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profileMichael A. Schwarzschild, M.D., PH.D.

TitleJulieanne Dorn Professor of Neurology
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentNeurology
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
MassGeneral Inst. for Neurodegenerative Disease-Rm 3002
114 16th Street
Charlestown MA 02129
Phone617/724-1480
Fax617/726-4899
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The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
U13NS103523     (SCHWARZSCHILD, MICHAEL A)Jul 1, 2017 - Jun 30, 2018
NIH/NINDS
2017 Parkinson Study Group Symposium and Training
Role: Principal Investigator

R13NS098746     (SCHWARZSCHILD, MICHAEL A)Aug 1, 2016 - Jul 31, 2017
NIH/NINDS
2016 Parkinson Study Group Symposium and Training
Role: Principal Investigator

     (Michael Schwarzschild)Jan 1, 2016 - Dec 31, 2019
Michael J. Fox Foundation
Blood Sampling for Future Biomarker Research

U01NS090259     (SCHWARZSCHILD, MICHAEL A)Sep 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
NIH/NINDS
Phase 3 trial of inosine for Parkinson's disease CCC
Role: Principal Investigator

     (Michael Schwarzschild)Nov 1, 2014 - Oct 31, 2017
Target ALS
Preclinical Foundation of Urate-Elevating Therapy for ALS
Role: Principal Investigator

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Collapse selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Ascherio A, Schwarzschild MA. Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2017 Oct 04. PMID: 28976040.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Palacios N, Fitzgerald KC, Hart JE, Weisskopf M, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A, Laden F. Air Pollution and Risk of Parkinson's Disease in a Large Prospective Study of Men. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Aug 18; 125(8):087011. PMID: 28886605.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Crotty GF, Ascherio A, Schwarzschild MA. Targeting urate to reduce oxidative stress in Parkinson disease. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jun 13. PMID: 28622913.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Hughes KC, Gao X, Kim IY, Wang M, Weisskopf MG, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Intake of dairy foods and risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2017 Jul 04; 89(1):46-52. PMID: 28596209.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Quinti L, Dayalan Naidu S, Träger U, Chen X, Kegel-Gleason K, Llères D, Connolly C, Chopra V, Low C, Moniot S, Sapp E, Tousley AR, Vodicka P, Van Kanegan MJ, Kaltenbach LS, Crawford LA, Fuszard M, Higgins M, Miller JRC, Farmer RE, Potluri V, Samajdar S, Meisel L, Zhang N, Snyder A, Stein R, Hersch SM, Ellerby LM, Weerapana E, Schwarzschild MA, Steegborn C, Leavitt BR, Degterev A, Tabrizi SJ, Lo DC, DiFiglia M, Thompson LM, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Kazantsev AG. KEAP1-modifying small molecule reveals muted NRF2 signaling responses in neural stem cells from Huntington's disease patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jun 06; 114(23):E4676-E4685. PMID: 28533375.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Chen X, Feng D, Schwarzschild MA, Gao X. Red hair, MC1R variants, and risk for Parkinson's disease - a meta-analysis. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2017 Mar; 4(3):212-216. PMID: 28275654.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Espay AJ, Schwarzschild MA, Tanner CM, Fernandez HH, Simon DK, Leverenz JB, Merola A, Chen-Plotkin A, Brundin P, Kauffman MA, Erro R, Kieburtz K, Woo D, Macklin EA, Standaert DG, Lang AE. Biomarker-driven phenotyping in Parkinson's disease: A translational missing link in disease-modifying clinical trials. Mov Disord. 2017 Mar; 32(3):319-324. PMID: 28233927.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Chen X, Chen H, Cai W, Maguire M, Ya B, Zuo F, Logan R, Li H, Robinson K, Vanderburg CR, Yu Y, Wang Y, Fisher DE, Schwarzschild MA. The melanoma-linked "redhead" MC1R influences dopaminergic neuron survival. Ann Neurol. 2017 Mar; 81(3):395-406. PMID: 28019657.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Schwarzschild MA. Could MAO-B Inhibitor Withdrawal Rather than Nilotinib Benefit Explain the Dopamine Metabolite Increase in Parkinsonian Study Subjects? J Parkinsons Dis. 2017; 7(1):79-80. PMID: 28035939.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Paganoni S, Schwarzschild MA. Urate as a Marker of Risk and Progression of Neurodegenerative Disease. Neurotherapeutics. 2017 Jan; 14(1):148-153. PMID: 27995438.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Kim IY, O'Reilly ÉJ, Hughes KC, Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Differences in Parkinson's Disease Risk with Caffeine Intake and Postmenopausal Hormone Use. J Parkinsons Dis. 2017; 7(4):677-684. PMID: 28984617.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Hughes KC, Gao X, Kim IY, Rimm EB, Wang M, Weisskopf MG, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Intake of antioxidant vitamins and risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2016 Dec; 31(12):1909-1914. PMID: 27787934.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Ascherio A, Schwarzschild MA. The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease: risk factors and prevention. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Nov; 15(12):1257-1272. PMID: 27751556.
