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Nancy Hiu Lan Leung

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The University of Hong Kong, Hong KongPhD11/2015Infectious diseases transmission
The University of Hong Kong, Hong KongMPhil11/2012Virus-host interaction
The University of Hong Kong, Hong KongBSc12/2009Biochemistry; German

Dr. Nancy Hiu Lan Leung is currently a Takemi Fellow in International Health at Harvard Chan School of Public Health, and Assistant Professor at School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong. Her research focuses on infectious disease epidemiology, with a long-term research goal of conducting impactful research on susceptibility to infectious diseases in particular respiratory virus infections. In recent years, Dr. Leung is designing large-scale longitudinal cohorts, vaccine trials and field studies on individual and population immunity, vaccine immunogenicity, disease burden and transmission of influenza viruses, coronaviruses and other respiratory viruses. Dr. Leung is a co-Chair for the World Health Organization (WHO) technical working group on COVID-19 airborne risk assessment, and a member of the WHO advisory group on the routes of transmission of respiratory pathogens. Dr. Leung has been featured as one of the “Five science stars making their mark in China” by Nature Index.

Dr. Leung has completed comprehensive research training in the epidemiology (PhD) and virology/immunology (MPhil) of human respiratory virus infections. Her postdoctoral research focuses on the epidemiology of human respiratory virus infections, understanding different modes of transmission, estimating disease burden in the community, evaluating individual immune responses after influenza virus infections or repeated vaccinations, and lately focusing on immune responses after COVID-19 vaccination and infection (h-index 15, citations 2,241, including 2 Highly Cited Papers and 1 Hot Paper in Field). During PhD, she designed a series of field studies on the aerosol transmission of influenza virus, coronaviruses and other respiratory viruses. Her MPhil focused on conducting wet-lab experiments at the virus-host interface to investigate the molecular mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of the SARS coronavirus. Dr. Leung has a strong interest in field epidemiology, in particular on designing and adopting electronic systems for data capture and quality control, specimen tracking and workflow monitoring to facilitate the management of large-scale community studies. She also teaches an introductory epidemiology course at the graduate level.

Dr. Leung has over 10 years of experience in both local and international interdisciplinary collaborative research, with epidemiological studies and collaborators locally in Hong Kong as well as in the US, UK and mainland China. She has received funding supports from major local and international grants including the Hong Kong Health and Medical Research Fund, Theme-based Research Scheme, the China Guangdong Natural Science Fund, the United States NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance/ Response (CEIRS/ CEIRR) network and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She is a reviewer for international academic journals across different disciplines such as JAMA, Nature Microbiology, Science Translational Medicine and Environmental Science & Technology; and research funding agencies including UK Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust.

The clinical trials listed below are automatically derived from ClinicalTrials.gov and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Yang B, Huang X, Gao H, Leung NH, Tsang TK, Cowling BJ. Immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose fractionation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2022 10 25; 20(1):409. PMID: 36284331; PMCID: PMC9595080.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  2. Jia JZ, Tan CW, Cheng SMS, Gu H, Yeoh AYY, Mok CKP, Wang Y, Zhao J, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ, Poon LLM, Hui DSC, Wang L, Peiris M, Valkenburg SA. Priming conditions shape breadth of neutralizing antibody responses to sarbecoviruses. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 21; 13(1):6285. PMID: 36271047; PMCID: PMC9586968.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  3. Xiong W, Tsang TK, Perera RAPM, Leung NHL, Fang VJ, Barr IG, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. Biphasic Waning of Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titers After Influenza Vaccination in Children. J Infect Dis. 2022 09 21; 226(6):1022-1026. PMID: 35380689.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  4. Cowling BJ, Cheng SMS, Martín-Sánchez M, Au NYM, Chan KCK, Li JKC, Fung LWC, Luk LLH, Tsang LCH, Ip DKM, Poon LLM, Leung GM, Peiris JSM, Leung NHL. Slow waning of antibodies following a third dose of BNT162b2 in adults who had previously received two doses of inactivated vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2022 Sep 15. PMID: 36108092; PMCID: PMC9494487.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  5. Tsang TK, Lam KT, Liu Y, Fang VJ, Mu X, Leung NHL, Peiris JSM, Leung GM, Cowling BJ, Tu W. Investigation of CD4 and CD8 T cell-mediated protection against influenza A virus in a cohort study. BMC Med. 2022 07 21; 20(1):230. PMID: 35858844.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  6. Cowling BJ, Wong IOL, Shiu EYC, Lai AYT, Cheng SMS, Chaothai S, Kwan KKH, Martín-Sánchez M, Poon LLM, Ip DKM, Leung GM, Leung NHL, Peiris JSM. Strength and durability of antibody responses to BNT162b2 and CoronaVac. Vaccine. 2022 07 30; 40(32):4312-4317. PMID: 35701327.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  7. Leung NHL, Cheng SMS, Martín-Sánchez M, Au NYM, Ng YY, Luk LLH, Chan KCK, Li JKC, Leung YWY, Tsang LCH, Chaothai S, Kwan KKH, Ip DKM, Poon LLM, Leung GM, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. Immunogenicity of a third dose of BNT162b2 to ancestral SARS-CoV-2 & Omicron variant in adults who received two doses of inactivated vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 08. PMID: 35675370; PMCID: PMC9384189.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
  8. Lin Y, Yang B, Cobey S, Lau EHY, Adam DC, Wong JY, Bond HS, Cheung JK, Ho F, Gao H, Ali ST, Leung NHL, Tsang TK, Wu P, Leung GM, Cowling BJ. Incorporating temporal distribution of population-level viral load enables real-time estimation of COVID-19 transmission. Nat Commun. 2022 03 03; 13(1):1155. PMID: 35241662.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  9. Ng E, Tay JRH, Leung NHL, Seneviratne CJ. Letter to the Editor, "Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Microorganisms in Dental Aerosols". J Dent Res. 2022 02; 101(2):236. PMID: 34928742.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  10. Xiao J, Bueno de Mesquita PJ, Leung NHL, Adenaiye O, Tai S, Frieman MB, Hong F, Chu DKW, Ip DKM, Cowling BJ, Milton DK. Viral RNA and Infectious Influenza Virus on Mobile Phones of Patients With Influenza in Hong Kong and the United States. J Infect Dis. 2021 Nov 22; 224(10):1730-1734. PMID: 34534320.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  11. Xiao C, Leung NHL, Cheng Y, Lei H, Ling S, Lin X, Tao R, Huang X, Guan W, Yang Z, Cowling BJ, Zanin M, Wong SS. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in Guangdong Province, China between March to June 2020. Pathogens. 2021 Nov 18; 10(11). PMID: 34832661.
    Citations: 1     
  12. Bull MB, Cohen CA, Leung NHL, Valkenburg SA. Universally Immune: How Infection Permissive Next Generation Influenza Vaccines May Affect Population Immunity and Viral Spread. Viruses. 2021 09 06; 13(9). PMID: 34578360.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
  13. Leung NHL. Transmissibility and transmission of respiratory viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 08; 19(8):528-545. PMID: 33753932.
    Citations: 114     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  14. Fong MW, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ, Wu P. Upper Respiratory Infections in Schools and Childcare Centers Reopening after COVID-19 Dismissals, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 05; 27(5):1525-1527. PMID: 33596168; PMCID: PMC8084506.
    Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  15. Li APY, Cohen CA, Leung NHL, Fang VJ, Gangappa S, Sambhara S, Levine MZ, Iuliano AD, Perera RAPM, Ip DKM, Peiris JSM, Thompson MG, Cowling BJ, Valkenburg SA. Immunogenicity of standard, high-dose, MF59-adjuvanted, and recombinant-HA seasonal influenza vaccination in older adults. NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Feb 16; 6(1):25. PMID: 33594050.
    Citations: 9     
  16. Cowling BJ, Perera RAPM, Valkenburg SA, Leung NHL, Iuliano AD, Tam YH, Wong JHF, Fang VJ, Li APY, So HC, Ip DKM, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Fry AM, Levine MZ, Gangappa S, Sambhara S, Barr IG, Skowronski DM, Peiris JSM, Thompson MG. Comparative Immunogenicity of Several Enhanced Influenza Vaccine Options for Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 10 23; 71(7):1704-1714. PMID: 31828291.
    Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  17. Cowling BJ, Thompson MG, Ng TWY, Fang VJ, Perera RAPM, Leung NHL, Chen Y, So HC, Ip DKM, Iuliano AD. Comparative Reactogenicity of Enhanced Influenza Vaccines in Older Adults. J Infect Dis. 2020 09 14; 222(8):1383-1391. PMID: 32407535.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  18. Fong MW, Leung NHL, Xiao J, Chu DKW, Cheng SMS, So HC, Li Y, Ip DKM, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ. Presence of Influenza Virus on Touch Surfaces in Kindergartens and Primary Schools. J Infect Dis. 2020 09 14; 222(8):1329-1333. PMID: 32179916.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  19. Reich J, Thompson MG, Cowling BJ, Iuliano AD, Greene C, Chen Y, Phadnis R, Leung NHL, Song Y, Fang VJ, Xu C, Dai Q, Zhang J, Zhang H, Havers F. Comparison of alternative full and brief versions of functional status scales among older adults in China. PLoS One. 2020; 15(8):e0234698. PMID: 32780744.
    Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
  20. Lei H, Ye F, Liu X, Huang Z, Ling S, Jiang Z, Cheng J, Huang X, Wu Q, Wu S, Xie Y, Xiao C, Ye D, Yang Z, Li Y, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ, He J, Wong SS, Zanin M. SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination associated with persistently infected COVID-19 patients. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2020 11; 14(6):688-699. PMID: 32578948.
    Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  21. Leung NHL, Chu DKW, Shiu EYC, Chan KH, McDevitt JJ, Hau BJP, Yen HL, Li Y, Ip DKM, Peiris JSM, Seto WH, Leung GM, Milton DK, Cowling BJ. Author Correction: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat Med. 2020 06; 26(6):981. PMID: 32461699.
    Citations: 11     Fields:    
  22. Shiu EYC, Huang W, Ye D, Xie Y, Mo J, Li Y, Cowling BJ, Yang Z, Leung NHL. Frequent recovery of influenza A but not influenza B virus RNA in aerosols in pediatric patient rooms. Indoor Air. 2020 09; 30(5):805-815. PMID: 32201989.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  23. Leung NHL, Chu DKW, Shiu EYC, Chan KH, McDevitt JJ, Hau BJP, Yen HL, Li Y, Ip DKM, Peiris JSM, Seto WH, Leung GM, Milton DK, Cowling BJ. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat Med. 2020 05; 26(5):676-680. PMID: 32371934.
    Citations: 773     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  24. Lim WW, Leung NHL, Sullivan SG, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cowling BJ. Distinguishing Causation From Correlation in the Use of Correlates of Protection to Evaluate and Develop Influenza Vaccines. Am J Epidemiol. 2020 03 02; 189(3):185-192. PMID: 31598648.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  25. Kavian N, Hachim A, Li AP, Cohen CA, Chin AW, Poon LL, Fang VJ, Leung NH, Cowling BJ, Valkenburg SA. Assessment of enhanced influenza vaccination finds that FluAd conveys an advantage in mice and older adults. Clin Transl Immunology. 2020; 9(2):e1107. PMID: 32025302.
    Citations: 6     
  26. Valkenburg SA, Fang VJ, Leung NH, Chu DK, Ip DK, Perera RA, Wang Y, Li AP, Peiris JM, Cowling BJ, Poon LL. Cross-reactive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibodies are increased by recent infection in a household study of influenza transmission. Clin Transl Immunology. 2019; 8(11):e1092. PMID: 31763042.
    Citations: 5     
  27. Shiu EYC, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. Controversy around airborne versus droplet transmission of respiratory viruses: implication for infection prevention. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2019 08; 32(4):372-379. PMID: 31259864.
    Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
  28. Valkenburg SA, Leung NHL, Bull MB, Yan LM, Li APY, Poon LLM, Cowling BJ. The Hurdles From Bench to Bedside in the Realization and Implementation of a Universal Influenza Vaccine. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1479. PMID: 30013557.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    
  29. Zhang YH, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ, Yang ZF. Role of viral bioaerosols in nosocomial infections and measures for prevention and control. J Aerosol Sci. 2018 Mar; 117:200-211. PMID: 32226118.
    Citations: 13     
  30. Zhang H, Xiong Q, Wu P, Chen Y, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. Influenza-associated mortality in Yancheng, China, 2011-15. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 01; 12(1):98-103. PMID: 29193690.
    Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  31. Cowling BJ, Xu C, Tang F, Zhang J, Shen J, Havers F, Wendladt R, Leung NH, Greene C, Iuliano AD, Shifflett P, Song Y, Zhang R, Kim L, Chen Y, Chu DK, Zhu H, Shu Y, Yu H, Thompson MG. Cohort profile: the China Ageing REespiratory infections Study (CARES), a prospective cohort study in older adults in Eastern China. BMJ Open. 2017 Nov 01; 7(10):e017503. PMID: 29092901.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  32. Ip DK, Lau LL, Leung NH, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Chu DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Uyeki TM, Cowling BJ. Viral Shedding and Transmission Potential of Asymptomatic and Paucisymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections in the Community. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 03 15; 64(6):736-742. PMID: 28011603; PMCID: PMC5967351.
    Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  33. Yip MS, Leung HL, Li PH, Cheung CY, Dutry I, Li D, Daëron M, Bruzzone R, Peiris JS, Jaume M. Antibody-dependent enhancement of SARS coronavirus infection and its role in the pathogenesis of SARS. Hong Kong Med J. 2016 Jun; 22(3 Suppl 4):25-31. PMID: 27390007.
    Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
  34. Leung NH, Zhou J, Chu DK, Yu H, Lindsley WG, Beezhold DH, Yen HL, Li Y, Seto WH, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ. Quantification of Influenza Virus RNA in Aerosols in Patient Rooms. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148669. PMID: 26849130.
    Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
  35. Leung NH, Xu C, Ip DK, Cowling BJ. Review Article: The Fraction of Influenza Virus Infections That Are Asymptomatic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2015 Nov; 26(6):862-72. PMID: 26133025.
    Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
  36. Leung NHL, Cowling BJ. Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 May; 24(5):950. PMID: 29664393; PMCID: PMC5938791.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  37. Yip MS, Leung NH, Cheung CY, Li PH, Lee HH, Daëron M, Peiris JS, Bruzzone R, Jaume M. Antibody-dependent infection of human macrophages by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Virol J. 2014 May 06; 11:82. PMID: 24885320.
    Citations: 137     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  38. Millet JK, Kien F, Cheung CY, Siu YL, Chan WL, Li H, Leung HL, Jaume M, Bruzzone R, Peiris JS, Altmeyer RM, Nal B. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49566. PMID: 23185364.
    Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.