.
  66. McBain R, Norton DJ, Morris J, Yasamy MT, Betancourt TS. The role of health systems factors in facilitating access to psychotropic medicines: a cross-sectional analysis of the WHO-AIMS in 63 low- and middle-income countries. PLoS Med. 2012 Jan; 9(1):e1001166. PMID: 22303288; PMCID: PMC3269418.
  67. Patel PP, Russell J, Allden K, Betancourt TS, Bolton P, Galappatti A, Hijazi Z, Johnson K, Jones L, Kadis L, Leary K, Weissbecker I, Nakku J. Transitioning mental health & psychosocial support: from short-term emergency to sustainable post-disaster development. Humanitarian Action Summit 2011. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011 Dec; 26(6):470-81. PMID: 22559312.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Du YB, Lee CT, Christina D, Belfer ML, Betancourt TS, O'Rourke EJ, Palfrey JS. The living environment and children's fears following the Indonesian tsunami. Disasters. 2012 Jul; 36(3):495-513. PMID: 22098206; PMCID: PMC3991231.
  69. Kelly JT, Betancourt TS, Mukwege D, Lipton R, Vanrooyen MJ. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study. Confl Health. 2011 Nov 02; 5:25. PMID: 22047181; PMCID: PMC3271036.
  70. Tol WA, Barbui C, Galappatti A, Silove D, Betancourt TS, Souza R, Golaz A, van Ommeren M. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research. Lancet. 2011 Oct 29; 378(9802):1581-91. PMID: 22008428; PMCID: PMC3985411.
  71. Betancourt TS, Meyers-Ohki S, Stulac SN, Barrera AE, Mushashi C, Beardslee WR. Nothing can defeat combined hands (Abashize hamwe ntakibananira): protective processes and resilience in Rwandan children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. Soc Sci Med. 2011 Sep; 73(5):693-701. PMID: 21840634; PMCID: PMC3162991.
  72. Betancourt TS, Meyers-Ohki SE, Stevenson A, Ingabire C, Kanyanganzi F, Munyana M, Mushashi C, Teta S, Fayida I, Cyamatare FR, Stulac S, Beardslee WR. Using Mixed-Methods Research to Adapt and Evaluate a Family Strengthening Intervention in Rwanda. Afr J Trauma Stress. 2011 Jun; 2(1):32-45. PMID: 25309851.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Betancourt TS, Rubin-Smith JE, Beardslee WR, Stulac SN, Fayida I, Safren S. Understanding locally, culturally, and contextually relevant mental health problems among Rwandan children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care. 2011 Apr; 23(4):401-12. PMID: 21271393; PMCID: PMC3057405.
  74. Betancourt TS. Attending to the mental health of war-affected children: the need for longitudinal and developmental research perspectives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr; 50(4):323-5. PMID: 21421171.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Zraly M, Rubin-Smith J, Betancourt T. Primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence in Rwanda. Glob Public Health. 2011; 6(3):257-70. PMID: 20658404.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Betancourt TS, Borisova II, de la Soudière M, Williamson J. Sierra Leone's child soldiers: war exposures and mental health problems by gender. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Jul; 49(1):21-8. PMID: 21700152; PMCID: PMC3124662.
  77. Betancourt TS, Borisova II, Williams TP, Brennan RT, Whitfield TH, de la Soudiere M, Williamson J, Gilman SE. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration. Child Dev. 2010 Jul-Aug; 81(4):1077-95. PMID: 20636683; PMCID: PMC2921972.
  78. Betancourt TS. A Longitudinal Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration among Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone. Int Psychiatry. 2010 Jul; 7(3):60-62. PMID: 25309620.
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  79. Betancourt TS, Abrams EJ, McBain R, Fawzi MC. Family-centred approaches to the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010 Jun 23; 13 Suppl 2:S2. PMID: 20573284; PMCID: PMC2890971.
  80. Betancourt TS, Brennan RT, Rubin-Smith J, Fitzmaurice GM, Gilman SE. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a longitudinal study of risk, protective factors, and mental health. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Jun; 49(6):606-15. PMID: 20494270; PMCID: PMC3157024.
  81. Betancourt TS, Fawzi MK, Bruderlein C, Desmond C, Kim JY. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development. Psychol Health Med. 2010 May; 15(3):243-65. PMID: 20480431.
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  82. Fawzi MC, Betancourt TS, Marcelin L, Klopner M, Munir K, Muriel AC, Oswald C, Mukherjee JS. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming. BMC Public Health. 2009 Dec 22; 9:482. PMID: 20028506; PMCID: PMC2807868.
  83. Betancourt TS, Agnew-Blais J, Gilman SE, Williams DR, Ellis BH. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Jan; 70(1):17-26. PMID: 19875215; PMCID: PMC3756934.
  84. Allden K, Jones L, Weissbecker I, Wessells M, Bolton P, Betancourt TS, Hijazi Z, Galappatti A, Yamout R, Patel P, Sumathipala A. Mental health and psychosocial support in crisis and conflict: report of the Mental Health Working Group. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009 Jul-Aug; 24 Suppl 2:s217-27. PMID: 19806544.
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  85. Betancourt TS, Speelman L, Onyango G, Bolton P. A qualitative study of mental health problems among children displaced by war in northern Uganda. Transcult Psychiatry. 2009 Jun; 46(2):238-56. PMID: 19541749; PMCID: PMC2775515.
  86. Betancourt TS, Bass J, Borisova I, Neugebauer R, Speelman L, Onyango G, Bolton P. Assessing local instrument reliability and validity: a field-based example from northern Uganda. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009 Aug; 44(8):685-92. PMID: 19165403; PMCID: PMC2716434.
  87. Betancourt TS, Simmons S, Borisova I, Brewer SE, Iweala U, Soudière MD. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone. Comp Educ Rev. 2008 Nov 01; 52(4):565-587. PMID: 19337570.
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  88. Betancourt TS, Khan KT. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2008 Jun; 20(3):317-28. PMID: 18569183; PMCID: PMC2613765.
  89. Betancourt TS. Child soldiers: reintegration, pathways to recovery, and reflections from the field. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008 Apr; 29(2):138-41. PMID: 18408537.
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  90. Betancourt TS, Williams T. Building an evidence base on mental health interventions for children affected by armed conflict. Intervention (Amstelveen). 2008; 6(1):39-56. PMID: 19997531.
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  91. Bolton P, Bass J, Betancourt T, Speelman L, Onyango G, Clougherty KF, Neugebauer R, Murray L, Verdeli H. Interventions for depression symptoms among adolescent survivors of war and displacement in northern Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007 Aug 01; 298(5):519-27. PMID: 17666672.
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  92. Betancourt TS. Stressors, supports and the social ecology of displacement: psychosocial dimensions of an emergency education program for Chechen adolescents displaced in Ingushetia, Russia. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2005 Sep; 29(3):309-40. PMID: 16404689.
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  93. Bolton P, Betancourt TS. Mental health in postwar afghanistan. JAMA. 2004 Aug 04; 292(5):626-8. PMID: 15292090.
    View in: PubMed
  94. Stichick T. The psychosocial impact of armed conflict on children. Rethinking traditional paradigms in research and intervention. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2001 Oct; 10(4):797-814. PMID: 11588804.
    View in: PubMed
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