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Thomas Reinhard Bortfeld, Ph.D.

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Overview
I am a Medical Physicist with a passion for research and development to solve clinical problems, deploying the resulting innovative technologies in the clinic, and translating new problems that arise in the clinic back into research questions. I made this transition of technologies from the bench to the bedside and back many times throughout my career.

Research
The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
  1. 1 R01 CA266803-01A1 (BORTFELD, THOMAS R.) Sep 20, 2022 - Aug 31, 2027
    NIH/NCI
    An Ionizing Radiation Acoustics Imaging (iRAI) Approach for guided Flash Radiotherapy
    Role Description: The goal is to address the current challenges of effective and safe FLASH-RT clinical delivery by developing an image-pulse guidance system utilizing technological advances in radiation acoustic imaging and machine learning algorithms.
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
  2. R01CA266275 (BORTFELD, THOMAS R.) Jan 6, 2022 - Dec 31, 2026
    NIH/NCI
    Automated interactive definition of the clinical target volume in radiation oncology
    Role Description: The definition of the clinical target volume in which high doses of radiation are delivered to treat cancer is the weakest link in the radiation therapy chain. It is currently a cumbersome manual process in which a radiation oncologist draws the target contours manually, with many uncertainties involved, leading to a large variability between contours drawn by different physicians. In collaboration with a leading company in radiation treatment planning, we develop a machine learning based approach to define the clinical target volume semi- automatically, which will lead to greater efficiency in defining the clinal target, more consistency, and better treatment plans for the patients.
    Role: Principal Investigator
  3. R01CA118200 (BORTFELD, THOMAS R.) Jul 1, 2007 - May 31, 2013
    NIH
    Management of Breathing effects in Radiotherapy Planning
    Role: Principal Investigator
  4. R01CA103904 (BORTFELD, THOMAS R.) Dec 1, 2003 - Jul 31, 2012
    NIH
    Multi-Criteria IMRT Optimization
    Role: Principal Investigator
  5. P01CA021239 (DELANEY, THOMAS F) Aug 1, 1985 - Sep 24, 2014
    NIH
    PROTON RADIATION THERAPY RESEARCH
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

Bibliographic
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Buti G, Shusharina N, Ajdari A, Sterpin E, Bortfeld T. Exploring trade-offs in treatment planning for brain tumor cases with a probabilistic definition of the clinical target volume. Med Phys. 2022 Nov 10. PMID: 36354283.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  2. Lyatskaya Y, Winey B, Kiger WS, Hurwitz M, Zygmanski P, Makrigiorgos GM, Bortfeld TR, Doppke KP, Lu XQ, Chin LM, Biggs P, Gierga DP. Combined clinical and research training in medical physics in a multi-institutional setting: 13-year experience of Harvard Medical Physics Residency Program. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2022 Nov 08; e13806. PMID: 36347055.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  3. Tattenberg S, Marants R, Niepel K, Bortfeld T, Sudhyadhom A, Landry G, Parodi K, Verburg J. Validation of prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy for proton range verification in tissue-mimicking and porcine samples. Phys Med Biol. 2022 10 12; 67(20). PMID: 36162404; PMCID: PMC9615459.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
  4. Ajdari A, Liao Z, Mohan R, Wei X, Bortfeld T. Personalized mid-course FDG-PET based adaptive treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer using machine learning and optimization. Phys Med Biol. 2022 09 13; 67(18). PMID: 35947984; PMCID: PMC9579961.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  5. Bortfeld T, Buti G. Modeling the propagation of tumor fronts with shortest path and diffusion models-implications for the definition of the clinical target volume. Phys Med Biol. 2022 07 25; 67(15). PMID: 35817046; PMCID: PMC9388053.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  6. Shusharina N, Liu X, Coll-Font J, Foster A, El Fakhri G, Woo J, Bortfeld T, Nguyen C. Feasibility study of clinical target volume definition for soft-tissue sarcoma using muscle fiber orientations derived from diffusion tensor imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2022 07 22; 67(15). PMID: 35817048; PMCID: PMC9344976.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  7. Tattenberg S, Madden TM, Bortfeld T, Parodi K, Verburg J. Range uncertainty reductions in proton therapy may lead to the feasibility of novel beam arrangements which improve organ-at-risk sparing. Med Phys. 2022 Jul; 49(7):4693-4704. PMID: 35362163.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  8. Chung C, Trofimov A, Adams J, Kung J, Kirsch DG, Yoon S, Doppke K, Bortfeld T, Delaney TF. Comparison of 3D Conformal Proton Therapy, Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy, and Intensity-Modulated Photon Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma. Sarcoma. 2022; 2022:5540615. PMID: 35345672; PMCID: PMC8957461.
