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Bob Liu, Ph.D.

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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Peng Z, Fang X, Yan P, Shan H, Liu T, Pei X, Wang G, Liu B, Kalra MK, Xu XG. A Method of Rapid Quantification of Patient-Specific Organ Doses for CT Using Deep-Learning based Multi-Organ Segmentation and GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo Dose Computing. Med Phys. 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32155670.
    Citations:    
  2. Rehani MM, Yang K, Melick ER, Heil J, Šalát D, Sensakovic WF, Liu B. Patients undergoing recurrent CT scans: assessing the magnitude. Eur Radiol. 2020 Apr; 30(4):1828-1836. PMID: 31792585.
    Citations:    
  3. Li X, Hirsch JA, Rehani MM, Yang K, Liu B. Effective Dose Assessment for Patients Undergoing Contemporary Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020 Jan; 214(1):158-170. PMID: 31670595.
    Citations:    
  4. Yang K, Li Z, Li X, Liu B. Characterization of dynamic collimation mechanisms for helical CT scans with direct measurements. Phys Med Biol. 2019 10 23; 64(21):215006. PMID: 31461411.
    Citations:    
  5. Yang K, Ruan C, Li X, Liu B. Data of CT bow tie filter profiles from three modern CT scanners. Data Brief. 2019 Aug; 25:104261. PMID: 31463343.
    Citations:    
  6. Li X, Yang K, Liu B. Exam-level dose monitoring in CT: Quality metric consideration for multiple series acquisitions. Med Phys. 2019 Apr; 46(4):1575-1580. PMID: 30723934.
    Citations:    
  7. Liu B, Hirsch JA, Li X, Sheridan RM, Rehani MM, Zheng H, Rabinov JD. Radiation Dose Monitoring for Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures: Effect on Patient Radiation Exposure. Radiology. 2019 03; 290(3):744-749. PMID: 30644807.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  8. McCarthy CJ, Kilcoyne A, Li X, Cahalane AM, Liu B, Arellano RS, Uppot RN, Gee MS. Radiation Dose and Risk Estimates of CT-Guided Percutaneous Liver Ablations and Factors Associated with Dose Reduction. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2018 Dec; 41(12):1935-1942. PMID: 30132100.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  9. Yang K, Ganguli S, DeLorenzo MC, Zheng H, Li X, Liu B. Procedure-specific CT Dose and Utilization Factors for CT-guided Interventional Procedures. Radiology. 2018 10; 289(1):150-157. PMID: 30015583.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  10. Li X, Yang K, Liu B. Radiation dose dependence on subject size in abdominal computed tomography: Water phantom and patient model comparison. Med Phys. 2018 May; 45(5):2309-2317. PMID: 29582439.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  11. DeLorenzo MC, Yang K, Li X, Liu B. Comprehensive evaluation of broad-beam transmission of patient supports from three fluoroscopy-guided interventional systems. Med Phys. 2018 Apr; 45(4):1425-1432. PMID: 29431862.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  12. Fuchs G, Chretien YR, Mario J, Do S, Eikermann M, Liu B, Yang K, Fintelmann FJ. Quantifying the effect of slice thickness, intravenous contrast and tube current on muscle segmentation: Implications for body composition analysis. Eur Radiol. 2018 Jun; 28(6):2455-2463. PMID: 29318425.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  13. Bär E, Lalonde A, Zhang R, Jee KW, Yang K, Sharp G, Liu B, Royle G, Bouchard H, Lu HM. Experimental validation of two dual-energy CT methods for proton therapy using heterogeneous tissue samples. Med Phys. 2018 Jan; 45(1):48-59. PMID: 29134674.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  14. Li X, Yang K, Liu B. Characterization of radiation dose from tube current modulated CT examinations with considerations of both patient size and variable tube current. Med Phys. 2017 Oct; 44(10):5413-5422. PMID: 28681439.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  15. Ali Khawaja RD, Singh S, Padole A, Otrakji A, Lira D, Zhang D, Liu B, Primak A, Xu G, Kalra MK. Point Organ Radiation Dose in Abdominal CT: Effect of Patient Off-Centering in an Experimental Human Cadaver Study. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2017 Aug 01; 175(4):440-449. PMID: 28074019.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  16. Meganck JA, Liu B. Dosimetry in Micro-computed Tomography: a Review of the Measurement Methods, Impacts, and Characterization of the Quantum GX Imaging System. Mol Imaging Biol. 2017 08; 19(4):499-511. PMID: 27957647.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  17. Li X, Yang K, DeLorenzo MC, Liu B. Assessment of radiation dose from abdominal quantitative CT with short scan length. Br J Radiol. 2017 Jun; 90(1074):20160931. PMID: 28402125.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  18. Yang K, Schultz TJ, Li X, Liu B. Radiation shielding calculation for digital breast tomosynthesis rooms with an updated workload survey. J Radiol Prot. 2017 Mar 20; 37(1):230-246. PMID: 28141582.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  19. Yang K, Li X, George Xu X, Liu B. Direct and fast measurement of CT beam filter profiles with simultaneous geometrical calibration. Med Phys. 2017 Jan; 44(1):57-70. PMID: 28102951.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  20. Li X, Yang K, Liu B. A study of the midpoint dose to CTDIvol ratio: Implications for CT dose evaluation. Med Phys. 2016 Nov; 43(11):5878. PMID: 27806599.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  21. Wentland C, Hersh C, Sally S, Fracchia MS, Hardy S, Liu B, Garcia JA, Hartnick CJ. Modified Best-Practice Algorithm to Reduce the Number of Postoperative Videofluoroscopic Swallow Studies in Patients With Type 1 Laryngeal Cleft Repair. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 09 01; 142(9):851-6. PMID: 27356238.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  22. Hersh C, Wentland C, Sally S, de Stadler M, Hardy S, Fracchia MS, Liu B, Hartnick C. Radiation exposure from videofluoroscopic swallow studies in children with a type 1 laryngeal cleft and pharyngeal dysphagia: A retrospective review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Oct; 89:92-6. PMID: 27619036.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  23. Yang K, Li X, Liu B. Scatter radiation intensities around a clinical digital breast tomosynthesis unit and the impact on radiation shielding considerations. Med Phys. 2016 Mar; 43(3):1096-110. PMID: 26936697.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  24. Padole A, Deedar Ali Khawaja R, Otrakji A, Zhang D, Liu B, Xu XG, Kalra MK. Comparison of Measured and Estimated CT Organ Doses for Modulated and Fixed Tube Current:: A Human Cadaver Study. Acad Radiol. 2016 May; 23(5):634-42. PMID: 26852248.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Pugmire BS, Shailam R, Sagar P, Liu B, Li X, Palmer WE, Huang AJ. Initial Clinical Experience With Extremity Cone-Beam CT of the Foot and Ankle in Pediatric Patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Feb; 206(2):431-5. PMID: 26797374.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  26. Li X, Shi JQ, Zhang D, Singh S, Padole A, Otrakji A, Kalra MK, Xu XG, Liu B. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations. Med Phys. 2015 Nov; 42(11):6274-82. PMID: 26520720.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  27. Ding A, Gao Y, Liu H, Caracappa PF, Long DJ, Bolch WE, Liu B, Xu XG. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients. Phys Med Biol. 2015 Jul 21; 60(14):5601-25. PMID: 26134511.
    Citations:    
  28. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. CT dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm. Med Phys. 2015 Jun; 42(6):2882-91. PMID: 26127041.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
  29. Zhang D, Savage CA, Li X, Liu B. Data-driven CT protocol review and management—experience from a large academic hospital. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Mar; 12(3):267-72. PMID: 25577405.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  30. Xu X G, Liu T, Su L, Du X, Riblett M J, Ji W, Gu D, Carothers C D, Shephard M S, Brown F B, Kalra M K and Liu B. ARCHER, a new Monte Carlo software tool for emerging heterogeneous computing environments. Annals of Nuclear Energy. 2015; 82:2-9.
