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Last Name

profileSengwee Darren Toh, D.S.

TitleAssociate Professor of Population Medicine
DepartmentPopulation Medicine
AddressHarvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute
Landmark Center
401 Park Dr
Boston MA 02215
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Other Positions
TitleAssociate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology
InstitutionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

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Darren Toh, ScD is an Associate Professor in the Department of Population Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute. He is a pharmacist and pharmacoepidemiologist with an interest in comparative safety and effectiveness research of medical products. His research has been focused on 1) assessing the risks and benefits of therapeutics, especially in vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, and 2) developing and applying privacy-preserving analytic methods to conduct studies in distributed data networks. Darren is currently the CDER Portfolio Lead in the Mini-Sentinel program ( He received his doctoral degree in Epidemiology from the Harvard School of Public Health.

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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Zhou M, Wang SV, Leonard CE, Gagne JJ, Fuller C, Hampp C, Archdeacon P, Toh S, Iyer A, Woodworth TS, Cavagnaro E, Panozzo CA, Axtman S, Carnahan RM, Chrischilles EA, Hennessy S. Sentinel Modular Program for Propensity-Score Matched Cohort Analyses: Application to Glyburide, Glipizide, and Serious Hypoglycemia. Epidemiology. 2017 Jul 04. PMID: 28682851.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Taylor LG, Bird ST, Sahin L, Tassinari MS, Greene P, Reichman ME, Andrade SE, Haffenreffer K, Toh S. Antiemetic use among pregnant women in the United States: the escalating use of ondansetron. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 May; 26(5):592-596. PMID: 28220993.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Gruber S, Chakravarty A, Heckbert SR, Levenson M, Martin D, Nelson JC, Psaty BM, Pinheiro S, Reich CG, Toh S, Walker AM. Design and analysis choices for safety surveillance evaluations need to be tuned to the specifics of the hypothesized drug-outcome association. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016 Sep; 25(9):973-81. PMID: 27418432.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Andrade SE, Reichman ME, Mott K, Pitts M, Kieswetter C, Dinatale M, Stone MB, Popovic J, Haffenreffer K, Toh S. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in women delivering liveborn infants and other women of child-bearing age within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016 Dec; 19(6):969-977. PMID: 27178125.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Mott K, Graham DJ, Toh S, Gagne JJ, Levenson M, Ma Y, Reichman ME. Uptake of new drugs in the early post-approval period in the Mini-Sentinel distributed database. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016 Sep; 25(9):1023-32. PMID: 27146123.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Toh S, Hampp C, Reichman ME, Graham DJ, Balakrishnan S, Pucino F, Hamilton J, Lendle S, Iyer A, Rucker M, Pimentel M, Nathwani N, Griffin MR, Brown NJ, Fireman BH. Risk for Hospitalized Heart Failure Among New Users of Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin, and Other Antihyperglycemic Drugs: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Jun 07; 164(11):705-14. PMID: 27110660.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Andrade SE, Toh S, Houstoun M, Mott K, Pitts M, Kieswetter C, Ceresa C, Haffenreffer K, Reichman ME. Surveillance of Medication Use During Pregnancy in the Mini-Sentinel Program. Matern Child Health J. 2016 Apr; 20(4):895-903. PMID: 26645616.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Butler MG, Zhou EH, Zhang F, Wu YT, Wu AC, Levenson MS, Wu P, Seymour S, Toh S, Iyer A, Iyasu S, Baker MA. Changing patterns of asthma medication use related to US Food and Drug Administration long-acting ß2-agonist regulation from 2005-2011. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Mar; 137(3):710-7. PMID: 26725997.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Hansen C, Andrade SE, Freiman H, Dublin S, Haffenreffer K, Cooper WO, Cheetham TC, Toh S, Li DK, Raebel MA, Kuntz JL, Perrin N, Rosales AG, Carter S, Pawloski PA, Maloney EM, Graham DJ, Sahin L, Scott PE, Yap J, Davis R. Trimethoprim-sulfonamide use during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of congenital anomalies. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016 Feb; 25(2):170-8. PMID: 26599424; PMCID: PMC4772767 [Available on 02/01/17].
