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Frances Lowe Arnold, Ph.D.


Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Heinzelman P, Romero PA, Arnold FH. Efficient sampling of SCHEMA chimera families to identify useful sequence elements. Methods Enzymol. 2013; 523:351-68. PMID: 23422438.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    
  2. Romero PA, Shapiro MG, Arnold FH, Jasanoff A. Directed evolution of protein-based neurotransmitter sensors for MRI. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 995:193-205. PMID: 23494381.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  3. Romero PA, Krause A, Arnold FH. Navigating the protein fitness landscape with Gaussian processes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 15; 110(3):E193-201. PMID: 23277561.
    Citations: 58     Fields:    
  4. Smith MA, Romero PA, Wu T, Brustad EM, Arnold FH. Chimeragenesis of distantly-related proteins by noncontiguous recombination. Protein Sci. 2013 Feb; 22(2):231-8. PMID: 23225662.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  5. Coelho PS, Brustad EM, Kannan A, Arnold FH. Olefin cyclopropanation via carbene transfer catalyzed by engineered cytochrome P450 enzymes. Science. 2013 Jan 18; 339(6117):307-10. PMID: 23258409.
    Citations: 167     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  6. Smith MA, Rentmeister A, Snow CD, Wu T, Farrow MF, Mingardon F, Arnold FH. A diverse set of family 48 bacterial glycoside hydrolase cellulases created by structure-guided recombination. FEBS J. 2012 Dec; 279(24):4453-65. PMID: 23075376.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  7. Romero PA, Arnold FH. Random field model reveals structure of the protein recombinational landscape. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012; 8(10):e1002713. PMID: 23055915.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  8. Komor RS, Romero PA, Xie CB, Arnold FH. Highly thermostable fungal cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) engineered using predictive methods. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2012 Dec; 25(12):827-33. PMID: 22961332.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  9. Liu X, Bastian S, Snow CD, Brustad EM, Saleski TE, Xu JH, Meinhold P, Arnold FH. Structure-guided engineering of Lactococcus lactis alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA for improved conversion of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol. J Biotechnol. 2012 Dec 15; 164(2):188-95. PMID: 22974724.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  10. Brustad EM, Lelyveld VS, Snow CD, Crook N, Jung ST, Martinez FM, Scholl TJ, Jasanoff A, Arnold FH. Structure-guided directed evolution of highly selective p450-based magnetic resonance imaging sensors for dopamine and serotonin. J Mol Biol. 2012 Sep 14; 422(2):245-62. PMID: 22659321.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  11. Chen MM, Snow CD, Vizcarra CL, Mayo SL, Arnold FH. Comparison of random mutagenesis and semi-rational designed libraries for improved cytochrome P450 BM3-catalyzed hydroxylation of small alkanes. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2012 Apr; 25(4):171-8. PMID: 22334757.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  12. Bastian S, Arnold FH. Reversal of NAD(P)H cofactor dependence by protein engineering. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 834:17-31. PMID: 22144350.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  13. Lee TM, Farrow MF, Arnold FH, Mayo SL. A structural study of Hypocrea jecorina Cel5A. Protein Sci. 2011 Nov; 20(11):1935-40. PMID: 21898652.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  14. Farrow MF, Arnold FH. High throughput screening of fungal endoglucanase activity in Escherichia coli. J Vis Exp. 2011 Aug 13; (54). PMID: 21860379.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  15. Bastian S, Liu X, Meyerowitz JT, Snow CD, Chen MM, Arnold FH. Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2011 May; 13(3):345-52. PMID: 21515217.
    Citations: 71     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  16. Jung ST, Lauchli R, Arnold FH. Cytochrome P450: taming a wild type enzyme. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011 Dec; 22(6):809-17. PMID: 21411308.
    Citations: 79     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  17. Brenner K, Arnold FH. Self-organization, layered structure, and aggregation enhance persistence of a synthetic biofilm consortium. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 09; 6(2):e16791. PMID: 21347422.
    Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  18. Lelyveld VS, Brustad E, Arnold FH, Jasanoff A. Metal-substituted protein MRI contrast agents engineered for enhanced relaxivity and ligand sensitivity. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Feb 02; 133(4):649-51. PMID: 21171606.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  19. Brustad EM, Arnold FH. Optimizing non-natural protein function with directed evolution. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2011 Apr; 15(2):201-10. PMID: 21185770.
    Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  20. Mingardon F, Bagert JD, Maisonnier C, Trudeau DL, Arnold FH. Comparison of family 9 cellulases from mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Feb; 77(4):1436-42. PMID: 21169454.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  21. Lewis JC, Mantovani SM, Fu Y, Snow CD, Komor RS, Wong CH, Arnold FH. Combinatorial alanine substitution enables rapid optimization of cytochrome P450BM3 for selective hydroxylation of large substrates. Chembiochem. 2010 Dec 10; 11(18):2502-5. PMID: 21108271.
    Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  22. Lewis JC, Coelho PS, Arnold FH. Enzymatic functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds. Chem Soc Rev. 2011 Apr; 40(4):2003-21. PMID: 21079862.
    Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  23. Fasan R, Crook NC, Peters MW, Meinhold P, Buelter T, Landwehr M, Cirino PC, Arnold FH. Improved product-per-glucose yields in P450-dependent propane biotransformations using engineered Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011 Mar; 108(3):500-10. PMID: 21246504.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  24. Acar M, Pando BF, Arnold FH, Elowitz MB, van Oudenaarden A. A general mechanism for network-dosage compensation in gene circuits. Science. 2010 Sep 24; 329(5999):1656-60. PMID: 20929850.