    View in: PubMed
  14. O'Reilly ÉJ, Liu D, Johns DR, Cudkowicz ME, Paganoni S, Schwarzschild MA, Leitner M, Ascherio A. Serum urate at trial entry and ALS progression in EMPOWER. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener. 2017 Feb; 18(1-2):120-125. PMID: 27677562.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Jackson EK, Boison D, Schwarzschild MA, Kochanek PM. Purines: forgotten mediators in traumatic brain injury. J Neurochem. 2016 Apr; 137(2):142-53. PMID: 26809224; PMCID: PMC4828259 [Available on 04/01/17].
  16. Xu K, Di Luca DG, Orrú M, Xu Y, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors. Neuroscience. 2016 May 13; 322:129-37. PMID: 26905951; PMCID: PMC4805447 [Available on 05/13/17].
  17. Bhattacharyya S, Bakshi R, Logan R, Ascherio A, Macklin EA, Schwarzschild MA. Oral Inosine Persistently Elevates Plasma antioxidant capacity in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2016 Mar; 31(3):417-21. PMID: 26805433.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Gao X, O'Reilly ÉJ, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Prospective study of plasma urate and risk of Parkinson disease in men and women. Neurology. 2016 Feb 09; 86(6):520-6. PMID: 26764029; PMCID: PMC4753729 [Available on 02/09/17].
  19. Bakshi R, Zhang H, Logan R, Joshi I, Xu Y, Chen X, Schwarzschild MA. Neuroprotective effects of urate are mediated by augmenting astrocytic glutathione synthesis and release. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Oct; 82:574-579. PMID: 26341543; PMCID: PMC4641017 [Available on 10/01/16].
  20. Locascio JJ, Eberly S, Liao Z, Liu G, Hoesing AN, Duong K, Trisini-Lipsanopoulos A, Dhima K, Hung AY, Flaherty AW, Schwarzschild MA, Hayes MT, Wills AM, Shivraj Sohur U, Mejia NI, Selkoe DJ, Oakes D, Shoulson I, Dong X, Marek K, Zheng B, Ivinson A, Hyman BT, Growdon JH, Sudarsky LR, Schlossmacher MG, Ravina B, Scherzer CR. Association between a-synuclein blood transcripts and early, neuroimaging-supported Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2015 Sep; 138(Pt 9):2659-71. PMID: 26220939; PMCID: PMC4643625.
  21. Chen X, Wales P, Quinti L, Zuo F, Moniot S, Herisson F, Rauf NA, Wang H, Silverman RB, Ayata C, Maxwell MM, Steegborn C, Schwarzschild MA, Outeiro TF, Kazantsev AG. The sirtuin-2 inhibitor AK7 is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease but not amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemia. PLoS One. 2015; 10(1):e0116919. PMID: 25608039; PMCID: PMC4301865.