  10. Cameron C, Fireman B, Hutton B, Clifford T, Coyle D, Wells G, Dormuth CR, Platt R, Toh S. Network meta-analysis incorporating randomized controlled trials and non-randomized comparative cohort studies for assessing the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments: challenges and opportunities. Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 05; 4:147. PMID: 26537988; PMCID: PMC4634799.
  11. Arterburn D, Powers JD, Toh S, Polsky S, Butler MG, Portz JD, Donahoo WT, Herrinton L, Williams RJ, Vijayadeva V, Fisher D, Bayliss EA. Comparative effectiveness of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding vs laparoscopic gastric bypass. JAMA Surg. 2014 Dec; 149(12):1279-87. PMID: 25353723.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Dublin S, Johnson KE, Walker RL, Avalos LA, Andrade SE, Beaton SJ, Davis RL, Herrinton LJ, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Toh S, Caughey AB. Trends in elective labor induction for six United States health plans, 2001-2007. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Nov; 23(11):904-11. PMID: 25330378; PMCID: PMC4235981.
  13. Bell C, Chakravarty A, Gruber S, Heckbert SR, Levenson M, Martin D, Nelson JC, Pinheiro S, Psaty BM, Reich CG, Schneeweiss S, Shoaibi A, Toh S, Walker AM. Characteristics of study design and elements that may contribute to the success of electronic safety monitoring systems. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Nov; 23(11):1223-5. PMID: 25263307.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Garabedian LF, Chu P, Toh S, Zaslavsky AM, Soumerai SB. Potential bias of instrumental variable analyses for observational comparative effectiveness research. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jul 15; 161(2):131-8. PMID: 25023252.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Toh S, Shetterly S, Powers JD, Arterburn D. Privacy-preserving analytic methods for multisite comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research. Med Care. 2014 Jul; 52(7):664-8. PMID: 24926715.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Raebel MA, Newcomer SR, Bayliss EA, Boudreau D, DeBar L, Elliott TE, Ahmed AT, Pawloski PA, Fisher D, Toh S, Donahoo WT. Chronic opioid use emerging after bariatric surgery. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Dec; 23(12):1247-57. PMID: 24733580.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Bussing R, Narwaney KJ, Winterstein AG, Newton DA, DeBar L, Boscarino JA, Toh S, Pawloski P, Nordin JD, Herrinton LJ, Mason D, Daley MF. Pharmacotherapy for incident attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: practice patterns and quality metrics. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014 Aug; 30(8):1687-99. PMID: 24635013.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Toh S, Avorn J, D'Agostino RB, Gurwitz JH, Psaty BM, Rothman KJ, Saag KG, Sturkenboom MC, Vandenbroucke JP, Winterstein AG, Strom BL. RE: Drug risk assessment and data reuse. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Jan; 23(1):109-10. PMID: 24395550.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Briesacher BA, Soumerai SB, Zhang F, Toh S, Andrade SE, Wagner JL, Shoaibi A, Gurwitz JH. Response to the letter by Mol. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Jan; 23(1):106. PMID: 24395548.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Avalos LA, Chen H, Yang C, Andrade SE, Cooper WO, Cheetham CT, Davis RL, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Kaplan S, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Scott PE, Smith DH, Toh S, Li DK. The prevalence and trends of antiviral medication use during pregnancy in the US: a population-based study of 664,297 deliveries in 2001-2007. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Jan; 18(1):64-72. PMID: 23420306; PMCID: PMC3776000.
  21. Daley MF, Newton DA, DeBar L, Newcomer SR, Pieper L, Boscarino JA, Toh S, Pawloski P, Nordin JD, Nakasato C, Herrinton LJ, Bussing R. Accuracy of Electronic Health Record-Derived Data for the Identification of Incident ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2017 Mar; 21(5):416-425. PMID: 24510475.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Toh S, Manson JE. An analytic framework for aligning observational and randomized trial data: Application to postmenopausal hormone therapy and coronary heart disease. Stat Biosci. 2013 Nov 01; 5(2). PMID: 24244222.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Toh S, Platt R. Big data in epidemiology: too big to fail? Epidemiology. 2013 Nov; 24(6):939. PMID: 24077001.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Hansen C, Joski P, Freiman H, Andrade S, Toh S, Dublin S, Cheetham C, Cooper W, Pawloski P, Li DK, Beaton S, Kaplan S, Scott P, Hammad T, Davis R. Medication exposure in pregnancy risk evaluation program: the prevalence of asthma medication use during pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2013 Nov; 17(9):1611-21. PMID: 23108737; PMCID: PMC3797257.