    Citations: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  25. Heinzelman P, Komor R, Kanaan A, Romero P, Yu X, Mohler S, Snow C, Arnold F. Efficient screening of fungal cellobiohydrolase class I enzymes for thermostabilizing sequence blocks by SCHEMA structure-guided recombination. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2010 Nov; 23(11):871-80. PMID: 20847102.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  26. Farrow MF, Arnold FH. Combinatorial recombination of gene fragments to construct a library of chimeras. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2010 Aug; Chapter 26:Unit 26.2. PMID: 20814931.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  27. Jäckel C, Bloom JD, Kast P, Arnold FH, Hilvert D. Consensus protein design without phylogenetic bias. J Mol Biol. 2010 Jun 18; 399(4):541-6. PMID: 20433850.
    Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  28. Arnold FH. How proteins adapt: lessons from directed evolution. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2009; 74:41-6. PMID: 20413708.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  29. Shapiro MG, Westmeyer GG, Romero PA, Szablowski JO, Küster B, Shah A, Otey CR, Langer R, Arnold FH, Jasanoff A. Directed evolution of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for noninvasive imaging of dopamine. Nat Biotechnol. 2010 Mar; 28(3):264-70. PMID: 20190737.
    Citations: 75     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  30. Romero PA, Arnold FH. Exploring protein fitness landscapes by directed evolution. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Dec; 10(12):866-76. PMID: 19935669.
    Citations: 298     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  31. Sawayama AM, Chen MM, Kulanthaivel P, Kuo MS, Hemmerle H, Arnold FH. A panel of cytochrome P450 BM3 variants to produce drug metabolites and diversify lead compounds. Chemistry. 2009 Nov 02; 15(43):11723-9. PMID: 19774562.
    Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  32. Lewis JC, Bastian S, Bennett CS, Fu Y, Mitsuda Y, Chen MM, Greenberg WA, Wong CH, Arnold FH. Chemoenzymatic elaboration of monosaccharides using engineered cytochrome P450BM3 demethylases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 29; 106(39):16550-5. PMID: 19805336.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  33. Dougherty MJ, Arnold FH. Directed evolution: new parts and optimized function. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2009 Aug; 20(4):486-91. PMID: 19720520.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    
  34. Heinzelman P, Snow CD, Smith MA, Yu X, Kannan A, Boulware K, Villalobos A, Govindarajan S, Minshull J, Arnold FH. SCHEMA recombination of a fungal cellulase uncovers a single mutation that contributes markedly to stability. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 25; 284(39):26229-33. PMID: 19625252.
    Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  35. Bloom JD, Arnold FH. In the light of directed evolution: pathways of adaptive protein evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 16; 106 Suppl 1:9995-10000. PMID: 19528653.
    Citations: 150     Fields:    
  36. Heinzelman P, Snow CD, Wu I, Nguyen C, Villalobos A, Govindarajan S, Minshull J, Arnold FH. A family of thermostable fungal cellulases created by structure-guided recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 07; 106(14):5610-5. PMID: 19307582.
    Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  37. Tracewell CA, Arnold FH. Directed enzyme evolution: climbing fitness peaks one amino acid at a time. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009 Feb; 13(1):3-9. PMID: 19249235.
    Citations: 91     Fields:    
  38. Rentmeister A, Arnold FH, Fasan R. Chemo-enzymatic fluorination of unactivated organic compounds. Nat Chem Biol. 2009 Jan; 5(1):26-8. PMID: 19011638.
    Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  39. Koch DJ, Chen MM, van Beilen JB, Arnold FH. In vivo evolution of butane oxidation by terminal alkane hydroxylases AlkB and CYP153A6. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Jan; 75(2):337-44. PMID: 19011057.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  40. Brenner K, You L, Arnold FH. Engineering microbial consortia: a new frontier in synthetic biology. Trends Biotechnol. 2008 Sep; 26(9):483-9. PMID: 18675483.
    Citations: 218     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  41. Fasan R, Meharenna YT, Snow CD, Poulos TL, Arnold FH. Evolutionary history of a specialized p450 propane monooxygenase. J Mol Biol. 2008 Nov 28; 383(5):1069-80. PMID: 18619466.
    Citations: 65     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  42. Balagaddé FK, Song H, Ozaki J, Collins CH, Barnet M, Arnold FH, Quake SR, You L. A synthetic Escherichia coli predator-prey ecosystem. Mol Syst Biol. 2008; 4:187. PMID: 18414488.
    Citations: 158     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  43. Haseltine EL, Arnold FH. Implications of rewiring bacterial quorum sensing. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Jan; 74(2):437-45. PMID: 18039819.
    Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  44. Brenner K, Karig DK, Weiss R, Arnold FH. Engineered bidirectional communication mediates a consensus in a microbial biofilm consortium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 30; 104(44):17300-4. PMID: 17959781.
    Citations: 80     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  45. Carbone MN, Arnold FH. Engineering by homologous recombination: exploring sequence and function within a conserved fold. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007 Aug; 17(4):454-9. PMID: 17884462.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  46. Li Y, Drummond DA, Sawayama AM, Snow CD, Bloom JD, Arnold FH. A diverse family of thermostable cytochrome P450s created by recombination of stabilizing fragments. Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Sep; 25(9):1051-6. PMID: 17721510.
    Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  47. Hawkins AC, Arnold FH, Stuermer R, Hauer B, Leadbetter JR. Directed evolution of Vibrio fischeri LuxR for improved response to butanoyl-homoserine lactone. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Sep; 73(18):5775-81. PMID: 17675429; PMCID: PMC2074898.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  48. Bloom JD, Lu Z, Chen D, Raval A, Venturelli OS, Arnold FH. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations. BMC Biol. 2007 Jul 17; 5:29. PMID: 17640347; PMCID: PMC1995189.
    Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  49. Bloom JD, Romero PA, Lu Z, Arnold FH. Neutral genetic drift can alter promiscuous protein functions, potentially aiding functional evolution. Biol Direct. 2007 Jun 28; 2:17. PMID: 17598905; PMCID: PMC1914045.
    Citations: 68     Fields:    
  50. Landwehr M, Carbone M, Otey CR, Li Y, Arnold FH. Diversification of catalytic function in a synthetic family of chimeric cytochrome p450s. Chem Biol. 2007 Mar; 14(3):269-78. PMID: 17379142; PMCID: PMC1991292.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  51. Bloom JD, Arnold FH, Wilke CO. Breaking proteins with mutations: threads and thresholds in evolution. Mol Syst Biol. 2007; 3:76. PMID: 17262035; PMCID: PMC1800353.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    
  52. Haseltine EL, Arnold FH. Synthetic gene circuits: design with directed evolution. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2007; 36:1-19. PMID: 17243895.
    Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  53. Fasan R, Chen MM, Crook NC, Arnold FH. Engineered alkane-hydroxylating cytochrome P450(BM3) exhibiting nativelike catalytic properties. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007; 46(44):8414-8. PMID: 17886313.
    Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  54. Meyer MM, Hochrein L, Arnold FH. Structure-guided SCHEMA recombination of distantly related beta-lactamases. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006 Dec; 19(12):563-70. PMID: 17090554.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  55. Bloom JD, Drummond DA, Arnold FH, Wilke CO. Structural determinants of the rate of protein evolution in yeast. Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Sep; 23(9):1751-61. PMID: 16782762.
    Citations: 86     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  56. Meyer MM, Hiraga K, Arnold FH. Combinatorial recombination of gene fragments to construct a library of chimeras. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2006 Jun; Chapter 26:Unit 26.2. PMID: 18429308.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  57. Collins CH, Leadbetter JR, Arnold FH. Dual selection enhances the signaling specificity of a variant of the quorum-sensing transcriptional activator LuxR. Nat Biotechnol. 2006 Jun; 24(6):708-12. PMID: 16715074.
    Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  58. Landwehr M, Hochrein L, Otey CR, Kasrayan A, Bäckvall JE, Arnold FH. Enantioselective alpha-hydroxylation of 2-arylacetic acid derivatives and buspirone catalyzed by engineered cytochrome P450 BM-3. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 May 10; 128(18):6058-9. PMID: 16669674.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  59. Otey CR, Landwehr M, Endelman JB, Hiraga K, Bloom JD, Arnold FH. Structure-guided recombination creates an artificial family of cytochromes P450. PLoS Biol. 2006 May; 4(5):e112. PMID: 16594730; PMCID: PMC1431580.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  60. Bloom JD, Labthavikul ST, Otey CR, Arnold FH. Protein stability promotes evolvability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 11; 103(15):5869-74. PMID: 16581913; PMCID: PMC1458665.
    Citations: 397     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  61. Arnold FH. Fancy footwork in the sequence space shuffle. Nat Biotechnol. 2006 Mar; 24(3):328-30. PMID: 16525408.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  62. Otey CR, Bandara G, Lalonde J, Takahashi K, Arnold FH. Preparation of human metabolites of propranolol using laboratory-evolved bacterial cytochromes P450. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006 Feb 20; 93(3):494-9. PMID: 16224788.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  63. Tobias AV, Arnold FH. Biosynthesis of novel carotenoid families based on unnatural carbon backbones: a model for diversification of natural product pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb; 1761(2):235-46. PMID: 16478677.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  64. Kubo T, Peters MW, Meinhold P, Arnold FH. Enantioselective epoxidation of terminal alkenes to (R)- and (S)-epoxides by engineered cytochromes P450 BM-3. Chemistry. 2006 Jan 23; 12(4):1216-20. PMID: 16240317.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    
  65. Meinhold P, Peters MW, Chen MM, Takahashi K, Arnold FH. Direct conversion of ethane to ethanol by engineered cytochrome P450 BM3. Chembiochem. 2005 Oct; 6(10):1765-8. PMID: 16080215.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  66. Drummond DA, Bloom JD, Adami C, Wilke CO, Arnold FH. Why highly expressed proteins evolve slowly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 04; 102(40):14338-43. PMID: 16176987; PMCID: PMC1242296.
    Citations: 395     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  67. Bloom JD, Meyer MM, Meinhold P, Otey CR, MacMillan D, Arnold FH. Evolving strategies for enzyme engineering. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2005 Aug; 15(4):447-52. PMID: 16006119.
    Citations: 80     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  68. Drummond DA, Iverson BL, Georgiou G, Arnold FH. Why high-error-rate random mutagenesis libraries are enriched in functional and improved proteins. J Mol Biol. 2005 Jul 22; 350(4):806-16. PMID: 15939434.
    Citations: 40     Fields:    
  69. Balagaddé FK, You L, Hansen CL, Arnold FH, Quake SR. Long-term monitoring of bacteria undergoing programmed population control in a microchemostat. Science. 2005 Jul 01; 309(5731):137-40. PMID: 15994559.