  22. Palacios N, Fitzgerald KC, Hart JE, Weisskopf MG, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A, Laden F. Particulate matter and risk of Parkinson disease in a large prospective study of women. Environ Health. 2014 Oct 07; 13:80. PMID: 25294559; PMCID: PMC4201741.
  23. Simon KC, Eberly S, Gao X, Oakes D, Tanner CM, Shoulson I, Fahn S, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Mendelian randomization of serum urate and parkinson disease progression. Ann Neurol. 2014 Dec; 76(6):862-8. PMID: 25257975; PMCID: PMC4245314.
  24. Schwarzschild MA, Macklin EA, Ascherio A. Urate and neuroprotection trials. Lancet Neurol. 2014 Aug; 13(8):758. PMID: 25030508.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Palacios N, Fitzgerald K, Roberts AL, Hart JE, Weisskopf MG, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A, Laden F. A prospective analysis of airborne metal exposures and risk of Parkinson disease in the nurses' health study cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Sep; 122(9):933-8. PMID: 24905870; PMCID: PMC4154211.
  26. Cipriani S, Bakshi R, Schwarzschild MA. Protection by inosine in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2014 Aug 22; 274:242-9. PMID: 24880154; PMCID: PMC4120965.
  27. Kachroo A, Schwarzschild MA. Allopurinol reduces levels of urate and dopamine but not dopaminergic neurons in a dual pesticide model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2014 May 14; 1563:103-9. PMID: 24680743; PMCID: PMC4146456.
  28. Wong JC, Li Y, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A, Gao X. Restless legs syndrome: an early clinical feature of Parkinson disease in men. Sleep. 2014 Feb 01; 37(2):369-72. PMID: 24497665; PMCID: PMC3900617.
  29. Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A, Beal MF, Cudkowicz ME, Curhan GC, Hare JM, Hooper DC, Kieburtz KD, Macklin EA, Oakes D, Rudolph A, Shoulson I, Tennis MK, Espay AJ, Gartner M, Hung A, Bwala G, Lenehan R, Encarnacion E, Ainslie M, Castillo R, Togasaki D, Barles G, Friedman JH, Niles L, Carter JH, Murray M, Goetz CG, Jaglin J, Ahmed A, Russell DS, Cotto C, Goudreau JL, Russell D, Parashos SA, Ede P, Saint-Hilaire MH, Thomas CA, James R, Stacy MA, Johnson J, Gauger L, Antonelle de Marcaida J, Thurlow S, Isaacson SH, Carvajal L, Rao J, Cook M, Hope-Porche C, McClurg L, Grasso DL, Logan R, Orme C, Ross T, Brocht AF, Constantinescu R, Sharma S, Venuto C, Weber J, Eaton K. Inosine to increase serum and cerebrospinal fluid urate in Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Feb; 71(2):141-50. PMID: 24366103; PMCID: PMC3940333.
  30. McFarland NR, Dimant H, Kibuuka L, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Desjardins CA, Danzer KM, Danzer M, Fan Z, Schwarzschild MA, Hirst W, McLean PJ. Chronic treatment with novel small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors rescues striatal dopamine levels but not a-synuclein-induced neuronal cell loss. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86048. PMID: 24465863; PMCID: PMC3896461.
  31. Hung AY, Schwarzschild MA. Treatment of Parkinson's disease: what's in the non-dopaminergic pipeline? Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jan; 11(1):34-46. PMID: 24310604; PMCID: PMC3899482.
  32. Ding H, Dhima K, Lockhart KC, Locascio JJ, Hoesing AN, Duong K, Trisini-Lipsanopoulos A, Hayes MT, Sohur US, Wills AM, Mollenhauer B, Flaherty AW, Hung AY, Mejia N, Khurana V, Gomperts SN, Selkoe DJ, Schwarzschild MA, Schlossmacher MG, Hyman BT, Sudarsky LR, Growdon JH, Scherzer CR. Unrecognized vitamin D3 deficiency is common in Parkinson disease: Harvard Biomarker Study. Neurology. 2013 Oct 22; 81(17):1531-7. PMID: 24068787; PMCID: PMC3888173.