  25. Kim SC, Gillet VG, Feldman S, Lii H, Toh S, Brown JS, Katz JN, Solomon DH, Schneeweiss S. Validation of claims-based algorithms for identification of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Nov; 22(11):1239-44. PMID: 24027140; PMCID: PMC3855630.
  26. Toh S, Avorn J, D'Agostino RB, Gurwitz JH, Psaty BM, Rothman KJ, Saag KG, Sturkenboom MC, Vandenbroucke JP, Winterstein AG, Strom BL. Re-using Mini-Sentinel data following rapid assessments of potential safety signals via modular analytic programs. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Oct; 22(10):1036-45. PMID: 23922322.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Brown JS, Kahn M, Toh S. Data quality assessment for comparative effectiveness research in distributed data networks. Med Care. 2013 Aug; 51(8 Suppl 3):S22-9. PMID: 23793049; PMCID: PMC4306391.
  28. Toh S, Gagne JJ, Rassen JA, Fireman BH, Kulldorff M, Brown JS. Confounding adjustment in comparative effectiveness research conducted within distributed research networks. Med Care. 2013 Aug; 51(8 Suppl 3):S4-10. PMID: 23752258.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Toh S, Reichman ME, Houstoun M, Ding X, Fireman BH, Gravel E, Levenson M, Li L, Moyneur E, Shoaibi A, Zornberg G, Hennessy S. Multivariable confounding adjustment in distributed data networks without sharing of patient-level data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Nov; 22(11):1171-7. PMID: 23878013.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Briesacher BA, Soumerai SB, Zhang F, Toh S, Andrade SE, Wagner JL, Shoaibi A, Gurwitz JH. A critical review of methods to evaluate the impact of FDA regulatory actions. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Sep; 22(9):986-94. PMID: 23847020; PMCID: PMC3825208.
  31. Lo Re V, Haynes K, Goldberg D, Forde KA, Carbonari DM, Leidl KB, Hennessy S, Reddy KR, Pawloski PA, Daniel GW, Cheetham TC, Iyer A, Coughlin KO, Toh S, Boudreau DM, Selvam N, Cooper WO, Selvan MS, VanWormer JJ, Avigan MI, Houstoun M, Zornberg GL, Racoosin JA, Shoaibi A. Validity of diagnostic codes to identify cases of severe acute liver injury in the US Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Aug; 22(8):861-72. PMID: 23801638; PMCID: PMC4409951.
  32. Toh S, Baker MA, Brown JS, Kornegay C, Platt R. Rapid assessment of cardiovascular risk among users of smoking cessation drugs within the US Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 13; 173(9):817-9. PMID: 23529063.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Toh S, Platt R. Is size the next big thing in epidemiology? Epidemiology. 2013 May; 24(3):349-51. PMID: 23549179.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Johnson KE, Beaton SJ, Andrade SE, Cheetham TC, Scott PE, Hammad TA, Dashevsky I, Cooper WO, Davis RL, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Toh S, Li DK, Haffenreffer K, Dublin S. Methods of linking mothers and infants using health plan data for studies of pregnancy outcomes. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Jul; 22(7):776-82. PMID: 23596095; PMCID: PMC3707923.
  35. Toh S, Li Q, Cheetham TC, Cooper WO, Davis RL, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Li DK, Pawloski PA, Pinheiro SP, Raebel MA, Scott PE, Smith DH, Bobo WV, Lawrence JM, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Avalos LA, Andrade SE. Prevalence and trends in the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy in the U.S., 2001-2007: a population-based study of 585,615 deliveries. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013 Apr; 16(2):149-57. PMID: 23389622; PMCID: PMC3715880.