  31. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Radiation dose calculations for CT scans with tube current modulation using the approach to equilibrium function. Med Phys. 2014 Nov; 41(11):111910. PMID: 25370643.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  32. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans. Med Phys. 2014 Oct; 41(10):101912. PMID: 25281964.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  33. Li X, Zhang D, Yang J, Liu B. A study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios for CT scanning without table translation. Med Phys. 2014 Sep; 41(9):091912. PMID: 25186399.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  34. Zhang D, Padole A, Li X, Singh S, Khawaja RD, Lira D, Liu T, Shi JQ, Otrakji A, Kalra MK, Xu XG, Liu B. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans. Med Phys. 2014 Sep; 41(9):091911. PMID: 25186398.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  35. Wang Y, Ebuoma L, Saksena M, Liu B, Specht M, Rafferty E. Clinical evaluation of a mobile digital specimen radiography system for intraoperative specimen verification. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Aug; 203(2):457-62. PMID: 25055285.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  36. Irani Z, Alexander B, Zhang D, Liu B, Ghoshhajra B, Oklu R. Novel lead-free drape applied to the X-ray detector protects against scatter radiation in the angiography suite. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014 Aug; 25(8):1200-8. PMID: 24985717.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  37. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry. Med Phys. 2013 Sep; 40(9):092105. PMID: 24007174.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  38. Westra SJ, Li X, Gulati K, Singh S, Liu B, Kalra MK, Abbara S. Entrance skin dosimetry and size-specific dose estimate from pediatric chest CTA. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2014 Mar-Apr; 8(2):97-107. PMID: 24211194.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  39. Zhang D, Li X, Gao Y, Xu XG, Liu B. A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):081918. PMID: 23927332.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  40. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Calculations of two new dose metrics proposed by AAPM Task Group 111 using the measurements with standard CT dosimetry phantoms. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):081914. PMID: 23927328.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
  41. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Workload and transmission data for the installation of a digital breast tomosynthesis system. Med Phys. 2013 Jun; 40(6):063901. PMID: 23718617.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  42. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Monte Carlo assessment of CT dose equilibration in PMMA and water cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm. Med Phys. 2013 Mar; 40(3):031903. PMID: 23464318.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  43. Zondervan RL, Hahn PF, Sadow CA, Liu B, Lee SI. Body CT scanning in young adults: examination indications, patient outcomes, and risk of radiation-induced cancer. Radiology. 2013 May; 267(2):460-9. PMID: 23386731.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  44. Pandharipande PV, Eisenberg JD, Lee RJ, Gilmore ME, Turan EA, Singh S, Kalra MK, Liu B, Kong CY, Gazelle GS. Patients with testicular cancer undergoing CT surveillance demonstrate a pitfall of radiation-induced cancer risk estimates: the timing paradox. Radiology. 2013 Mar; 266(3):896-904. PMID: 23249573.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  45. Gu J, Xu XG, Caracappa PF, Liu B. Fetal doses to pregnant patients from CT with tube current modulation calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and realistic phantoms. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013 Jun; 155(1):64-72. PMID: 23222824.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  46. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Equations for CT dose calculations on axial lines based on the principle of symmetry. Med Phys. 2012 Sep; 39(9):5347-52. PMID: 22957602.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  47. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Transmission of broad W/Rh and W/Al (target/filter) x-ray beams operated at 25-49 kVp through common shielding materials. Med Phys. 2012 Jul; 39(7Part1):4132-4138. PMID: 28516601.