  33. McFarland NR, Burdett T, Desjardins CA, Frosch MP, Schwarzschild MA. Postmortem brain levels of urate and precursors in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Neurodegener Dis. 2013; 12(4):189-98. PMID: 23467193; PMCID: PMC3809155.
  34. Wills AM, Eberly S, Tennis M, Lang AE, Messing S, Togasaki D, Tanner CM, Kamp C, Chen JF, Oakes D, McDermott MP, Schwarzschild MA. Caffeine consumption and risk of dyskinesia in CALM-PD. Mov Disord. 2013 Mar; 28(3):380-3. PMID: 23339054; PMCID: PMC3608707.
  35. Brundin P, Barker RA, Conn PJ, Dawson TM, Kieburtz K, Lees AJ, Schwarzschild MA, Tanner CM, Isaacs T, Duffen J, Matthews H, Wyse RK. Linked clinical trials--the development of new clinical learning studies in Parkinson's disease using screening of multiple prospective new treatments. J Parkinsons Dis. 2013 Jan 01; 3(3):231-9. PMID: 24018336; PMCID: PMC4318242.
  36. Chen X, Burdett TC, Desjardins CA, Logan R, Cipriani S, Xu Y, Schwarzschild MA. Disrupted and transgenic urate oxidase alter urate and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 02; 110(1):300-5. PMID: 23248282; PMCID: PMC3538212.
  37. Gao X, Simon KC, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Age, statin use, and the risk for incident Parkinson disease-reply. Arch Neurol. 2012 Oct 1; 69(10):1381. PMID: 23044597.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Gao X, Simon KC, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Age, statin use, and the risk for incident Parkinson disease-reply. Arch Neurol. 2012 Oct 01; 69(10):1381. PMID: 23754004.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Ravina B, Marek K, Eberly S, Oakes D, Kurlan R, Ascherio A, Beal F, Beck J, Flagg E, Galpern WR, Harman J, Lang AE, Schwarzschild M, Tanner C, Shoulson I. Dopamine transporter imaging is associated with long-term outcomes in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2012 Sep 15; 27(11):1392-7. PMID: 22976926.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Salamone JD, Collins-Praino LE, Pardo M, Podurgiel SJ, Baqi Y, Müller CE, Schwarzschild MA, Correa M. Conditional neural knockout of the adenosine A(2A) receptor and pharmacological A(2A) antagonism reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements: studies with a mouse model of parkinsonian tremor. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Aug; 23(8):972-7. PMID: 22947264.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Palacios N, Gao X, McCullough ML, Schwarzschild MA, Shah R, Gapstur S, Ascherio A. Caffeine and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large cohort of men and women. Mov Disord. 2012 Sep 01; 27(10):1276-82. PMID: 22927157; PMCID: PMC3554265.
  42. Cipriani S, Desjardins CA, Burdett TC, Xu Y, Xu K, Schwarzschild MA. Protection of dopaminergic cells by urate requires its accumulation in astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2012 Oct; 123(1):172-81. PMID: 22671773; PMCID: PMC3438313.
  43. Chen X, Wu G, Schwarzschild MA. Urate in Parkinson's disease: more than a biomarker? Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2012 Aug; 12(4):367-75. PMID: 22580741.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Schwarzschild MA. Caffeine in Parkinson disease: better for cruise control than snooze patrol? Neurology. 2012 Aug 14; 79(7):616-8. PMID: 22855870.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Palacios N, Gao X, O'Reilly E, Schwarzschild M, McCullough ML, Mayo T, Gapstur SM, Ascherio AA. Alcohol and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large, prospective cohort of men and women. Mov Disord. 2012 Jul; 27(8):980-7. PMID: 22714720; PMCID: PMC3548327.
  46. Burdett TC, Desjardins CA, Logan R, McFarland NR, Chen X, Schwarzschild MA. Efficient determination of purine metabolites in brain tissue and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical and UV detection. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013 Jan; 27(1):122-9. PMID: 22674671.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Cipriani S, Desjardins CA, Burdett TC, Xu Y, Xu K, Schwarzschild MA. Urate and its transgenic depletion modulate neuronal vulnerability in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37331. PMID: 22606360; PMCID: PMC3351394.
  48. Gao X, Cassidy A, Schwarzschild MA, Rimm EB, Ascherio A. Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2012 Apr 10; 78(15):1138-45. PMID: 22491871; PMCID: PMC3320056.
  49. Gao X, Simon KC, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Prospective study of statin use and risk of Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2012 Mar; 69(3):380-4. PMID: 22410446; PMCID: PMC3398841.
  50. Matos M, Augusto E, Santos-Rodrigues AD, Schwarzschild MA, Chen JF, Cunha RA, Agostinho P. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate glutamate uptake in cultured astrocytes and gliosomes. Glia. 2012 May; 60(5):702-16. PMID: 22298379.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Kachroo A, Schwarzschild MA. Adenosine A2A receptor gene disruption protects in an a-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2012 Feb; 71(2):278-82. PMID: 22367999; PMCID: PMC3292742.
  52. Palacios N, Gao X, Schwarzschild M, Ascherio A. Declining quality of life in Parkinson disease before and after diagnosis. J Parkinsons Dis. 2012; 2(2):153-60. PMID: 23939439; PMCID: PMC3744127.
  53. Ding H, Sarokhan AK, Roderick SS, Bakshi R, Maher NE, Ashourian P, Kan CG, Chang S, Santarlasci A, Swords KE, Ravina BM, Hayes MT, Sohur US, Wills AM, Flaherty AW, Unni VK, Hung AY, Selkoe DJ, Schwarzschild MA, Schlossmacher MG, Sudarsky LR, Growdon JH, Ivinson AJ, Hyman BT, Scherzer CR. Association of SNCA with Parkinson: replication in the Harvard NeuroDiscovery Center Biomarker Study. Mov Disord. 2011 Oct; 26(12):2283-6. PMID: 21953863; PMCID: PMC3337217.
  54. Huang X, Auinger P, Eberly S, Oakes D, Schwarzschild M, Ascherio A, Mailman R, Chen H. Serum cholesterol and the progression of Parkinson's disease: results from DATATOP. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e22854. PMID: 21853051; PMCID: PMC3154909.
  55. Palacios N, Gao X, McCullough ML, Jacobs EJ, Patel AV, Mayo T, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011 Oct; 26(12):2253-9. PMID: 21739472; PMCID: PMC3627531.
  56. Gao X, Chen H, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. A prospective study of bowel movement frequency and risk of Parkinson's disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Sep 01; 174(5):546-51. PMID: 21719744; PMCID: PMC3202149.
  57. Schwarzschild MA, Marek K, Eberly S, Oakes D, Shoulson I, Jennings D, Seibyl J, Ascherio A. Serum urate and probability of dopaminergic deficit in early "Parkinson's disease". Mov Disord. 2011 Aug 15; 26(10):1864-8. PMID: 21538532; PMCID: PMC3150627.
  58. Gao X, Chen H, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Use of ibuprofen and risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2011 Mar 08; 76(10):863-9. PMID: 21368281; PMCID: PMC3059148.
  59. Barkhoudarian MT, Schwarzschild MA. Preclinical jockeying on the translational track of adenosine A2A receptors. Exp Neurol. 2011 Apr; 228(2):160-4. PMID: 21211537; PMCID: PMC3073659.
  60. Schwarzschild MA. The delayed-start study in Parkinson disease: can't satisfy everyone: Rasagiline, Parkinson neuroprotection, and delayed-start trials: still no satisfaction? Neurology. 2010 Nov 23; 75(21):1943-4; author reply 1944-5. PMID: 21098412.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, O'Reilly EJ, Wang H, Ascherio A. Restless legs syndrome and Parkinson's disease in men. Mov Disord. 2010 Nov 15; 25(15):2654-7. PMID: 20737545; PMCID: PMC3114885.