  36. Li Q, Andrade SE, Cooper WO, Davis RL, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Pawloski PA, Pinheiro SP, Raebel MA, Scott PE, Smith DH, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Johnson KE, Toh S. Validation of an algorithm to estimate gestational age in electronic health plan databases. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 May; 22(5):524-32. PMID: 23335117; PMCID: PMC3644383.
  37. Lawrence JM, Andrade SE, Avalos LA, Beaton SJ, Chiu VY, Davis RL, Dublin S, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Toh S, Wang JQ, Kaplan S, Amini T, Hampp C, Hammad TA, Scott PE, Cheetham TC. Prevalence, trends, and patterns of use of antidiabetic medications among pregnant women, 2001-2007. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan; 121(1):106-14. PMID: 23262934; PMCID: PMC3811068.
  38. Toh S, Reichman ME, Houstoun M, Ross Southworth M, Ding X, Hernandez AF, Levenson M, Li L, McCloskey C, Shoaibi A, Wu E, Zornberg G, Hennessy S. Comparative risk for angioedema associated with the use of drugs that target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Nov 12; 172(20):1582-9. PMID: 23147456.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Bobo WV, Davis RL, Toh S, Li DK, Andrade SE, Cheetham TC, Pawloski P, Dublin S, Pinheiro S, Hammad T, Scott PE, Epstein RA, Arbogast PG, Morrow JA, Dudley JA, Lawrence JM, Avalos LA, Cooper WO. Trends in the use of antiepileptic drugs among pregnant women in the US, 2001-2007: a medication exposure in pregnancy risk evaluation program study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 Nov; 26(6):578-88. PMID: 23061694; PMCID: PMC3481178.
  40. Andrade SE, Davis RL, Cheetham TC, Cooper WO, Li DK, Amini T, Beaton SJ, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Staffa JA, Toh S, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Lane K, Platt R, Scott PE. Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Matern Child Health J. 2012 Oct; 16(7):1349-54. PMID: 22002179; PMCID: PMC3361624.
  41. Andrade SE, Scott PE, Davis RL, Li DK, Getahun D, Cheetham TC, Raebel MA, Toh S, Dublin S, Pawloski PA, Hammad TA, Beaton SJ, Smith DH, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Cooper WO. Validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Jan; 22(1):7-15. PMID: 22753079; PMCID: PMC3492503.
  42. Cutrona SL, Toh S, Iyer A, Foy S, Daniel GW, Nair VP, Ng D, Butler MG, Boudreau D, Forrow S, Goldberg R, Gore J, McManus D, Racoosin JA, Gurwitz JH. Validation of acute myocardial infarction in the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Jan; 22(1):40-54. PMID: 22745038; PMCID: PMC3601831.
  43. Toh S, García Rodríguez LA, Hernán MA. Analyzing partially missing confounder information in comparative effectiveness and safety research of therapeutics. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 May; 21 Suppl 2:13-20. PMID: 22552975; PMCID: PMC3727636.
  44. Toh S, Li L, Harrold LR, Bayliss EA, Curtis JR, Liu L, Chen L, Grijalva CG, Herrinton LJ. Comparative safety of infliximab and etanercept on the risk of serious infections: does the association vary by patient characteristics? Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 May; 21(5):524-34. PMID: 22411435; PMCID: PMC3330193.
  45. Fireman B, Toh S, Butler MG, Go AS, Joffe HV, Graham DJ, Nelson JC, Daniel GW, Selby JV. A protocol for active surveillance of acute myocardial infarction in association with the use of a new antidiabetic pharmaceutical agent. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 Jan; 21 Suppl 1:282-90. PMID: 22262618.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Platt R, Carnahan RM, Brown JS, Chrischilles E, Curtis LH, Hennessy S, Nelson JC, Racoosin JA, Robb M, Schneeweiss S, Toh S, Weiner MG. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program: status and direction. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 Jan; 21 Suppl 1:1-8. PMID: 22262586.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Gagne JJ, Fireman B, Ryan PB, Maclure M, Gerhard T, Toh S, Rassen JA, Nelson JC, Schneeweiss S. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 Jan; 21 Suppl 1:32-40. PMID: 22262591.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Cutrona SL, Toh S, Iyer A, Foy S, Cavagnaro E, Forrow S, Racoosin JA, Goldberg R, Gurwitz JH. Design for validation of acute myocardial infarction cases in Mini-Sentinel. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 Jan; 21 Suppl 1:274-81. PMID: 22262617; PMCID: PMC3679667.
  49. Toh S, Platt R, Steiner JF, Brown JS. Comparative-effectiveness research in distributed health data networks. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Dec; 90(6):883-7. PMID: 22030567.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Andrade SE, Moore Simas TA, Boudreau D, Raebel MA, Toh S, Syat B, Dashevsky I, Platt R. Validation of algorithms to ascertain clinical conditions and medical procedures used during pregnancy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Nov; 20(11):1168-76. PMID: 22020902.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Chen SY, Toh S. National trends in prescribing antidepressants before and after an FDA advisory on suicidality risk in youths. Psychiatr Serv. 2011 Jul; 62(7):727-33. PMID: 21724784.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Toh S, García Rodríguez LA, Hernán MA. Confounding adjustment via a semi-automated high-dimensional propensity score algorithm: an application to electronic medical records. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Aug; 20(8):849-57. PMID: 21717528; PMCID: PMC3222935.
  53. Chang CH, Toh S, Lin JW, Chen ST, Kuo CW, Chuang LM, Lai MS. Cancer risk associated with insulin glargine among adult type 2 diabetes patients--a nationwide cohort study. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21368. PMID: 21738645; PMCID: PMC3124499.
  54. Toh S, Mitchell AA, Anderka M, de Jong-van den Berg LT, Hernández-Díaz S. Antibiotics and oral contraceptive failure - a case-crossover study. Contraception. 2011 May; 83(5):418-25. PMID: 21477683; PMCID: PMC3326585.
  55. Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S, Logan R, Robins JM, Hernán MA. Estimating absolute risks in the presence of nonadherence: an application to a follow-up study with baseline randomization. Epidemiology. 2010 Jul; 21(4):528-39. PMID: 20526200; PMCID: PMC3315056.
  56. Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S, Logan R, Rossouw JE, Hernán MA. Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Feb 16; 152(4):211-7. PMID: 20157135; PMCID: PMC2936769.
  57. Toh S, Mitchell AA, Louik C, Werler MM, Chambers CD, Hernández-Díaz S. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and fetal growth restriction. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Dec; 29(6):555-60. PMID: 19910720; PMCID: PMC3206605.
  58. Hernández-Díaz S, Toh S, Cnattingius S. Risk of pre-eclampsia in first and subsequent pregnancies: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jun 18; 338:b2255. PMID: 19541696; PMCID: PMC3269902.
  59. Toh S, Mitchell AA, Louik C, Werler MM, Chambers CD, Hernández-Díaz S. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and risk of gestational hypertension. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Mar; 166(3):320-8. PMID: 19122006; PMCID: PMC2735348.
  60. Toh S, Hernán MA. Causal inference from longitudinal studies with baseline randomization. Int J Biostat. 2008 Oct 19; 4(1):Article 22. PMID: 20231914.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Toh S, Mitchell AA, Werler MM, Hernández-Díaz S. Sensitivity and specificity of computerized algorithms to classify gestational periods in the absence of information on date of conception. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Mar 15; 167(6):633-40. PMID: 18194999.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Toh S, Rodríguez LA, Hernández-Díaz S. Use of antidepressants and risk of lung cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Dec; 18(10):1055-64. PMID: 17682831.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S. Statins and fracture risk. A systematic review. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007 Jun; 16(6):627-40. PMID: 17286319.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Toh S. Datapoints: trends in ADHD and stimulant use among children, 1993-2003. Psychiatr Serv. 2006 Aug; 57(8):1091. PMID: 16870957.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Lin SJ, Lambert BL, Tan H, Toh S. Frequency estimates from prescription drug datasets. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2005; 15:512-520.
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