    Citations:    
  9. Manganaro L, Attili A, Bortfeld T, Paganetti H. Spatiotemporal optimisation of prostate intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatments. Phys Med Biol. 2022 02 10; 67(4). PMID: 35086079.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  10. Yan S, Depauw N, Adams J, Gorissen BL, Shih HA, Flanz J, Bortfeld T, Lu HM. Technical note: Does the greater power of pencil beam scanning reduce the need for a proton gantry? A study of head-and-neck and brain tumors. Med Phys. 2022 Feb; 49(2):813-824. PMID: 34919736.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  11. Ten Eikelder SCM, Ajdari A, Bortfeld T, den Hertog D. Conic formulation of fluence map optimization problems. Phys Med Biol. 2021 11 24; 66(22). PMID: 34587600.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  12. Moteabbed M, Smeets J, Hong TS, Janssens G, Labarbe R, Wolfgang JA, Bortfeld TR. Toward MR-integrated proton therapy: modeling the potential benefits for liver tumors. Phys Med Biol. 2021 09 23; 66(19). PMID: 34407528.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  13. Xie Y, Kang K, Wang Y, Khandekar MJ, Willers H, Keane FK, Bortfeld TR. Automated clinical target volume delineation using deep 3D neural networks in radiation therapy of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2021 Jul; 19:131-137. PMID: 34485718; PMCID: PMC8397906.
    Citations:    
  14. Tattenberg S, Madden TM, Gorissen BL, Bortfeld T, Parodi K, Verburg J. Proton range uncertainty reduction benefits for skull base tumors in terms of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and healthy tissue doses. Med Phys. 2021 Sep; 48(9):5356-5366. PMID: 34260085.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  15. Shusharina N, Söderberg J, Lidberg D, Niyazi M, Shih HA, Bortfeld T. Accounting for uncertainties in the position of anatomical barriers used to define the clinical target volume. Phys Med Biol. 2021 07 22; 66(15). PMID: 34171846.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  16. Ajdari A, Xie Y, Richter C, Niyazi M, Duda DG, Hong TS, Bortfeld T. Toward Personalized Radiation Therapy of Liver Metastasis: Importance of Serial Blood Biomarkers. JCO Clin Cancer Inform. 2021 03; 5:315-325. PMID: 33764817; PMCID: PMC8462658.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  17. Bortfeld T, Shusharina N, Craft D. Probabilistic definition of the clinical target volume-implications for tumor control probability modeling and optimization. Phys Med Biol. 2021 01 13; 66(1):01NT01. PMID: 33197905.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  18. Fiorino C, Jeraj R, Clark CH, Garibaldi C, Georg D, Muren L, van Elmpt W, Bortfeld T, Jornet N. In reply to the letter to the editor: "In reply to Fiorino et al: The central role of the radiation oncologist in the multidisciplinary and multiprofessional model of modern radiation therapy". Radiother Oncol. 2021 02; 155:e22-e23. PMID: 33412208.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  19. Ten Eikelder SCM, Ferjancic P, Ajdari A, Bortfeld T, den Hertog D, Jeraj R. Optimal treatment plan adaptation using mid-treatment imaging biomarkers. Phys Med Biol. 2020 12 22; 65(24):245011. PMID: 33053518.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  20. Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T, Cardenas CE, Gregoire V, Hager W, Heijmen B, Jeraj R, Korreman SS, Ludwig R, Pouymayou B, Shusharina N, Söderberg J, Toma-Dasu I, Troost EGC, Vasquez Osorio E. The role of computational methods for automating and improving clinical target volume definition. Radiother Oncol. 2020 12; 153:15-25. PMID: 33039428.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  21. Fiorino C, Jeraj R, Clark CH, Garibaldi C, Georg D, Muren L, van Elmpt W, Bortfeld T, Jornet N. Grand challenges for medical physics in radiation oncology. Radiother Oncol. 2020 12; 153:7-14. PMID: 33039425.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  22. Bortfeld TR, Viana MF, Yan S. The societal impact of ion beam therapy. Z Med Phys. 2021 05; 31(2):102-104. PMID: 32680688.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
  23. Hoffmann A, Oborn B, Moteabbed M, Yan S, Bortfeld T, Knopf A, Fuchs H, Georg D, Seco J, Spadea MF, Jäkel O, Kurz C, Parodi K. MR-guided proton therapy: a review and a preview. Radiat Oncol. 2020 May 29; 15(1):129. PMID: 32471500; PMCID: PMC7260752.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  24. Shusharina N, Söderberg J, Edmunds D, Löfman F, Shih H, Bortfeld T. Automated delineation of the clinical target volume using anatomically constrained 3D expansion of the gross tumor volume. Radiother Oncol. 2020 05; 146:37-43. PMID: 32114264.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Hueso-González F, Bortfeld T. Compact Method for Proton Range Verification Based on Coaxial Prompt Gamma-Ray Monitoring: a Theoretical Study. IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci. 2020 Mar; 4(2):170-183. PMID: 32258856.