  62. Cipriani S, Chen X, Schwarzschild MA. Urate: a novel biomarker of Parkinson's disease risk, diagnosis and prognosis. Biomark Med. 2010 Oct; 4(5):701-12. PMID: 20945982; PMCID: PMC3049925.
  63. Black YD, Xiao D, Pellegrino D, Kachroo A, Brownell AL, Schwarzschild MA. Protective effect of metabotropic glutamate mGluR5 receptor elimination in a 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Dec 17; 486(3):161-5. PMID: 20854878; PMCID: PMC2970925.
  64. Simon KC, Gao X, Chen H, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Calcium channel blocker use and risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010 Sep 15; 25(12):1818-22. PMID: 20669249; PMCID: PMC2939261.
  65. Xiao D, Cassin JJ, Healy B, Burdett TC, Chen JF, Fredholm BB, Schwarzschild MA. Deletion of adenosine A1 or A(2A) receptors reduces L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in a model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2011 Jan 07; 1367:310-8. PMID: 20828543; PMCID: PMC3005012.
  66. Gardener H, Gao X, Chen H, Schwarzschild MA, Spiegelman D, Ascherio A. Prenatal and early life factors and risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010 Aug 15; 25(11):1560-7. PMID: 20740569; PMCID: PMC3132935.
  67. O'Reilly EJ, Gao X, Weisskopf MG, Chen H, Schwarzschild MA, Spiegelman D, Ascherio A. Plasma urate and Parkinson's disease in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Sep 15; 172(6):666-70. PMID: 20682521; PMCID: PMC2950819.
  68. Palacios N, Weisskopf M, Simon K, Gao X, Schwarzschild M, Ascherio A. Polymorphisms of caffeine metabolism and estrogen receptor genes and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010 Jul; 16(6):370-5. PMID: 20304699; PMCID: PMC2916058.
  69. Kachroo A, Irizarry MC, Schwarzschild MA. Caffeine protects against combined paraquat and maneb-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Exp Neurol. 2010 Jun; 223(2):657-61. PMID: 20188092; PMCID: PMC2864327.
  70. Schwarzschild MA. Rasagiline in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 18; 362(7):658; author reply 658-9. PMID: 20187261.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Youdim MB. Rasagiline in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 18; 362(7):657-8; author reply 658-9. PMID: 20164492.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Xu K, Xu YH, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA. Neuroprotection by caffeine: time course and role of its metabolites in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2010 May 05; 167(2):475-81. PMID: 20167258; PMCID: PMC2849921.
  73. Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, O'Reilly EJ, Wang H, Ascherio A. Restless legs syndrome and erectile dysfunction. Sleep. 2010 Jan; 33(1):75-9. PMID: 20120623; PMCID: PMC2802250.
  74. Morelli M, Carta AR, Kachroo A, Schwarzschild MA. Pathophysiological roles for purines: adenosine, caffeine and urate. Prog Brain Res. 2010; 183:183-208. PMID: 20696321; PMCID: PMC3102301.
  75. Ascherio A, LeWitt PA, Xu K, Eberly S, Watts A, Matson WR, Marras C, Kieburtz K, Rudolph A, Bogdanov MB, Schwid SR, Tennis M, Tanner CM, Beal MF, Lang AE, Oakes D, Fahn S, Shoulson I, Schwarzschild MA. Urate as a predictor of the rate of clinical decline in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2009 Dec; 66(12):1460-8. PMID: 19822770; PMCID: PMC2795011.
  76. Quiroz C, Luján R, Uchigashima M, Simoes AP, Lerner TN, Borycz J, Kachroo A, Canas PM, Orru M, Schwarzschild MA, Rosin DL, Kreitzer AC, Cunha RA, Watanabe M, Ferré S. Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009 Nov 18; 9:1321-44. PMID: 19936569; PMCID: PMC2871285.
  77. Gao X, Simon KC, Han J, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Family history of melanoma and Parkinson disease risk. Neurology. 2009 Oct 20; 73(16):1286-91. PMID: 19841380; PMCID: PMC2764417.
  78. Carta AR, Kachroo A, Schintu N, Xu K, Schwarzschild MA, Wardas J, Morelli M. Inactivation of neuronal forebrain A receptors protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurochem. 2009 Dec; 111(6):1478-89. PMID: 19817968; PMCID: PMC2820161.
  79. Simon KC, Chen H, Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Reproductive factors, exogenous estrogen use, and risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009 Jul 15; 24(9):1359-65. PMID: 19424986; PMCID: PMC2751573.
  80. McFarland NR, Fan Z, Xu K, Schwarzschild MA, Feany MB, Hyman BT, McLean PJ. Alpha-synuclein S129 phosphorylation mutants do not alter nigrostriatal toxicity in a rat model of Parkinson disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009 May; 68(5):515-24. PMID: 19525899; PMCID: PMC2753269.
  81. Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, Wang H, Ascherio A. Obesity and restless legs syndrome in men and women. Neurology. 2009 Apr 07; 72(14):1255-61. PMID: 19349606; PMCID: PMC2677487.
  82. O'Reilly EJ, Chen H, Gardener H, Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: using parental smoking as a proxy to explore causality. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Mar 15; 169(6):678-82. PMID: 19131566; PMCID: PMC2727210.
  83. Gao X, Simon KC, Han J, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Genetic determinants of hair color and Parkinson's disease risk. Ann Neurol. 2009 Jan; 65(1):76-82. PMID: 19194882; PMCID: PMC2639631.
  84. Petzer JP, Castagnoli N, Schwarzschild MA, Chen JF, Van der Schyf CJ. Dual-target-directed drugs that block monoamine oxidase B and adenosine A(2A) receptors for Parkinson's disease. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Jan; 6(1):141-51. PMID: 19110205.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Yang JN, Björklund O, Lindström-Törnqvist K, Lindgren E, Eriksson TM, Kahlström J, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Tobler I, Fredholm BB. Mice heterozygous for both A1 and A(2A) adenosine receptor genes show similarities to mice given long-term caffeine. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Feb; 106(2):631-9. PMID: 19036889; PMCID: PMC2644247.
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  110. Ascherio A, Chen H, Weisskopf MG, O'Reilly E, McCullough ML, Calle EE, Schwarzschild MA, Thun MJ. Pesticide exposure and risk for Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2006 Aug; 60(2):197-203. PMID: 16802290.
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  111. Chan ES, Fernandez P, Merchant AA, Montesinos MC, Trzaska S, Desai A, Tung CF, Khoa DN, Pillinger MH, Reiss AB, Tomic-Canic M, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Cronstein BN. Adenosine A2A receptors in diffuse dermal fibrosis: pathogenic role in human dermal fibroblasts and in a murine model of scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Aug; 54(8):2632-42. PMID: 16871530.
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  120. Frédérick R, Ooms F, Castagnoli N, Petzer JP, Feng JF, Schwarzschild MA, Van der Schyf CJ, Wouters J. (E)-8-(3-Chlorostyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, a caffeine derivative acting both as antagonist of adenosine A2A receptors and as inhibitor of MAO-B. Acta Crystallogr C. 2005 Sep; 61(Pt 9):o531-2. PMID: 16143772.
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  121. Saura J, Angulo E, Ejarque A, Casadó V, Tusell JM, Moratalla R, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Lluis C, Franco R, Serratosa J. Adenosine A2A receptor stimulation potentiates nitric oxide release by activated microglia. J Neurochem. 2005 Nov; 95(4):919-29. PMID: 16092928.