    Citations:    
  48. Ghoshhajra BB, Engel LC, Major GP, Goehler A, Techasith T, Verdini D, Do S, Liu B, Li X, Sala M, Kim MS, Blankstein R, Prakash P, Sidhu MS, Corsini E, Banerji D, Wu D, Abbara S, Truong Q, Brady TJ, Hoffmann U, Kalra M. Evolution of coronary computed tomography radiation dose reduction at a tertiary referral center. Am J Med. 2012 Aug; 125(8):764-72. PMID: 22703931.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  49. Zhang D, Li X, Liu B. X-ray spectral measurements for tungsten-anode from 20 to 49 kVp on a digital breast tomosynthesis system. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6):3493-500. PMID: 22755729.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
  50. Goldberg-Stein SA, Liu B, Hahn PF, Lee SI. Radiation dose management: part 2, estimating fetal radiation risk from CT during pregnancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012 Apr; 198(4):W352-6. PMID: 22451572.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  51. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Estimation of the weighted CTDI(8) for multislice CT examinations. Med Phys. 2012 Feb; 39(2):901-5. PMID: 22320799.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:PHPublic Health
  52. Thabet A, Kalva SP, Liu B, Mueller PR, Lee SI. Interventional radiology in pregnancy complications: indications, technique, and methods for minimizing radiation exposure. Radiographics. 2012 Jan-Feb; 32(1):255-74. PMID: 22236906.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  53. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Comment on "in-patient to isocenter KERMA ratios in CT" [Med. Phys. 38, 5362-5369 (2011)]. Med Phys. 2011 Dec; 38(12):6787-8. PMID: 22149860.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  54. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. A practical approach to estimate the weighted CT dose index over an infinite integration length. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Sep 21; 56(18):5789-803. PMID: 21846935.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  55. Walsh CJ, Sapkota BH, Kalra MK, Hanumara NC, Liu B, Shepard JA, Gupta R. Smaller and deeper lesions increase the number of acquired scan series in computed tomography-guided lung biopsy. J Thorac Imaging. 2011 Aug; 26(3):196-203. PMID: 21263356.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  56. Zondervan RL, Hahn PF, Sadow CA, Liu B, Lee SI. Frequent body CT scanning of young adults: indications, outcomes, and risk for radiation-induced cancer. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Jul; 8(7):501-7. PMID: 21723488.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  57. Li X, Zhang D, Liu B. Automated extraction of radiation dose information from CT dose report images. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jun; 196(6):W781-3. PMID: 21606269.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  58. Zhang D, Li X, Liu B. Objective characterization of GE discovery CT750 HD scanner: gemstone spectral imaging mode. Med Phys. 2011 Mar; 38(3):1178-88. PMID: 21520830.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  59. Li X, Da Z, Liu B. Sensitivity analysis of a geometric calibration method using projection matrices for digital tomosynthesis systems. Med Phys. 2011 Jan; 38(1):202-9. PMID: 21361188.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  60. Goldberg-Stein S, Liu B, Hahn PF, Lee SI. Body CT during pregnancy: utilization trends, examination indications, and fetal radiation doses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jan; 196(1):146-51. PMID: 21178060.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  61. Pulli B, Fintelmann F, Liu B, Rosenthal DI. Semiautomated fluoroscopy radiation dose capture and reporting. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Nov; 195(5):1180-2. PMID: 20966325.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  62. Li X, Da Z, Liu B. A generic geometric calibration method for tomographic imaging systems with flat-panel detectors--a detailed implementation guide. Med Phys. 2010 Jul; 37(7):3844-54. PMID: 20831092.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    
  63. Wenli Cai; Bob Liu; Hiroyuki Yoshida. Dual-energy electronic cleansing for non-cathartic CT colonography: a phantom study, SPIE Medical Imaging. 2010; 7624. View Publication.
  64. Singh S, Kalra MK, Moore MA, Shailam R, Liu B, Toth TL, Grant E, Westra SJ. Dose reduction and compliance with pediatric CT protocols adapted to patient size, clinical indication, and number of prior studies. Radiology. 2009 Jul; 252(1):200-8. PMID: 19435938.
    Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  65. Bob Liu, Xinhua Li. Effect of Scatter Radiation on Reconstructed Images in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis, SPIE Medical Imaging. 2009; 7258:5-13. View Publication.
  66. Chen Y, Liu B, O'Connor JM, Didier CS, Glick SJ. Characterization of scatter in cone-beam CT breast imaging: comparison of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. Med Phys. 2009 Mar; 36(3):857-69. PMID: 19378746.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  67. Shapiro MD, Dodd JD, Kalva S, Wittram C, Hsu J, Nasir K, Liu B, Nagurney JT, Kalra MK, Nichols JH, Cury RC, Abbara S, Tawakol A, Brady TJ, Hoffmann U. A comprehensive electrocardiogram-gated 64-slice multidetector computed tomography imaging protocol to visualize the coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, and pulmonary vasculature in a single breath hold. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2009 Mar-Apr; 33(2):225-32. PMID: 19346850.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  68. Glick SJ, Thacker S, Gong X, Liu B. Evaluating the impact of X-ray spectral shape on image quality in flat-panel CT breast imaging. Med Phys. 2007 Jan; 34(1):5-24. PMID: 17278485.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  69. Yu Chen Liu, B. O'Connor, M. Didier, C.S. Glick, S.J. Comparison of Scatter/Primary Measurements with GATE Simulations for X-Ray Spectra in Cone Beam CT Mammography, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 2006; 6:3909-3914. View Publication.
  70. Gong X, Glick SJ, Liu B, Vedula AA, Thacker S. A computer simulation study comparing lesion detection accuracy with digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT breast imaging. Med Phys. 2006 Apr; 33(4):1041-52. PMID: 16696481.
    Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  71. Bob Liu; Tao Wu; Richard H. Moore; Daniel B. Kopans. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray scatter based on patient model from digital breast tomosynthesis, SPIE Medical Imaging. 2006; 6142:588-596. View Publication.
  72. Tao Wu, Bob Liu, Richard H Moore, and Daniel B Kopans. Optimal Acquisition Techniques for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Screening, SPIE Medical Imaging. 2006; 6142. View Publication.
  73. Bob Liu; Stephen J. Glick; Corinne Groiselle. Characterization of scatter radiation in cone beam CT mammography, SPIE Medical Imaging. 2005; 5745:818-827. View Publication.
  74. Goodsitt MM, Chan HP, Liu B, Guru SV, Morton AR, Keshavmurthy S, Petrick N. Classification of compressed breast shapes for the design of equalization filters in x-ray mammography. Med Phys. 1998 Jun; 25(6):937-48. PMID: 9650184.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  75. Goodsitt MM, Chan HP, Liu B. Investigation of the line-pair pattern method for evaluating mammographic focal spot performance. Med Phys. 1997 Jan; 24(1):11-5. PMID: 9029537.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  76. Liu B, Goodsitt M, Chan HP. Normalized average glandular dose in magnification mammography. Radiology. 1995 Oct; 197(1):27-32. PMID: 7568836.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  77. Huet P, Kajintie K, Leigh R, Liu B, McLerran L. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Burning Bubbles in Electroweak Theory and QCD. Physical review D. 1993; 48:2477-2489. View Publication.
  78. Liu B, Turok N, McLerran L. Bubble Nucleation and Growth at a Baryon Number Producing Phase Transition. Physical Review D. 1992; 46:2668-2684. View Publication.
  79. Liu B, Wang XQ, McLerran L. Correlated Random Phase Approximation Studies of Anyon Systems. Physics Review B. 1991; 43:13736-13738. View Publication.
  80. Lo SY, Cai X, Liu B and Matheys JP. Partition Temperature and e+e- Annihilation. Europhysics Letters. 1988; 6(1):19-24. View Publication.
  81. Liu B, Li JR. Self-Consistency Equation for the Order Parameter and Restoration of Chiral Symmetry. Physics Review D. 1988; 37:190-194. View Publication.
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.