    Citations: 1     
  26. Yu CX, Bortfeld T, Cai J. In the future, disruptive innovation in radiation oncology technology will be initiated mostly by entrepreneurs. Med Phys. 2019 May; 46(5):1949-1952. PMID: 30943312.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  27. Richter C, Andronesi OC, Borra RJH, Voigt F, Löck S, Duda DG, Guimaraes AR, Hong TS, Bortfeld TR, Seco J. Inter-patient variations of radiation-induced normal-tissue changes in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced hepatic MRI scans during fractionated proton therapy. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol. 2019 Sep; 18:113-119. PMID: 31341986; PMCID: PMC6630151.
    Citations: 1     
  28. Ten Eikelder SCM, den Hertog D, Bortfeld T, Perkó Z. Optimal combined proton-photon therapy schemes based on the standard BED model. Phys Med Biol. 2019 03 12; 64(6):065011. PMID: 30641502.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  29. Ajdari A, Niyazi M, Nicolay NH, Thieke C, Jeraj R, Bortfeld T. Towards optimal stopping in radiation therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2019 05; 134:96-100. PMID: 31005230.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  30. Hueso-González F, Rabe M, Ruggieri TA, Bortfeld T, Verburg JM. A full-scale clinical prototype for proton range verification using prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol. 2018 09 17; 63(18):185019. PMID: 30033938; PMCID: PMC6340397.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  31. Shusharina N, Craft D, Chen YL, Shih H, Bortfeld T. The clinical target distribution: a probabilistic alternative to the clinical target volume. Phys Med Biol. 2018 07 24; 63(15):155001. PMID: 29952319.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  32. Lühr A, von Neubeck C, Pawelke J, Seidlitz A, Peitzsch C, Bentzen SM, Bortfeld T, Debus J, Deutsch E, Langendijk JA, Loeffler JS, Mohan R, Scholz M, Sørensen BS, Weber DC, Baumann M, Krause M. "Radiobiology of Proton Therapy": Results of an international expert workshop. Radiother Oncol. 2018 07; 128(1):56-67. PMID: 29861141.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  33. Grassberger C, Hong TS, Hato T, Yeap BY, Wo JY, Tracy M, Bortfeld T, Wolfgang JA, Eyler CE, Goyal L, Clark JW, Crane CH, Koay EJ, Cobbold M, DeLaney TF, Jain RK, Zhu AX, Duda DG. Differential Association Between Circulating Lymphocyte Populations With Outcome After Radiation Therapy in Subtypes of Liver Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 08 01; 101(5):1222-1225. PMID: 29859792; PMCID: PMC6050125.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
  34. Perkó Z, Bortfeld T, Hong T, Wolfgang J, Unkelbach J. Derivation of mean dose tolerances for new fractionation schemes and treatment modalities. Phys Med Biol. 2018 02 05; 63(3):035038. PMID: 29099720.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  35. Langhans M, Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T, Craft D. Optimizing highly noncoplanar VMAT trajectories: the NoVo method. Phys Med Biol. 2018 01 16; 63(2):025023. PMID: 29336348.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  36. Shusharina N, Liao Z, Mohan R, Liu A, Niemierko A, Choi N, Bortfeld T. Differences in lung injury after IMRT or proton therapy assessed by 18FDG PET imaging. Radiother Oncol. 2018 07; 128(1):147-153. PMID: 29352608.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  37. Müller BS, Shih HA, Efstathiou JA, Bortfeld T, Craft D. Multicriteria plan optimization in the hands of physicians: a pilot study in prostate cancer and brain tumors. Radiat Oncol. 2017 Nov 06; 12(1):168. PMID: 29110689.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  38. Bortfeld TR, Loeffler JS. Three ways to make proton therapy affordable. Nature. 2017 09 25; 549(7673):451-453. PMID: 28959981.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  39. Apolle R, Rehm M, Bortfeld T, Baumann M, Troost EGC. The clinical target volume in lung, head-and-neck, and esophageal cancer: Lessons from pathological measurement and recurrence analysis. Clin Transl Radiat Oncol. 2017 Apr; 3:1-8. PMID: 29658006; PMCID: PMC5893525.