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  126. Hauser RA, Schwarzschild MA. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists for Parkinson's disease: rationale, therapeutic potential and clinical experience. Drugs Aging. 2005; 22(6):471-82. PMID: 15974638.
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  129. Francis JW, Bastia E, Matthews CC, Parks DA, Schwarzschild MA, Brown RH, Fishman PS. Tetanus toxin fragment C as a vector to enhance delivery of proteins to the CNS. Brain Res. 2004 Jun 11; 1011(1):7-13. PMID: 15140640.
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  140. Day YJ, Huang L, McDuffie MJ, Rosin DL, Ye H, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Fink JS, Linden J, Okusa MD. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow-derived cells. J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep; 112(6):883-91. PMID: 12975473; PMCID: PMC193661.
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  146. Sharma N & Schwarzschild MA. . Movement disorders during pregnancy. JH Noseworthy, editor. Neurologic Therapeutics: Principles and Practice. 2003; 1((Part 2)):1556 – 1558.
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  150. Chen J-F & Schwarzschild MA. Gene Knockout Approach to Adenosine A2A receptors in Parkinson’s disease. Drug Development Research. 2003; 58:354-367.
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  152. Chen JF, Steyn S, Staal R, Petzer JP, Xu K, Van Der Schyf CJ, Castagnoli K, Sonsalla PK, Castagnoli N, Schwarzschild MA. 8-(3-Chlorostyryl)caffeine may attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity through dual actions of monoamine oxidase inhibition and A2A receptor antagonism. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 27; 277(39):36040-4. PMID: 12130655.
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  154. Montesinos MC, Desai A, Chen JF, Yee H, Schwarzschild MA, Fink JS, Cronstein BN. Adenosine promotes wound healing and mediates angiogenesis in response to tissue injury via occupancy of A(2A) receptors. Am J Pathol. 2002 Jun; 160(6):2009-18. PMID: 12057906; PMCID: PMC1850820.
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  156. Xu K, Xu YH, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA. Caffeine's neuroprotection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity shows no tolerance to chronic caffeine administration in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Mar 29; 322(1):13-6. PMID: 11958832.
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  157. Fredduzzi S, Moratalla R, Monopoli A, Cuellar B, Xu K, Ongini E, Impagnatiello F, Schwarzschild MA, Chen JF. Persistent behavioral sensitization to chronic L-DOPA requires A2A adenosine receptors. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 01; 22(3):1054-62. PMID: 11826134.
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  158. Kanthasamy AG, Sharma N, Kirby ML & Schwarzschild MA. . Neuroprotective Strategies in Parkinson’s Disease. In: J Marwah, EH Lo, editors. Neuroprotection. 2002; 603-640.
  159. Gearan T, Castillo OA, Schwarzschild MA. The parkinsonian neurotoxin, MPP+ induces phosphorylated c-Jun in dopaminergric neurons of mesencephalic cultures. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2001 Sep; 8(1):19-22. PMID: 11472876.
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  161. Armstrong JM, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Apasov S, Smith PT, Caldwell C, Chen P, Figler H, Sullivan G, Fink S, Linden J, Sitkovsky M. Gene dose effect reveals no Gs-coupled A2A adenosine receptor reserve in murine T-lymphocytes: studies of cells from A2A-receptor-gene-deficient mice. Biochem J. 2001 Feb 15; 354(Pt 1):123-30. PMID: 11171087; PMCID: PMC1221636.
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  181. Schwarzschild MA, Zigmond RE. Secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide activate tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathetic nerve endings. J Neurosci. 1989 Jan; 9(1):160-6. PMID: 2563276.
    View in: PubMed
  182. Rittenhouse AR, Schwarzschild MA, Zigmond RE. Both synaptic and antidromic stimulation of neurons in the rat superior cervical ganglion acutely increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Neuroscience. 1988 Apr; 25(1):207-15. PMID: 2899305.
    View in: PubMed
  183. Schwarzschild MA. The peptidergic and cholinergic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in a sympathetic ganglion and its end organs. 1988.
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