    Citations: 146     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  70. Udit AK, Hindoyan N, Hill MG, Arnold FH, Gray HB. Protein-surfactant film voltammetry of wild-type and mutant cytochrome P450 BM3. Inorg Chem. 2005 Jun 13; 44(12):4109-11. PMID: 15934729.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  71. Basu S, Gerchman Y, Collins CH, Arnold FH, Weiss R. A synthetic multicellular system for programmed pattern formation. Nature. 2005 Apr 28; 434(7037):1130-4. PMID: 15858574.
    Citations: 325     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  72. Münzer DF, Meinhold P, Peters MW, Feichtenhofer S, Griengl H, Arnold FH, Glieder A, de Raadt A. Stereoselective hydroxylation of an achiral cyclopentanecarboxylic acid derivative using engineered P450s BM-3. Chem Commun (Camb). 2005 May 28; (20):2597-9. PMID: 15900339.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  73. Drummond DA, Silberg JJ, Meyer MM, Wilke CO, Arnold FH. On the conservative nature of intragenic recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 12; 102(15):5380-5. PMID: 15809422; PMCID: PMC556249.
    Citations: 41     Fields:    
  74. Umeno D, Tobias AV, Arnold FH. Diversifying carotenoid biosynthetic pathways by directed evolution. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005 Mar; 69(1):51-78. PMID: 15755953; PMCID: PMC1082795.
    Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  75. Collins CH, Arnold FH, Leadbetter JR. Directed evolution of Vibrio fischeri LuxR for increased sensitivity to a broad spectrum of acyl-homoserine lactones. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Feb; 55(3):712-23. PMID: 15660998.
    Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  76. Bloom JD, Silberg JJ, Wilke CO, Drummond DA, Adami C, Arnold FH. Thermodynamic prediction of protein neutrality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18; 102(3):606-11. PMID: 15644440; PMCID: PMC545518.
    Citations: 158     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  77. Malliaros J, Quinn C, Arnold FH, Pearse MJ, Drane DP, Stewart TJ, Macfarlan RI. Association of antigens to ISCOMATRIX adjuvant using metal chelation leads to improved CTL responses. Vaccine. 2004 Sep 28; 22(29-30):3968-75. PMID: 15364446.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
  78. Udit AK, Arnold FH, Gray HB. Cobaltocene-mediated catalytic monooxygenation using holo and heme domain cytochrome P450 BM3. J Inorg Biochem. 2004 Sep; 98(9):1547-50. PMID: 15337607.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  79. Udit AK, Hill MG, Bittner VG, Arnold FH, Gray HB. Reduction of dioxygen catalyzed by pyrene-wired heme domain cytochrome P450 BM3 electrodes. J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Aug 25; 126(33):10218-9. PMID: 15315414.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  80. Endelman JB, Silberg JJ, Wang ZG, Arnold FH. Site-directed protein recombination as a shortest-path problem. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2004 Jul; 17(7):589-94. PMID: 15331774.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  81. Bloom JD, Wilke CO, Arnold FH, Adami C. Stability and the evolvability of function in a model protein. Biophys J. 2004 May; 86(5):2758-64. PMID: 15111394; PMCID: PMC1304146.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  82. You L, Cox RS, Weiss R, Arnold FH. Programmed population control by cell-cell communication and regulated killing. Nature. 2004 Apr 22; 428(6985):868-71. PMID: 15064770.
    Citations: 179     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  83. Otey CR, Silberg JJ, Voigt CA, Endelman JB, Bandara G, Arnold FH. Functional evolution and structural conservation in chimeric cytochromes p450: calibrating a structure-guided approach. Chem Biol. 2004 Mar; 11(3):309-18. PMID: 15123260.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  84. Alcalde M, Farinas ET, Arnold FH. Colorimetric high-throughput assay for alkene epoxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 BM-3 variant 139-3. J Biomol Screen. 2004 Mar; 9(2):141-6. PMID: 15006137.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  85. Umeno D, Arnold FH. Evolution of a pathway to novel long-chain carotenoids. J Bacteriol. 2004 Mar; 186(5):1531-6. PMID: 14973014.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  86. Wong TS, Arnold FH, Schwaneberg U. Laboratory evolution of cytochrome p450 BM-3 monooxygenase for organic cosolvents. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004 Feb 05; 85(3):351-8. PMID: 14748091.
    Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  87. Silberg JJ, Endelman JB, Arnold FH. SCHEMA-guided protein recombination. Methods Enzymol. 2004; 388:35-42. PMID: 15289059.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  88. Collins CH, Yokobayashi Y, Umeno D, Arnold FH. Engineering proteins that bind, move, make and break DNA. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2003 Dec; 14(6):665. PMID: 14662399.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    
  89. Peters MW, Meinhold P, Glieder A, Arnold FH. Regio- and enantioselective alkane hydroxylation with engineered cytochromes P450 BM-3. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Nov 05; 125(44):13442-50. PMID: 14583039.
    Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  90. Cirino PC, Tang Y, Takahashi K, Tirrell DA, Arnold FH. Global incorporation of norleucine in place of methionine in cytochrome P450 BM-3 heme domain increases peroxygenase activity. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003 Sep 20; 83(6):729-34. PMID: 12889037.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    
  91. Salazar O, Cirino PC, Arnold FH. Thermostabilization of a cytochrome p450 peroxygenase. Chembiochem. 2003 Sep 05; 4(9):891-3. PMID: 12964165.
    Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  92. Umeno D, Hiraga K, Arnold FH. Method to protect a targeted amino acid residue during random mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Aug 15; 31(16):e91. PMID: 12907743; PMCID: PMC169983.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  93. Meyer MM, Silberg JJ, Voigt CA, Endelman JB, Mayo SL, Wang ZG, Arnold FH. Library analysis of SCHEMA-guided protein recombination. Protein Sci. 2003 Aug; 12(8):1686-93. PMID: 12876318; PMCID: PMC2323955.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  94. Collins CH, Yokobayashi Y, Umeno D, Arnold FH. Engineering proteins that bind, move, make and break DNA. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2003 Aug; 14(4):371-8. PMID: 12943845.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  95. Cirino PC, Arnold FH. A self-sufficient peroxide-driven hydroxylation biocatalyst. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2003 Jul 21; 42(28):3299-301. PMID: 12876749.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  96. Hiraga K, Arnold FH. General method for sequence-independent site-directed chimeragenesis. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jul 04; 330(2):287-96. PMID: 12823968.
    Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  97. Umeno D, Arnold FH. A C35 carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jun; 69(6):3573-9. PMID: 12788765.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  98. Wintrode PL, Zhang D, Vaidehi N, Arnold FH, Goddard WA. Protein dynamics in a family of laboratory evolved thermophilic enzymes. J Mol Biol. 2003 Mar 28; 327(3):745-57. PMID: 12634066.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  99. Bulter T, Alcalde M, Sieber V, Meinhold P, Schlachtbauer C, Arnold FH. Functional expression of a fungal laccase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directed evolution. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Feb; 69(2):987-95. PMID: 12571021.
    Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  100. Aguinaldo AM, Arnold FH. Staggered extension process (StEP) in vitro recombination. Methods Mol Biol. 2003; 231:105-10. PMID: 12824608.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  101. Umeno D, Tobias AV, Arnold FH. Evolution of the C30 carotenoid synthase CrtM for function in a C40 pathway. J Bacteriol. 2002 Dec; 184(23):6690-9. PMID: 12426357.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  102. Alcalde M, Bulter T, Arnold FH. Colorimetric assays for biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungal laccases. J Biomol Screen. 2002 Dec; 7(6):547-53. PMID: 14599353.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:CellsPHPublic Health
  103. Yokobayashi Y, Weiss R, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of a genetic circuit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24; 99(26):16587-91. PMID: 12451174; PMCID: PMC139187.
    Citations: 136     Fields:    
  104. Glieder A, Farinas ET, Arnold FH. Laboratory evolution of a soluble, self-sufficient, highly active alkane hydroxylase. Nat Biotechnol. 2002 Nov; 20(11):1135-9. PMID: 12368811.
    Citations: 65     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  105. Sun L, Bulter T, Alcalde M, Petrounia IP, Arnold FH. Modification of galactose oxidase to introduce glucose 6-oxidase activity. Chembiochem. 2002 Aug 02; 3(8):781-3. PMID: 12203977.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  106. Voigt CA, Martinez C, Wang ZG, Mayo SL, Arnold FH. Protein building blocks preserved by recombination. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Jul; 9(7):553-8. PMID: 12042875.
    Citations: 107     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  107. Fu AY, Chou HP, Spence C, Arnold FH, Quake SR. An integrated microfabricated cell sorter. Anal Chem. 2002 Jun 01; 74(11):2451-7. PMID: 12069222.
    Citations: 69     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  108. Cirino PC, Arnold FH. Protein engineering of oxygenases for biocatalysis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2002 Apr; 6(2):130-5. PMID: 12038995.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  109. Mayer KM, Arnold FH. A colorimetric assay to quantify dehydrogenase activity in crude cell lysates. J Biomol Screen. 2002 Apr; 7(2):135-40. PMID: 12006112.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  110. Joern JM, Meinhold P, Arnold FH. Analysis of shuffled gene libraries. J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 22; 316(3):643-56. PMID: 11866523.
    Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  111. Aguinaldo AM, Arnold F. Staggered extension process (StEP) in vitro recombination. Methods Mol Biol. 2002; 192:235-9. PMID: 12494655.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  112. Farinas ET, Bulter T, Arnold FH. Directed enzyme evolution. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2001 Dec; 12(6):545-51. PMID: 11849936.
    Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  113. Wintrode PL, Miyazaki K, Arnold FH. Patterns of adaptation in a laboratory evolved thermophilic enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Sep 10; 1549(1):1-8. PMID: 11566363.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    
  114. Sun L, Petrounia IP, Yagasaki M, Bandara G, Arnold FH. Expression and stabilization of galactose oxidase in Escherichia coli by directed evolution. Protein Eng. 2001 Sep; 14(9):699-704. PMID: 11707617.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  115. Morawski B, Quan S, Arnold FH. Functional expression and stabilization of horseradish peroxidase by directed evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2001 Sep; 76(2):99-107. PMID: 11505379.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  116. Sakamoto T, Joern JM, Arisawa A, Arnold FH. Laboratory evolution of toluene dioxygenase to accept 4-picoline as a substrate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Sep; 67(9):3882-7. PMID: 11525981.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:CellsPHPublic Health
  117. Joern JM, Sakamoto T, Arisawa A, Arnold FH. A versatile high throughput screen for dioxygenase activity using solid-phase digital imaging. J Biomol Screen. 2001 Aug; 6(4):219-23. PMID: 11689121.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  118. Sieber V, Martinez CA, Arnold FH. Libraries of hybrid proteins from distantly related sequences. Nat Biotechnol. 2001 May; 19(5):456-60. PMID: 11329016.
    Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  119. Thorsen T, Roberts RW, Arnold FH, Quake SR. Dynamic pattern formation in a vesicle-generating microfluidic device. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Apr 30; 86(18):4163-6. PMID: 11328121.
    Citations: 214     Fields:    
  120. Schwaneberg U, Otey C, Cirino PC, Farinas E, Arnold FH. Cost-effective whole-cell assay for laboratory evolution of hydroxylases in Escherichia coli. J Biomol Screen. 2001 Apr; 6(2):111-7. PMID: 11689105.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  121. Voigt CA, Mayo SL, Arnold FH, Wang ZG. Computational method to reduce the search space for directed protein evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Mar 27; 98(7):3778-83. PMID: 11274394; PMCID: PMC31129.
    Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  122. Arnold FH, Wintrode PL, Miyazaki K, Gershenson A. How enzymes adapt: lessons from directed evolution. Trends Biochem Sci. 2001 Feb; 26(2):100-6. PMID: 11166567.
    Citations: 89     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  123. Arnold FH. Combinatorial and computational challenges for biocatalyst design. Nature. 2001 Jan 11; 409(6817):253-7. PMID: 11196654.
    Citations: 69     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  124. Voigt CA, Mayo SL, Arnold FH, Wang ZG. Computationally focusing the directed evolution of proteins. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2001; Suppl 37:58-63. PMID: 11842429.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    
  125. Wintrode PL, Miyazaki K, Arnold FH. Cold adaptation of a mesophilic subtilisin-like protease by laboratory evolution. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 13; 275(41):31635-40. PMID: 10906329.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  126. Petrounia IP, Arnold FH. Designed evolution of enzymatic properties. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2000 Aug; 11(4):325-30. PMID: 10975451.
    Citations: 24     Fields:    
  127. Schmidt-Dannert C, Umeno D, Arnold FH. Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Jul; 18(7):750-3. PMID: 10888843.
    Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  128. Morawski B, Lin Z, Cirino P, Joo H, Bandara G, Arnold FH. Functional expression of horseradish peroxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Protein Eng. 2000 May; 13(5):377-84. PMID: 10835112.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  129. Gershenson A, Schauerte JA, Giver L, Arnold FH. Tryptophan phosphorescence study of enzyme flexibility and unfolding in laboratory-evolved thermostable esterases. Biochemistry. 2000 Apr 25; 39(16):4658-65. PMID: 10769121.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  130. Miyazaki K, Wintrode PL, Grayling RA, Rubingh DN, Arnold FH. Directed evolution study of temperature adaptation in a psychrophilic enzyme. J Mol Biol. 2000 Apr 07; 297(4):1015-26. PMID: 10736234.
    Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  131. May O, Nguyen PT, Arnold FH. Inverting enantioselectivity by directed evolution of hydantoinase for improved production of L-methionine. Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Mar; 18(3):317-20. PMID: 10700149.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  132. Volkov AA, Arnold FH. Methods for in vitro DNA recombination and random chimeragenesis. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 328:447-56. PMID: 11075359.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  133. Gershenson A, Arnold FH. Enzyme stabilization by directed evolution. Genet Eng (N Y). 2000; 22:55-76. PMID: 11501381.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    
  134. Wintrode PL, Arnold FH. Temperature adaptation of enzymes: lessons from laboratory evolution. Adv Protein Chem. 2000; 55:161-225. PMID: 11050934.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  135. Volkov AA, Shao Z, Arnold FH. Random chimeragenesis by heteroduplex recombination. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 328:456-63. PMID: 11075360.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  136. Michnick SW, Arnold FH. "Itching" for new strategies in protein engineering. Nat Biotechnol. 1999 Dec; 17(12):1159-60. PMID: 10585708.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  137. Miyazaki K, Arnold FH. Exploring nonnatural evolutionary pathways by saturation mutagenesis: rapid improvement of protein function. J Mol Evol. 1999 Dec; 49(6):716-20. PMID: 10594172.
    Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  138. Gillam EM, Aguinaldo AM, Notley LM, Kim D, Mundkowski RG, Volkov AA, Arnold FH, Soucek P, DeVoss JJ, Guengerich FP. Formation of indigo by recombinant mammalian cytochrome P450. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Nov 19; 265(2):469-72. PMID: 10558891.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  139. Fu AY, Spence C, Scherer A, Arnold FH, Quake SR. A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Nat Biotechnol. 1999 Nov; 17(11):1109-11. PMID: 10545919.
    Citations: 109     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  140. Spiller B, Gershenson A, Arnold FH, Stevens RC. A structural view of evolutionary divergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26; 96(22):12305-10. PMID: 10535917; PMCID: PMC22912.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    
  141. Joo H, Arisawa A, Lin Z, Arnold FH. A high-throughput digital imaging screen for the discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases. Chem Biol. 1999 Oct; 6(10):699-706. PMID: 10508682.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  142. Volkov AA, Shao Z, Arnold FH. Recombination and chimeragenesis by in vitro heteroduplex formation and in vivo repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999 Sep 15; 27(18):e18. PMID: 10471748; PMCID: PMC148610.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  143. Joo H, Lin Z, Arnold FH. Laboratory evolution of peroxide-mediated cytochrome P450 hydroxylation. Nature. 1999 Jun 17; 399(6737):670-3. PMID: 10385118.
    Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  144. Arnold FH, Giver L, Gershenson A, Zhao H, Miyazaki K. Directed evolution of mesophilic enzymes into their thermophilic counterparts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 May 18; 870:400-3. PMID: 10415508.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  145. Lin Z, Thorsen T, Arnold FH. Functional expression of horseradish peroxidase in E. coli by directed evolution. Biotechnol Prog. 1999 May-Jun; 15(3):467-71. PMID: 10356264.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  146. Schmidt-Dannert C, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of industrial enzymes. Trends Biotechnol. 1999 Apr; 17(4):135-6. PMID: 10203769.
    Citations: 36     Fields:    
  147. Arnold FH, Volkov AA. Directed evolution of biocatalysts. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1999 Feb; 3(1):54-9. PMID: 10021399.
    Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  148. Arnold F, Bédouet L, Batina P, Robreau G. Cloning and sequencing of the central region of the flagellin gene from the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755. Microbiol Immunol. 1999; 43(1):1-8. PMID: 10100740.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  149. Zhao H, Arnold FH. Directed evolution converts subtilisin E into a functional equivalent of thermitase. Protein Eng. 1999 Jan; 12(1):47-53. PMID: 10065710.
    Citations: 69     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  150. Giver L, Gershenson A, Freskgard PO, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of a thermostable esterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 27; 95(22):12809-13. PMID: 9788996; PMCID: PMC23604.
    Citations: 92     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  151. Arnold FH. When blind is better: protein design by evolution. Nat Biotechnol. 1998 Jul; 16(7):617-8. PMID: 9661188.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  152. Giver L, Arnold FH. Combinatorial protein design by in vitro recombination. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1998 Jun; 2(3):335-8. PMID: 9691067.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  153. Arnold FH. Enzyme engineering reaches the boiling point. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Mar 03; 95(5):2035-6. PMID: 9482832; PMCID: PMC33840.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    
  154. Zhao H, Giver L, Shao Z, Affholter JA, Arnold FH. Molecular evolution by staggered extension process (StEP) in vitro recombination. Nat Biotechnol. 1998 Mar; 16(3):258-61. PMID: 9528005.
    Citations: 127     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  155. Shao Z, Zhao H, Giver L, Arnold FH. Random-priming in vitro recombination: an effective tool for directed evolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 Jan 15; 26(2):681-3. PMID: 9421535; PMCID: PMC147287.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  156. Kuchner O, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of enzyme catalysts. Trends Biotechnol. 1997 Dec; 15(12):523-30. PMID: 9418307.
    Citations: 48     Fields:    
  157. Moore JC, Jin HM, Kuchner O, Arnold FH. Strategies for the in vitro evolution of protein function: enzyme evolution by random recombination of improved sequences. J Mol Biol. 1997 Sep 26; 272(3):336-47. PMID: 9325094.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    
  158. Zhao H, Arnold FH. Combinatorial protein design: strategies for screening protein libraries. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1997 Aug; 7(4):480-5. PMID: 9266168.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  159. Zhao H, Arnold FH. Functional and nonfunctional mutations distinguished by random recombination of homologous genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 22; 94(15):7997-8000. PMID: 9223302; PMCID: PMC21544.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    
  160. Pack DW, Arnold FH. Langmuir monolayer characterization of metal chelating lipids for protein targeting to membranes. Chem Phys Lipids. 1997 Apr 25; 86(2):135-52. PMID: 9179995.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  161. Chen G, Guan Z, Chen CT, Fu L, Sundaresan V, Arnold FH. A glucose-sensing polymer. Nat Biotechnol. 1997 Apr; 15(4):354-7. PMID: 9094137.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  162. Zhao H, Arnold FH. Optimization of DNA shuffling for high fidelity recombination. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Mar 15; 25(6):1307-8. PMID: 9092645; PMCID: PMC146579.
    Citations: 51     Fields:    
  163. Arnold FH, Moore JC. Optimizing industrial enzymes by directed evolution. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 1997; 58:1-14. PMID: 9103909.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    
  164. Zhao H, Li Y, Arnold FH. Strategy for the directed evolution of a peptide ligase. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Oct 12; 799:1-5. PMID: 8958065.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  165. Shao Z, Arnold FH. Engineering new functions and altering existing functions. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1996 Aug; 6(4):513-8. PMID: 8794158.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  166. Frey W, Schief WR, Pack DW, Chen CT, Chilkoti A, Stayton P, Vogel V, Arnold FH. Two-dimensional protein crystallization via metal-ion coordination by naturally occurring surface histidines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 May 14; 93(10):4937-41. PMID: 8643507; PMCID: PMC39383.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  167. Moore JC, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of a para-nitrobenzyl esterase for aqueous-organic solvents. Nat Biotechnol. 1996 Apr; 14(4):458-67. PMID: 9630920.
    Citations: 58     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  168. Maloney K, Shnek D, Sasaki D, Arnold F. Fluorescence signaling of ligand binding and assembly in metal-chelating lipid membranes. Chem Biol. 1996 Mar; 3(3):185-92. PMID: 8807844.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  169. Johnson RD, Todd RJ, Arnold FH. Multipoint binding in metal-affinity chromatography II. Effect of pH and imidazole on chromatographic retention of engineered histidine-containing cytochromes c. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Feb 23; 725(2):225-35. PMID: 8900574.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  170. You L, Arnold FH. Directed evolution of subtilisin E in Bacillus subtilis to enhance total activity in aqueous dimethylformamide. Protein Eng. 1996 Jan; 9(1):77-83. PMID: 9053906.
    Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  171. Vidyasankar S, Dhal PK, Plunkett SD, Arnold FH. Review: Selective ligand-exchange adsorbents prepared by template polymerization. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1995 Dec 05; 48(5):431-6. PMID: 18623506.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  172. Johnson RD, Arnold FH. Review: Multipoint binding and heterogeneity in immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1995 Dec 05; 48(5):437-43. PMID: 18623507.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    
  173. Plunkett SD, Arnold FH. Molecularly imprinted polymers on silica: selective supports for high-performance ligand-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 1995 Jul 28; 708(1):19-29. PMID: 7647924.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  174. Johnson RD, Arnold FH. The Temkin isotherm describes heterogeneous protein adsorption. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Mar 15; 1247(2):293-7. PMID: 7696322.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  175. Arnold FH, Zhang JH. Metal-mediated protein stabilization. Trends Biotechnol. 1994 May; 12(5):189-92. PMID: 7764902.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  176. Todd RJ, Johnson RD, Arnold FH. Multiple-site binding interactions in metal-affinity chromatography. I. Equilibrium binding of engineered histidine-containing cytochromes c. J Chromatogr A. 1994 Feb 18; 662(1):13-26. PMID: 8136917.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  177. Chung BH, Bailey D, Arnold FH. Metal affinity partitioning. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 228:167-79. PMID: 8047006.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  178. Arnold FH. Protein engineering for unusual environments. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1993 Aug; 4(4):450-5. PMID: 7763976.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    
  179. Chen K, Arnold FH. Tuning the activity of an enzyme for unusual environments: sequential random mutagenesis of subtilisin E for catalysis in dimethylformamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jun 15; 90(12):5618-22. PMID: 8516309; PMCID: PMC46772.
    Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  180. Arnold FH. Engineering proteins for nonnatural environments. FASEB J. 1993 Jun; 7(9):744-9. PMID: 8330682.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  181. Kim CS, Arnold FJ, Itani MS, Martyn JA. Decreased sensitivity to metocurine during long-term phenytoin therapy may be attributable to protein binding and acetylcholine receptor changes. Anesthesiology. 1992 Sep; 77(3):500-6. PMID: 1519788.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  182. Economou C, Chen K, Arnold FH. Random mutagenesis to enhance the activity of subtilisin in organic solvents: Characterization of Q103R subtilisin E. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1992 Mar 15; 39(6):658-62. PMID: 18600995.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  183. Martinez P, Van Dam ME, Robinson AC, Chen K, Arnold FH. Stabilization of substilisin E in organic solvents by site-directed mutagenesis. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1992 Jan 20; 39(2):141-7. PMID: 18600924.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  184. Chen KQ, Arnold FH. Enzyme engineering for nonaqueous solvents: random mutagenesis to enhance activity of subtilisin E in polar organic media. Biotechnology (N Y). 1991 Nov; 9(11):1073-7. PMID: 1367624.
    Citations: 34     Fields:    
  185. Kellis JT, Todd RJ, Arnold FH. Protein stabilization by engineered metal chelation. Biotechnology (N Y). 1991 Oct; 9(10):994-5. PMID: 1369354.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  186. Arnold FH, Haymore BL. Engineered metal-binding proteins: purification to protein folding. Science. 1991 Jun 28; 252(5014):1796-7. PMID: 1648261.
    Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  187. Wuenschell GE, Wen E, Todd R, Shnek D, Arnold FH. Chiral copper-chelate complexes alter selectivities in metal affinity protein partitioning. J Chromatogr. 1991 May 10; 543(2):345-54. PMID: 1880194.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  188. Chen KQ, Robinson AC, Van Dam ME, Martinez P, Economou C, Arnold FH. Enzyme engineering for nonaqueous solvents. II. Additive effects of mutations on the stability and activity of subtilisin E in polar organic media. Biotechnol Prog. 1991 Mar-Apr; 7(2):125-9. PMID: 1367168.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  189. Arnold FH. Metal-affinity separations: a new dimension in protein processing. Biotechnology (N Y). 1991 Feb; 9(2):151-6. PMID: 1369316.
    Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  190. Suh SS, Haymore BL, Arnold FH. Characterization of His-X3-His sites in alpha-helices of synthetic metal-binding bovine somatotropin. Protein Eng. 1991 Feb; 4(3):301-5. PMID: 1713327.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  191. Todd RJ, Van Dam ME, Casimiro D, Haymore BL, Arnold FH. Cu(II)-binding properties of a cytochrome c with a synthetic metal-binding site: His-X3-His in an alpha-helix. Proteins. 1991; 10(2):156-61. PMID: 1654548.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  192. Arnold FH. Engineering enzymes for non-aqueous solvents. Trends Biotechnol. 1990 Sep; 8(9):244-9. PMID: 1366732.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  193. Suh SS, Arnold FH. A mathematical model for metal affinity protein partitioning. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1990 Mar 25; 35(7):682-90. PMID: 18592564.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  194. Van Dam ME, Wuenschell GE, Arnold FH. Metal affinity precipitation of proteins. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 1989 Oct; 11(5):492-502. PMID: 2508699.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  195. Arnold FH. Protein design for non-aqueous solvents. Protein Eng. 1988 Apr; 2(1):21-5. PMID: 3253733.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  196. Arnold FH, Wolk S, Cruz P, Tinoco I. Structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics of mismatched DNA oligonucleotide duplexes d(CCCAGGG)2 and d(CCCTGGG)2. Biochemistry. 1987 Jun 30; 26(13):4068-75. PMID: 3651437.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Cells
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.