    Citations: 2     
  40. Gorissen BL, Unkelbach J, Bortfeld TR. Mathematical Optimization of Treatment Schedules. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 09 01; 96(1):6-8. PMID: 27511841.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  41. Craft D, Khan F, Young M, Bortfeld T. The Price of Target Dose Uniformity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 11 15; 96(4):913-914. PMID: 27788961.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  42. Verburg J, Bortfeld T. TU-FG-BRB-06: A Prompt Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy System for Clinical Studies of in Vivo Proton Range Verification. Med Phys. 2016 Jun; 43(6):3757. PMID: 28047303.
    Citations:    
  43. Bian J, Sharp GC, Park YK, Ouyang J, Bortfeld T, El Fakhri G. Investigation of cone-beam CT image quality trade-off for image-guided radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2016 May 07; 61(9):3317-46. PMID: 27032676.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  44. Baumann M, Krause M, Overgaard J, Debus J, Bentzen SM, Daartz J, Richter C, Zips D, Bortfeld T. Radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine. Nat Rev Cancer. 2016 Apr; 16(4):234-49. PMID: 27009394.
    Citations: 214     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  45. Kamran SC, Mueller BS, Paetzold P, Dunlap J, Niemierko A, Bortfeld T, Willers H, Craft D. Multi-criteria optimization achieves superior normal tissue sparing in a planning study of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for RTOG 1308-eligible non-small cell lung cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Mar; 118(3):515-20. PMID: 26830694.
    Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic HealthCTClinical Trials
  46. Yan S, Lu HM, Flanz J, Adams J, Trofimov A, Bortfeld T. Reassessment of the Necessity of the Proton Gantry: Analysis of Beam Orientations From 4332 Treatments at the Massachusetts General Hospital Proton Center Over the Past 10 Years. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 May 01; 95(1):224-233. PMID: 26611874.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  47. Papp D, Bortfeld T, Unkelbach J. A modular approach to intensity-modulated arc therapy optimization with noncoplanar trajectories. Phys Med Biol. 2015 Jul 07; 60(13):5179-98. PMID: 26083759.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  48. Grogg K, Alpert NM, Zhu X, Min CH, Testa M, Winey B, Normandin MD, Shih HA, Paganetti H, Bortfeld T, El Fakhri G. Mapping (15)O production rate for proton therapy verification. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Jun 01; 92(2):453-9. PMID: 25817530; PMCID: PMC4431894.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  49. Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T, Craft D, Alber M, Bangert M, Bokrantz R, Chen D, Li R, Xing L, Men C, Nill S, Papp D, Romeijn E, Salari E. Optimization approaches to volumetric modulated arc therapy planning. Med Phys. 2015 Mar; 42(3):1367-77. PMID: 25735291.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  50. Bortfeld T, Torresin A, Fiorino C, Andreo P, Gagliardi G, Jeraj R, Muren LP, Paiusco M, Thwaites D, Knöös T. The research versus clinical service role of medical physics. Radiother Oncol. 2015 Mar; 114(3):285-8. PMID: 25727681.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  51. Ngwa W, Sajo E, Ngoma T, Bortfeld T, Gierga D, White KB, Akinwande B, Enwerem-Bromson MM, Teboh Forbang R, Winningham TA, Court LE, Odedina FT, Wu R, Makrigiorgos M, Nguyen PL. Potential for information and communication technologies to catalyze global collaborations in radiation oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Feb 01; 91(2):444-7. PMID: 25636767; PMCID: PMC4959434.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    
  52. Salari E, Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T. A mathematical programming approach to the fractionation problem in chemoradiotherapy. IIE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering. 2015; 5(2):55-73. View Publication.
  53. Bortfeld T, Ramakrishnan J, Tsitsiklis JN, Unkelbach J. Optimization of Radiation Therapy Fractionation Schedules in the Presence of Tumor Repopulation. INFORMS Journal on Computing. 2015; 4(27):788-803. View Publication.
  54. Frey K, Unholtz D, Bauer J, Debus J, Min CH, Bortfeld T, Paganetti H, Parodi K. Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Oct 07; 59(19):5903-19. PMID: 25211629.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  55. Richter C, Seco J, Hong TS, Duda DG, Bortfeld T. Radiation-induced changes in hepatocyte-specific Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI: potential mechanism. Med Hypotheses. 2014 Oct; 83(4):477-81. PMID: 25175713.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  56. Unkelbach J, Craft D, Hong T, Papp D, Ramakrishnan J, Salari E, Wolfgang J, Bortfeld T. Exploiting tumor shrinkage through temporal optimization of radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Jun 21; 59(12):3059-79. PMID: 24839901.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  57. Frey K, Bauer J, Unholtz D, Kurz C, Krämer M, Bortfeld T, Parodi K. TPS(PET)-A TPS-based approach for in vivo dose verification with PET in proton therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Jan 06; 59(1):1-21. PMID: 24323977.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  58. Grogg K, Zhu X, Min CH, Winey B, Bortfeld T, Paganetti H, Shih HA, El Fakhri G. Feasibility of Using Distal Endpoints for In-room PET Range Verification of Proton Therapy. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2013 Oct; 60(5):3290-3297. PMID: 24464031.
    Citations: 2     
  59. Verburg JM, Riley K, Bortfeld T, Seco J. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification. Phys Med Biol. 2013 Oct 21; 58(20):L37-49. PMID: 24077338.
    Citations: 13     Fields:    
  60. Safai S, Trofimov A, Adams JA, Engelsman M, Bortfeld T. The rationale for intensity-modulated proton therapy in geometrically challenging cases. Phys Med Biol. 2013 Sep 21; 58(18):6337-53. PMID: 23965339.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  61. Bortfeld T, Marks LB. Hype cycle in radiation oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013 Aug 01; 86(5):819-21. PMID: 23845838.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    
  62. Chen W, Craft D, Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T. TH-A-116-06: Near-Global Beam Angle Optimization for Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy. Med Phys. 2013 Jun; 40(6Part32):530. PMID: 28517888.
    Citations:    
  63. Flanz J, Bortfeld T. Evolution of technology to optimize the delivery of proton therapy: the third generation. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2013 Apr; 23(2):142-8. PMID: 23473692.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  64. Brada M, Bortfeld T. Proton therapy: the present and the future. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2013 Apr; 23(2):75-6. PMID: 23473683.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  65. Yuan Y, Andronesi OC, Bortfeld TR, Richter C, Wolf R, Guimaraes AR, Hong TS, Seco J. Feasibility study of in vivo MRI based dosimetric verification of proton end-of-range for liver cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2013 Mar; 106(3):378-82. PMID: 23473960.
    Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  66. Min CH, Zhu X, Winey BA, Grogg K, Testa M, El Fakhri G, Bortfeld TR, Paganetti H, Shih HA. Clinical application of in-room positron emission tomography for in vivo treatment monitoring in proton radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013 May 01; 86(1):183-9. PMID: 23391817.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  67. Unkelbach J, Craft D, Salari E, Ramakrishnan J, Bortfeld T. The dependence of optimal fractionation schemes on the spatial dose distribution. Phys Med Biol. 2013 Jan 07; 58(1):159-67. PMID: 23221166.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  68. Wolf R, Bortfeld T. An analytical solution to proton Bragg peak deflection in a magnetic field. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Sep 07; 57(17):N329-37. PMID: 22892827.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    
  69. Ramakrishnan J, Craft D, Bortfeld T, Tsitsiklis JN. A dynamic programming approach to adaptive fractionation. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Mar 07; 57(5):1203-16. PMID: 22330328.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  70. Craft D, McQuaid D, Wala J, Chen W, Salari E, Bortfeld T. Multicriteria VMAT optimization. Med Phys. 2012 Feb; 39(2):686-96. PMID: 22320778.
    Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  71. Chen W, Unkelbach J, Trofimov A, Madden T, Kooy H, Bortfeld T, Craft D. Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Feb 07; 57(3):591-608. PMID: 22222720.
    Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  72. Remmele S, Hesser J, Paganetti H, Bortfeld T. A deconvolution approach for PET-based dose reconstruction in proton radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Dec 07; 56(23):7601-19. PMID: 22086216.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  73. McQuaid D, Bortfeld T. 4D planning over the full course of fractionation: assessment of the benefit of tumor trailing. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Nov 07; 56(21):6935-49. PMID: 22008696.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  74. Trofimov A, Unkelbach J, DeLaney TF, Bortfeld T. Visualization of a variety of possible dosimetric outcomes in radiation therapy using dose-volume histogram bands. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2012 Jul-Sep; 2(3):164-171. PMID: 22773939.
    Citations: 17     Fields:    
  75. Attanasi F, Knopf A, Parodi K, Paganetti H, Bortfeld T, Rosso V, Del Guerra A. Extension and validation of an analytical model for in vivo PET verification of proton therapy--a phantom and clinical study. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Aug 21; 56(16):5079-98. PMID: 21775794.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  76. Zhu X, España S, Daartz J, Liebsch N, Ouyang J, Paganetti H, Bortfeld TR, El Fakhri G. Monitoring proton radiation therapy with in-room PET imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Jul 07; 56(13):4041-57. PMID: 21677366.
    Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  77. Bortfeld T, Jeraj R. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy. Br J Radiol. 2011 Jun; 84(1002):485-98. PMID: 21606068; PMCID: PMC3473639.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  78. Mohan R, Bortfeld T. Proton therapy: clinical gains through current and future treatment programs. Front Radiat Ther Oncol. 2011; 43:440-464. PMID: 21625168.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  79. España S, Zhu X, Daartz J, El Fakhri G, Bortfeld T, Paganetti H. The reliability of proton-nuclear interaction cross-section data to predict proton-induced PET images in proton therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2011 May 07; 56(9):2687-98. PMID: 21464534.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  80. Craft DL, Hong TS, Shih HA, Bortfeld TR. Improved planning time and plan quality through multicriteria optimization for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Jan 01; 82(1):e83-90. PMID: 21300448.
    Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  81. Nohadani O, Seco J, Bortfeld T. Motion management with phase-adapted 4D-optimization. Phys Med Biol. 2010 Sep 07; 55(17):5189-202. PMID: 20714043.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  82. Knopf AC, Parodi K, Paganetti H, Bortfeld T, Daartz J, Engelsman M, Liebsch N, Shih H. Accuracy of proton beam range verification using post-treatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography as function of treatment site. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Jan 01; 79(1):297-304. PMID: 20646839.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  83. Gensheimer MF, Yock TI, Liebsch NJ, Sharp GC, Paganetti H, Madan N, Grant PE, Bortfeld T. In vivo proton beam range verification using spine MRI changes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Sep 01; 78(1):268-75. PMID: 20472369.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  84. Bortfeld T. The number of beams in IMRT--theoretical investigations and implications for single-arc IMRT. Phys Med Biol. 2010 Jan 07; 55(1):83-97. PMID: 19949256.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    
  85. Chan TC, Tsitsiklis JN, Bortfeld T. Optimal margin and edge-enhanced intensity maps in the presence of motion and uncertainty. Phys Med Biol. 2010 Jan 21; 55(2):515-33. PMID: 20023327.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  86. Knopf A, Parodi K, Bortfeld T, Shih HA, Paganetti H. Systematic analysis of biological and physical limitations of proton beam range verification with offline PET/CT scans. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Jul 21; 54(14):4477-95. PMID: 19556685.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    
  87. Spalke T, Craft D, Bortfeld T. Analyzing the main trade-offs in multiobjective radiation therapy treatment planning databases. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Jun 21; 54(12):3741-54. PMID: 19478382.
    Citations: 9     Fields:    
  88. Nohadani O, Seco J, Martin BC, Bortfeld T. Dosimetry robustness with stochastic optimization. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Jun 07; 54(11):3421-32. PMID: 19436100.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  89. Vrancic C, Trofimov A, Chan TC, Sharp GC, Bortfeld T. Experimental evaluation of a robust optimization method for IMRT of moving targets. Phys Med Biol. 2009 May 07; 54(9):2901-14. PMID: 19384003.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  90. Unkelbach J, Bortfeld T, Martin BC, Soukup M. Reducing the sensitivity of IMPT treatment plans to setup errors and range uncertainties via probabilistic treatment planning. Med Phys. 2009 Jan; 36(1):149-63. PMID: 19235384.
    Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  91. Bortfeld T, Webb S. Single-Arc IMRT? Phys Med Biol. 2009 Jan 07; 54(1):N9-20. PMID: 19075362.
    Citations: 55     Fields:    
  92. Hong TS, Craft DL, Carlsson F, Bortfeld TR. Multicriteria optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning for locally advanced cancer of the pancreatic head. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Nov 15; 72(4):1208-14. PMID: 18954714; PMCID: PMC2614315.
    Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  93. Orton CG, Bortfeld TR, Niemierko A, Unkelbach J. The role of medical physicists and the AAPM in the development of treatment planning and optimization. Med Phys. 2008 Nov; 35(11):4911-23. PMID: 19070225.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  94. Webb S, Bortfeld T. A new way of adapting IMRT delivery fraction-by-fraction to cater for variable intrafraction motion. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Sep 21; 53(18):5177-91. PMID: 18728307.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
  95. Knopf A, Parodi K, Paganetti H, Cascio E, Bonab A, Bortfeld T. Quantitative assessment of the physical potential of proton beam range verification with PET/CT. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Aug 07; 53(15):4137-51. PMID: 18635897.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    
  96. Parodi K, Bortfeld T, Haberer T. Comparison between in-beam and offline positron emission tomography imaging of proton and carbon ion therapeutic irradiation at synchrotron- and cyclotron-based facilities. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Jul 01; 71(3):945-56. PMID: 18514787.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  97. Trofimov A, Vrancic C, Chan TC, Sharp GC, Bortfeld T. Tumor trailing strategy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of moving targets. Med Phys. 2008 May; 35(5):1718-33. PMID: 18561647.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  98. Craft D, Bortfeld T. How many plans are needed in an IMRT multi-objective plan database? Phys Med Biol. 2008 Jun 07; 53(11):2785-96. PMID: 18451463.
    Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  99. Bortfeld T, Craft D, Dempsey JF, Halabi T, Romeijn HE. Evaluating target cold spots by the use of tail EUDs. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Jul 01; 71(3):880-9. PMID: 18440728.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  100. Safai S, Bortfeld T, Engelsman M. Comparison between the lateral penumbra of a collimated double-scattered beam and uncollimated scanning beam in proton radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Mar 21; 53(6):1729-50. PMID: 18367800.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    
  101. MacDonald SM, Safai S, Trofimov A, Wolfgang J, Fullerton B, Yeap BY, Bortfeld T, Tarbell NJ, Yock T. Proton radiotherapy for childhood ependymoma: initial clinical outcomes and dose comparisons. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Jul 15; 71(4):979-86. PMID: 18325681.
    Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  102. Monz M, Küfer KH, Bortfeld TR, Thieke C. Pareto navigation: algorithmic foundation of interactive multi-criteria IMRT planning. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Feb 21; 53(4):985-98. PMID: 18263953.
    Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  103. Bortfeld T, Chan TCY, Trofimov A, Tsitsiklis JN. Robust Management of Motion Uncertainty in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy. Operations Research. 2008; 56(6):1461-1473. View Publication.
  104. Martin BC, Bortfeld TR, Castañon DA. Accelerating IMRT optimization by voxel sampling. Phys Med Biol. 2007 Dec 21; 52(24):7211-28. PMID: 18065835.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  105. Craft D, Halabi T, Shih HA, Bortfeld T. An approach for practical multiobjective IMRT treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Dec 01; 69(5):1600-7. PMID: 17920782.
    Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  106. Thieke C, Küfer KH, Monz M, Scherrer A, Alonso F, Oelfke U, Huber PE, Debus J, Bortfeld T. A new concept for interactive radiotherapy planning with multicriteria optimization: first clinical evaluation. Radiother Oncol. 2007 Nov; 85(2):292-8. PMID: 17892901.
    Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  107. Parodi K, Paganetti H, Shih HA, Michaud S, Loeffler JS, DeLaney TF, Liebsch NJ, Munzenrider JE, Fischman AJ, Knopf A, Bortfeld T. Patient study of in vivo verification of beam delivery and range, using positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging after proton therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Jul 01; 68(3):920-34. PMID: 17544003; PMCID: PMC2047826.
    Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  108. Trofimov A, Nguyen PL, Coen JJ, Doppke KP, Schneider RJ, Adams JA, Bortfeld TR, Zietman AL, Delaney TF, Shipley WU. Radiotherapy treatment of early-stage prostate cancer with IMRT and protons: a treatment planning comparison. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Oct 01; 69(2):444-53. PMID: 17513063; PMCID: PMC2695934.
    Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  109. Unkelbach J, Chan TC, Bortfeld T. Accounting for range uncertainties in the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2007 May 21; 52(10):2755-73. PMID: 17473350.
    Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  110. Craft D, Süss P, Bortfeld T. The tradeoff between treatment plan quality and required number of monitor units in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Apr 01; 67(5):1596-605. PMID: 17394954.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    
  111. Seco J, Sharp GC, Turcotte J, Gierga D, Bortfeld T, Paganetti H. Effects of organ motion on IMRT treatments with segments of few monitor units. Med Phys. 2007 Mar; 34(3):923-34. PMID: 17441238.
    Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  112. Parodi K, Paganetti H, Cascio E, Flanz JB, Bonab AA, Alpert NM, Lohmann K, Bortfeld T. PET/CT imaging for treatment verification after proton therapy: a study with plastic phantoms and metallic implants. Med Phys. 2007 Feb; 34(2):419-35. PMID: 17388158.
    Citations: 22     Fields:    
  113. Paganetti H, Bortfeld T, Delaney TF. Neutron dose in proton radiation therapy: in regard to Eric J. Hall (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;65:1-7). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Dec 01; 66(5):1594-5; author reply 1595. PMID: 17126219.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  114. Craft DL, Halabi TF, Shih HA, Bortfeld TR. Approximating convex pareto surfaces in multiobjective radiotherapy planning. Med Phys. 2006 Sep; 33(9):3399-407. PMID: 17022236.
    Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  115. Halabi T, Craft D, Bortfeld T. Dose-volume objectives in multi-criteria optimization. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Aug 07; 51(15):3809-18. PMID: 16861782.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  116. Bortfeld T, Paganetti H. The biologic relevance of daily dose variations in adaptive treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Jul 01; 65(3):899-906. PMID: 16751072.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    
  117. Bortfeld T. IMRT: a review and preview. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Jul 07; 51(13):R363-79. PMID: 16790913.
    Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  118. Chan TC, Bortfeld T, Tsitsiklis JN. A robust approach to IMRT optimization. Phys Med Biol. 2006 May 21; 51(10):2567-83. PMID: 16675870.
    Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  119. Censor Y, Bortfeld T, Martin B, Trofimov A. A unified approach for inversion problems in intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2006 May 21; 51(10):2353-65. PMID: 16675857.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:PHPublic Health
  120. Parodi K, Bortfeld T. A filtering approach based on Gaussian-powerlaw convolutions for local PET verification of proton radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Apr 21; 51(8):1991-2009. PMID: 16585841.
    Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  121. Jiang SB, Sharp GC, Neicu T, Berbeco RI, Flampouri S, Bortfeld T. On dose distribution comparison. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Feb 21; 51(4):759-76. PMID: 16467577.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:PHPublic Health
  122. Craft D, Halabi T, Bortfeld T. Exploration of tradeoffs in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2005 Dec 21; 50(24):5857-68. PMID: 16333160.
    Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  123. Nioutsikou E, Webb S, Panakis N, Bortfeld T, Oelfke U. Reconsidering the definition of a dose-volume histogram. Phys Med Biol. 2005 Jun 07; 50(11):L17-19. PMID: 16052748.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  124. Trofimov A, Rietzel E, Lu HM, Martin B, Jiang S, Chen GT, Bortfeld T. Temporo-spatial IMRT optimization: concepts, implementation and initial results. Phys Med Biol. 2005 Jun 21; 50(12):2779-98. PMID: 15930602.
    Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  125. Scherrer A, Küfer KH, Bortfeld T, Monz M, Alonso F. IMRT planning on adaptive volume structures--a decisive reduction in computational complexity. Phys Med Biol. 2005 May 07; 50(9):2033-53. PMID: 15843735.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  126. Engelsman M, Sharp GC, Bortfeld T, Onimaru R, Shirato H. How much margin reduction is possible through gating or breath hold? Phys Med Biol. 2005 Feb 07; 50(3):477-90. PMID: 15773724.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  127. Censor Y, Elfving T, Kopf N, Bortfeld T. The multiple-sets split feasibility problem and its applications for inverse problems. Inverse Problems. 2005; 21(6):2071-2084. View Publication.
  128. Bortfeld T. Very high energy electromagnetically-scanned electron beams are an attractive alternative to photon IMRT. Against the proposition. Med Phys. 2004 Jul; 31(7):1946-8. PMID: 15305444.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  129. Pavel-Mititean LM, Rowbottom CG, Hector CL, Partridge M, Bortfeld T, Schlegel W. A geometric model for evaluating the effects of inter-fraction rectal motion during prostate radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2004 Jun 21; 49(12):2613-29. PMID: 15272677.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
  130. Weber DC, Trofimov AV, Delaney TF, Bortfeld T. A treatment planning comparison of intensity modulated photon and proton therapy for paraspinal sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Apr 01; 58(5):1596-606. PMID: 15050341.
    Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  131. Bortfeld T, Jiang SB, Rietzel E. Effects of motion on the total dose distribution. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2004 Jan; 14(1):41-51. PMID: 14752732.
    Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  132. Nill S, Bortfeld T, Oelfke U. Inverse planning of intensity modulated proton therapy. Z Med Phys. 2004; 14(1):35-40. PMID: 15104008.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  133. Trofimov A, Bortfeld T. Optimization of beam parameters and treatment planning for intensity modulated proton therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Oct; 2(5):437-44. PMID: 14529308.
    Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  134. Scholz C, Schulze C, Oelfke U, Bortfeld T. Development and clinical application of a fast superposition algorithm in radiation therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2003 Oct; 69(1):79-90. PMID: 14597360.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  135. Oelfke U, Bortfeld T. Optimization of physical dose distributions with hadron beams: comparing photon IMRT with IMPT. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Oct; 2(5):401-12. PMID: 14529305.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  136. Kooy HM, Schaefer M, Rosenthal S, Bortfeld T. Monitor unit calculations for range-modulated spread-out Bragg peak fields. Phys Med Biol. 2003 Sep 07; 48(17):2797-808. PMID: 14516102.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  137. Thieke C, Bortfeld T, Niemierko A, Nill S. From physical dose constraints to equivalent uniform dose constraints in inverse radiotherapy planning. Med Phys. 2003 Sep; 30(9):2332-9. PMID: 14528955.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  138. Jiang SB, Pope C, Al Jarrah KM, Kung JH, Bortfeld T, Chen GT. An experimental investigation on intra-fractional organ motion effects in lung IMRT treatments. Phys Med Biol. 2003 Jun 21; 48(12):1773-84. PMID: 12870582.
    Citations: