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profileBradford Barr Lowell, M.D.,Ph.D.

TitleProfessor of Medicine
InstitutionBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
DepartmentMedicine
AddressBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Endocrine, Center for Life Science, CLS-703
3 Blackfan Circle
Boston MA 02115
Phone617/735-3366
Fax617/735-3323
vCardDownload vCard (login for email)

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Available: 07/07/17, Expires: 07/06/19

The goal of neuroscience is to determine how the brain controls behavior – in essence to establish the neural “wiring diagram” that underlies function. Progress towards this goal has been stymied by the brain’s complexity, and the fact that we lack a “parts list” for the brain, i.e. a detailed understanding of the many different types of neurons that comprise each brain region. Our team of neuroscientists (led by John Campbell) and bioinformaticians (led by Linus Tsai) are using high throughput single cell transcriptomics combined with computational analyses to establish the neuronal “parts lists” for brain regions controlling interesting motivational drives (for example hunger) and metabolism. For an example see Campbell JN et al., Nat Neurosci 20: 484-496, 2017 (PMID: 28166221). By analyzing all genes expressed by each neuron and comparing this with genes expressed by all the other neurons, we are establishing the “parts list” of neurons for key regions of the brain. These studies are identifying neurons previously known to exist, and very importantly, many new neurons of unknown function. Because these analyses are based on genome-wide transcriptomic profiles, and because the genes expressed by a neuron subtype determine its function, these datasets, combined with the existing scientific literature, are fertile ground for generating important new hypotheses about brain function. As a Scholars in Medicine Project, students will take these neuron subtype datasets, mine them for functionally important, uniquely expressed genes, research relevant literature on these uniquely expressed genes, and then synthesize new hypotheses about the role of novel neuron subtypes in controlling behavior. Compelling hypotheses that result from this process will be selected by the team of neuroscientists for further exploration using the latest advanced neuroscience approaches – for examples, see publications for “Lowell BB”, and also see: https://www.hms.harvard.edu/dms/neuroscience/fac/Lowell.php Students can immerse themselves in any steps of the process depending on their interests, skill sets, etc. At the most basic level, with guidance from members of the team, students will work with processed datasets and perform literature searches on functionally relevant, uniquely expressed genes – with the goal of generating new hypotheses regarding function. Depending on the students’ interests and capabilities, they may also become involved in the “afferent arm” of such research – i.e. in the generation of the transcriptomic datasets and/or bioinformatics analysis of such datasets, etc., or alternatively they may become involved in the “efferent arm” of such research – in the testing of generated hypotheses using the advanced neuroscience techniques mentioned above. This project should be a great opportunity to learn about neuroscience, how the brain controls motivated drives and metabolism, and how one approaches large single cell datasets – all with the goal of making new discoveries about how the brain works.


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The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
R01DK111401     (LOWELL, BRADFORD B)Sep 15, 2016 - Jul 31, 2021
NIH/NIDDK
Glutamatergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus (ARC) and Regulation of Satiety
Role: Principal Investigator

R01DK096010     (LOWELL, BRADFORD B)Jul 1, 2012 - Feb 29, 2020
NIH/NIDDK
AgRP Neuron Activity ? Plasticity, Gene Expression and Excitatory Afferent Control
Role: Principal Investigator

R01DK089044     (LOWELL, BRADFORD B)Aug 5, 2010 - May 31, 2019
NIH/NIDDK
Neurocircuitry Underlying Leptin Regulation of Energy Balance
Role: Principal Investigator

R01DK075632     (LOWELL, BRADFORD B)Jul 1, 2006 - Mar 31, 2021
NIH/NIDDK
Regulation of Hunger/Satiety by the PVH MC4R to LPBN Circuit
Role: Principal Investigator

R01DK071051     (LOWELL, BRADFORD B)Apr 1, 2005 - Feb 28, 2015
NIH/NIDDK
The VMH and Molecular Control of Energy Balance
Role: Principal Investigator
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eagle-i@hms.harvard.edu.
Lowell Lab - Mouse strains (1)

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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Livneh Y, Ramesh RN, Burgess CR, Levandowski KM, Madara JC, Fenselau H, Goldey GJ, Diaz VE, Jikomes N, Resch JM, Lowell BB, Andermann ML. Homeostatic circuits selectively gate food cue responses in insular cortex. Nature. 2017 Jun 29; 546(7660):611-616. PMID: 28614299.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Cheng L, Duan B, Huang T, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Britz O, Garcia-Campmany L, Ren X, Vong L, Lowell BB, Goulding M, Wang Y, Ma Q. Identification of spinal circuits involved in touch-evoked dynamic mechanical pain. Nat Neurosci. 2017 Jun; 20(6):804-814. PMID: 28436981.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Mahoney CE, Agostinelli LJ, Brooks JN, Lowell BB, Scammell TE. GABAergic Neurons of the Central Amygdala Promote Cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2017 Apr 12; 37(15):3995-4006. PMID: 28235898.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Agostinelli LJ, Ferrari LL, Mahoney CE, Mochizuki T, Lowell BB, Arrigoni E, Scammell TE. Descending projections from the basal forebrain to the orexin neurons in mice. J Comp Neurol. 2017 May 01; 525(7):1668-1684. PMID: 27997037.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Campbell JN, Macosko EZ, Fenselau H, Pers TH, Lyubetskaya A, Tenen D, Goldman M, Verstegen AM, Resch JM, McCarroll SA, Rosen ED, Lowell BB, Tsai LT. A molecular census of arcuate hypothalamus and median eminence cell types. Nat Neurosci. 2017 Mar; 20(3):484-496. PMID: 28166221.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Tejeda HA, Wu J, Kornspun AR, Pignatelli M, Kashtelyan V, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Carlezon WA, Bonci A. Pathway- and Cell-Specific Kappa-Opioid Receptor Modulation of Excitation-Inhibition Balance Differentially Gates D1 and D2 Accumbens Neuron Activity. Neuron. 2017 Jan 04; 93(1):147-163. PMID: 28056342.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Mandelblat-Cerf Y, Kim A, Burgess CR, Subramanian S, Tannous BA, Lowell BB, Andermann ML. Bidirectional Anticipation of Future Osmotic Challenges by Vasopressin Neurons. Neuron. 2017 Jan 04; 93(1):57-65. PMID: 27989461.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Fenselau H, Campbell JN, Verstegen AM, Madara JC, Xu J, Shah BP, Resch JM, Yang Z, Mandelblat-Cerf Y, Livneh Y, Lowell BB. A rapidly acting glutamatergic ARC?PVH satiety circuit postsynaptically regulated by a-MSH. Nat Neurosci. 2017 Jan; 20(1):42-51. PMID: 27869800.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Keenan WT, Rupp AC, Ross RA, Somasundaram P, Hiriyanna S, Wu Z, Badea TC, Robinson PR, Lowell BB, Hattar SS. A visual circuit uses complementary mechanisms to support transient and sustained pupil constriction. Elife. 2016 Sep 26; 5. PMID: 27669145.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Garfield AS, Shah BP, Burgess CR, Li MM, Li C, Steger JS, Madara JC, Campbell JN, Kroeger D, Scammell TE, Tannous BA, Myers MG, Andermann ML, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB. Dynamic GABAergic afferent modulation of AgRP neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Dec; 19(12):1628-1635. PMID: 27643429.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Vetrivelan R, Kong D, Ferrari LL, Arrigoni E, Madara JC, Bandaru SS, Lowell BB, Lu J, Saper CB. Melanin-concentrating hormone neurons specifically promote rapid eye movement sleep in mice. Neuroscience. 2016 Nov 12; 336:102-113. PMID: 27595887.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Burgess CR, Ramesh RN, Sugden AU, Levandowski KM, Minnig MA, Fenselau H, Lowell BB, Andermann ML. Hunger-Dependent Enhancement of Food Cue Responses in Mouse Postrhinal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala. Neuron. 2016 Sep 07; 91(5):1154-69. PMID: 27523426; PMCID: PMC5017916 [Available on 09/07/17].
  13. Kong D, Dagon Y, Campbell JN, Guo Y, Yang Z, Yi X, Aryal P, Wellenstein K, Kahn BB, Sabatini BL, Lowell BB. A Postsynaptic AMPK?p21-Activated Kinase Pathway Drives Fasting-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in AgRP Neurons. Neuron. 2016 Jul 06; 91(1):25-33. PMID: 27321921; PMCID: PMC4938763 [Available on 07/06/17].
  14. Williams EK, Chang RB, Strochlic DE, Umans BD, Lowell BB, Liberles SD. Sensory Neurons that Detect Stretch and Nutrients in the Digestive System. Cell. 2016 Jun 30; 166(1):209-21. PMID: 27238020; PMCID: PMC4930427 [Available on 06/30/17].
  15. Kondoh K, Lu Z, Ye X, Olson DP, Lowell BB, Buck LB. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours. Nature. 2016 Apr 07; 532(7597):103-6. PMID: 27001694.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Crowley NA, Bloodgood DW, Hardaway JA, Kendra AM, McCall JG, Al-Hasani R, McCall NM, Yu W, Schools ZL, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Whistler JL, Bruchas MR, Kash TL. Dynorphin Controls the Gain of an Amygdalar Anxiety Circuit. Cell Rep. 2016 Mar 29; 14(12):2774-83. PMID: 26997280; PMCID: PMC4814306.
  17. D'Agostino G, Lyons DJ, Cristiano C, Burke LK, Madara JC, Campbell JN, Garcia AP, Land BB, Lowell BB, Dileone RJ, Heisler LK. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit. Elife. 2016 Mar 14; 5. PMID: 26974347; PMCID: PMC4861598.
  18. Nakajima K, Cui Z, Li C, Meister J, Cui Y, Fu O, Smith AS, Jain S, Lowell BB, Krashes MJ, Wess J. Corrigendum: Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake. Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 03; 7:11019. PMID: 26936677; PMCID: PMC4782055.
  19. Vernia S, Morel C, Madara JC, Cavanagh-Kyros J, Barrett T, Chase K, Kennedy NJ, Jung DY, Kim JK, Aronin N, Flavell RA, Lowell BB, Davis RJ. Excitatory transmission onto AgRP neurons is regulated by cJun NH2-terminal kinase 3 in response to metabolic stress. Elife. 2016 Feb 24; 5:e10031. PMID: 26910012; PMCID: PMC4798947.
  20. Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Garfield AS. Melanocortin-4 receptor-regulated energy homeostasis. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 19(2):206-19. PMID: 26814590.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Nakajima K, Cui Z, Li C, Meister J, Cui Y, Fu O, Smith AS, Jain S, Lowell BB, Krashes MJ, Wess J. Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake. Nat Commun. 2016 Jan 08; 7:10268. PMID: 26743492; PMCID: PMC4729878.
  22. Ferrari LL, Agostinelli LJ, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Scammell TE, Arrigoni E. Dynorphin inhibits basal forebrain cholinergic neurons by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. J Physiol. 2016 Feb 15; 594(4):1069-85. PMID: 26613645; PMCID: PMC4753266 [Available on 02/15/17].
  23. Geerling JC, Kim M, Mahoney CE, Abbott SB, Agostinelli LJ, Garfield AS, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Scammell TE. Genetic identity of thermosensory relay neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Jan 01; 310(1):R41-54. PMID: 26491097; PMCID: PMC4747895 [Available on 01/01/17].
  24. Al-Hasani R, McCall JG, Shin G, Gomez AM, Schmitz GP, Bernardi JM, Pyo CO, Park SI, Marcinkiewcz CM, Crowley NA, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Kash TL, Rogers JA, Bruchas MR. Distinct Subpopulations of Nucleus Accumbens Dynorphin Neurons Drive Aversion and Reward. Neuron. 2015 Sep 02; 87(5):1063-77. PMID: 26335648; PMCID: PMC4625385.
  25. Mandelblat-Cerf Y, Ramesh RN, Burgess CR, Patella P, Yang Z, Lowell BB, Andermann ML. Arcuate hypothalamic AgRP and putative POMC neurons show opposite changes in spiking across multiple timescales. Elife. 2015 Jul 10; 4. PMID: 26159614; PMCID: PMC4498165.
  26. Garfield AS, Li C, Madara JC, Shah BP, Webber E, Steger JS, Campbell JN, Gavrilova O, Lee CE, Olson DP, Elmquist JK, Tannous BA, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB. A neural basis for melanocortin-4 receptor-regulated appetite. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Jun; 18(6):863-71. PMID: 25915476; PMCID: PMC4446192.
  27. Pleil KE, Rinker JA, Lowery-Gionta EG, Mazzone CM, McCall NM, Kendra AM, Olson DP, Lowell BB, Grant KA, Thiele TE, Kash TL. NPY signaling inhibits extended amygdala CRF neurons to suppress binge alcohol drinking. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Apr; 18(4):545-52. PMID: 25751534; PMCID: PMC4376619.
  28. Allison MB, Patterson CM, Krashes MJ, Lowell BB, Myers MG, Olson DP. TRAP-seq defines markers for novel populations of hypothalamic and brainstem LepRb neurons. Mol Metab. 2015 Apr; 4(4):299-309. PMID: 25830093; PMCID: PMC4354921.
  29. Garfield AS, Shah BP, Madara JC, Burke LK, Patterson CM, Flak J, Neve RL, Evans ML, Lowell BB, Myers MG, Heisler LK. A parabrachial-hypothalamic cholecystokinin neurocircuit controls counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Cell Metab. 2014 Dec 02; 20(6):1030-7. PMID: 25470549; PMCID: PMC4261079.
  30. Saper CB, Lowell BB. The hypothalamus. Curr Biol. 2014 Dec 01; 24(23):R1111-6. PMID: 25465326.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Duan B, Cheng L, Bourane S, Britz O, Padilla C, Garcia-Campmany L, Krashes M, Knowlton W, Velasquez T, Ren X, Ross SE, Lowell BB, Wang Y, Goulding M, Ma Q. Identification of spinal circuits transmitting and gating mechanical pain. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1417-32. PMID: 25467445; PMCID: PMC4258511.
  32. do Carmo JM, da Silva AA, Ebaady SE, Sessums PO, Abraham RS, Elmquist JK, Lowell BB, Hall JE. Shp2 signaling in POMC neurons is important for leptin's actions on blood pressure, energy balance, and glucose regulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014 Dec 15; 307(12):R1438-47. PMID: 25339680; PMCID: PMC4269667.
  33. Shah BP, Vong L, Olson DP, Koda S, Krashes MJ, Ye C, Yang Z, Fuller PM, Elmquist JK, Lowell BB. MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 09; 111(36):13193-8. PMID: 25157144; PMCID: PMC4246954.
  34. Berglund ED, Liu T, Kong X, Sohn JW, Vong L, Deng Z, Lee CE, Lee S, Williams KW, Olson DP, Scherer PE, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK. Melanocortin 4 receptors in autonomic neurons regulate thermogenesis and glycemia. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Jul; 17(7):911-3. PMID: 24908101; PMCID: PMC4090093.
  35. Martin C, Navarro VM, Simavli S, Vong L, Carroll RS, Lowell BB, Kaiser UB. Leptin-responsive GABAergic neurons regulate fertility through pathways that result in reduced kisspeptinergic tone. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 23; 34(17):6047-56. PMID: 24760864; PMCID: PMC3996222.
  36. Krashes MJ, Shah BP, Madara JC, Olson DP, Strochlic DE, Garfield AS, Vong L, Pei H, Watabe-Uchida M, Uchida N, Liberles SD, Lowell BB. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger. Nature. 2014 Mar 13; 507(7491):238-42. PMID: 24487620; PMCID: PMC3955843.
  37. Xu Y, Wu Z, Sun H, Zhu Y, Kim ER, Lowell BB, Arenkiel BR, Xu Y, Tong Q. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation. Cell Metab. 2013 Dec 03; 18(6):860-70. PMID: 24315371; PMCID: PMC3880549.
  38. Garfield AS, Lowell BB. Was it something I ate? Cell Metab. 2013 Dec 03; 18(6):769-70. PMID: 24315365; PMCID: PMC3887394.
  39. Accacha S, Rosenfeld W, Jacobson A, Michel L, Schnurr FJ, Shelov S, Ten S, Boucher-Berry C, Carey DE, Speiser PW, Lowell B, Conroy R, Klein M, Fennoy I, Rapaport R, Rosenbaum M. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs), receptors for AGEs and their correlation with inflammatory markers in middle school-age children. Horm Res Paediatr. 2013; 80(5):318-27. PMID: 24217195.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Krashes MJ, Shah BP, Koda S, Lowell BB. Rapid versus delayed stimulation of feeding by the endogenously released AgRP neuron mediators GABA, NPY, and AgRP. Cell Metab. 2013 Oct 01; 18(4):588-95. PMID: 24093681; PMCID: PMC3822903.
  41. Fujikawa T, Berglund ED, Patel VR, Ramadori G, Vianna CR, Vong L, Thorel F, Chera S, Herrera PL, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK, Baldi P, Coppari R. Leptin engages a hypothalamic neurocircuitry to permit survival in the absence of insulin. Cell Metab. 2013 Sep 03; 18(3):431-44. PMID: 24011077; PMCID: PMC3890693.
  42. Huang H, Lee SH, Ye C, Lima IS, Oh BC, Lowell BB, Zabolotny JM, Kim YB. ROCK1 in AgRP neurons regulates energy expenditure and locomotor activity in male mice. Endocrinology. 2013 Oct; 154(10):3660-70. PMID: 23885017; PMCID: PMC3776869.
  43. Xu P, Grueter BA, Britt JK, McDaniel L, Huntington PJ, Hodge R, Tran S, Mason BL, Lee C, Vong L, Lowell BB, Malenka RC, Lutter M, Pieper AA. Double deletion of melanocortin 4 receptors and SAPAP3 corrects compulsive behavior and obesity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 25; 110(26):10759-64. PMID: 23754400; PMCID: PMC3696762.
  44. Allister EM, Robson-Doucette CA, Prentice KJ, Hardy AB, Sultan S, Gaisano HY, Kong D, Gilon P, Herrera PL, Lowell BB, Wheeler MB. UCP2 regulates the glucagon response to fasting and starvation. Diabetes. 2013 May; 62(5):1623-33. PMID: 23434936; PMCID: PMC3636632.
  45. Sohn JW, Harris LE, Berglund ED, Liu T, Vong L, Lowell BB, Balthasar N, Williams KW, Elmquist JK. Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Cell. 2013 Jan 31; 152(3):612-9. PMID: 23374353; PMCID: PMC3711728.
  46. Lou S, Duan B, Vong L, Lowell BB, Ma Q. Runx1 controls terminal morphology and mechanosensitivity of VGLUT3-expressing C-mechanoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2013 Jan 16; 33(3):870-82. PMID: 23325226; PMCID: PMC3652638.
  47. Lee S, Bookout AL, Lee CE, Gautron L, Harper MJ, Elias CF, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK. Laser-capture microdissection and transcriptional profiling of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2012 Nov 01; 520(16):3617-32. PMID: 22473294; PMCID: PMC3741992.
  48. Kong D, Tong Q, Ye C, Koda S, Fuller PM, Krashes MJ, Vong L, Ray RS, Olson DP, Lowell BB. GABAergic RIP-Cre neurons in the arcuate nucleus selectively regulate energy expenditure. Cell. 2012 Oct 26; 151(3):645-57. PMID: 23101631; PMCID: PMC3500616.
  49. Wu Z, Xu Y, Zhu Y, Sutton AK, Zhao R, Lowell BB, Olson DP, Tong Q. An obligate role of oxytocin neurons in diet induced energy expenditure. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e45167. PMID: 23028821; PMCID: PMC3445456.
  50. Huang H, Kong D, Byun KH, Ye C, Koda S, Lee DH, Oh BC, Lee SW, Lee B, Zabolotny JM, Kim MS, Bjørbæk C, Lowell BB, Kim YB. Rho-kinase regulates energy balance by targeting hypothalamic leptin receptor signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Oct; 15(10):1391-8. PMID: 22941110; PMCID: PMC3458121.
  51. Kozorovitskiy Y, Saunders A, Johnson CA, Lowell BB, Sabatini BL. Recurrent network activity drives striatal synaptogenesis. Nature. 2012 May 13; 485(7400):646-50. PMID: 22660328; PMCID: PMC3367801.
  52. Liu T, Kong D, Shah BP, Ye C, Koda S, Saunders A, Ding JB, Yang Z, Sabatini BL, Lowell BB. Fasting activation of AgRP neurons requires NMDA receptors and involves spinogenesis and increased excitatory tone. Neuron. 2012 Feb 09; 73(3):511-22. PMID: 22325203; PMCID: PMC3278709.
  53. Cohen JY, Haesler S, Vong L, Lowell BB, Uchida N. Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area. Nature. 2012 Jan 18; 482(7383):85-8. PMID: 22258508; PMCID: PMC3271183.
  54. Li C, Pleil KE, Stamatakis AM, Busan S, Vong L, Lowell BB, Stuber GD, Kash TL. Presynaptic inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid release in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis by kappa opioid receptor signaling. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Apr 15; 71(8):725-32. PMID: 22225848; PMCID: PMC3314138.
  55. Krenzer M, Anaclet C, Vetrivelan R, Wang N, Vong L, Lowell BB, Fuller PM, Lu J. Brainstem and spinal cord circuitry regulating REM sleep and muscle atonia. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e24998. PMID: 22043278; PMCID: PMC3197189.
  56. Vong L, Ye C, Yang Z, Choi B, Chua S, Lowell BB. Leptin action on GABAergic neurons prevents obesity and reduces inhibitory tone to POMC neurons. Neuron. 2011 Jul 14; 71(1):142-54. PMID: 21745644; PMCID: PMC3134797.
  57. Klöckener T, Hess S, Belgardt BF, Paeger L, Verhagen LA, Husch A, Sohn JW, Hampel B, Dhillon H, Zigman JM, Lowell BB, Williams KW, Elmquist JK, Horvath TL, Kloppenburg P, Brüning JC. High-fat feeding promotes obesity via insulin receptor/PI3K-dependent inhibition of SF-1 VMH neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2011 Jun 05; 14(7):911-8. PMID: 21642975; PMCID: PMC3371271.
  58. Higley MJ, Gittis AH, Oldenburg IA, Balthasar N, Seal RP, Edwards RH, Lowell BB, Kreitzer AC, Sabatini BL. Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 22; 6(4):e19155. PMID: 21544206; PMCID: PMC3081336.
  59. Krashes MJ, Koda S, Ye C, Rogan SC, Adams AC, Cusher DS, Maratos-Flier E, Roth BL, Lowell BB. Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011 Apr; 121(4):1424-8. PMID: 21364278; PMCID: PMC3069789.
  60. Mochizuki T, Arrigoni E, Marcus JN, Clark EL, Yamamoto M, Honer M, Borroni E, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK, Scammell TE. Orexin receptor 2 expression in the posterior hypothalamus rescues sleepiness in narcoleptic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 15; 108(11):4471-6. PMID: 21368172; PMCID: PMC3060231.
  61. Rossi J, Balthasar N, Olson D, Scott M, Berglund E, Lee CE, Choi MJ, Lauzon D, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK. Melanocortin-4 receptors expressed by cholinergic neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 02; 13(2):195-204. PMID: 21284986; PMCID: PMC3033043.
  62. Liu Y, Abdel Samad O, Zhang L, Duan B, Tong Q, Lopes C, Ji RR, Lowell BB, Ma Q. VGLUT2-dependent glutamate release from nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch. Neuron. 2010 Nov 04; 68(3):543-56. PMID: 21040853; PMCID: PMC2991105.
  63. Xu Y, Jones JE, Lauzon DA, Anderson JG, Balthasar N, Heisler LK, Zinn AR, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK. A serotonin and melanocortin circuit mediates D-fenfluramine anorexia. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 03; 30(44):14630-4. PMID: 21048120; PMCID: PMC3466475.
  64. Kong D, Vong L, Parton LE, Ye C, Tong Q, Hu X, Choi B, Brüning JC, Lowell BB. Glucose stimulation of hypothalamic MCH neurons involves K(ATP) channels, is modulated by UCP2, and regulates peripheral glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2010 Nov 03; 12(5):545-52. PMID: 21035764; PMCID: PMC2998191.
  65. Xu Y, Berglund ED, Sohn JW, Holland WL, Chuang JC, Fukuda M, Rossi J, Williams KW, Jones JE, Zigman JM, Lowell BB, Scherer PE, Elmquist JK. 5-HT2CRs expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate insulin sensitivity in liver. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Dec; 13(12):1457-9. PMID: 21037584; PMCID: PMC3059249.
  66. Irani BG, Donato J, Olson DP, Lowell BB, Sacktor TC, Reyland ME, Tolson KP, Zinn AR, Ueta Y, Sakata I, Zigman JM, Elias CF, Clegg DJ. Distribution and neurochemical characterization of protein kinase C-theta and -delta in the rodent hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2010 Nov 10; 170(4):1065-79. PMID: 20691763.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Xu Y, Hill JW, Fukuda M, Gautron L, Sohn JW, Kim KW, Lee CE, Choi MJ, Lauzon DA, Dhillon H, Lowell BB, Zigman JM, Zhao JJ, Elmquist JK. PI3K signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is required for normal energy homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2010 Jul 07; 12(1):88-95. PMID: 20620998; PMCID: PMC2919367.
  68. Hill JW, Elias CF, Fukuda M, Williams KW, Berglund ED, Holland WL, Cho YR, Chuang JC, Xu Y, Choi M, Lauzon D, Lee CE, Coppari R, Richardson JA, Zigman JM, Chua S, Scherer PE, Lowell BB, Brüning JC, Elmquist JK. Direct insulin and leptin action on pro-opiomelanocortin neurons is required for normal glucose homeostasis and fertility. Cell Metab. 2010 Apr 07; 11(4):286-97. PMID: 20374961; PMCID: PMC2854520.
  69. Olson DP, Pulinilkunnil T, Cline GW, Shulman GI, Lowell BB. Gene knockout of Acc2 has little effect on body weight, fat mass, or food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 20; 107(16):7598-603. PMID: 20368432; PMCID: PMC2867727.
  70. Hawke Z, Ivanov TR, Bechtold DA, Dhillon H, Lowell BB, Luckman SM. PACAP neurons in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus are targets of central leptin signaling. J Neurosci. 2009 Nov 25; 29(47):14828-35. PMID: 19940178.
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  156. Hollenberg AN, Susulic VS, Madura JP, Zhang B, Moller DE, Tontonoz P, Sarraf P, Spiegelman BM, Lowell BB. Functional antagonism between CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma on the leptin promoter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 21; 272(8):5283-90. PMID: 9030601.
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  157. Cinti S, Frederich RC, Zingaretti MC, De Matteis R, Flier JS, Lowell BB. Immunohistochemical localization of leptin and uncoupling protein in white and brown adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 1997 Feb; 138(2):797-804. PMID: 9003017.
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  158. Sarraf P, Frederich RC, Turner EM, Ma G, Jaskowiak NT, Rivet DJ, Flier JS, Lowell BB, Fraker DL, Alexander HR. Multiple cytokines and acute inflammation raise mouse leptin levels: potential role in inflammatory anorexia. J Exp Med. 1997 Jan 06; 185(1):171-5. PMID: 8996253; PMCID: PMC2196098.
  159. Lowell BB, Flier JS. Brown adipose tissue, beta 3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity. Annu Rev Med. 1997; 48:307-16. PMID: 9046964.
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  160. Lowell BB. Fat metabolism. Slimming with leaner enzyme. Nature. 1996 Aug 15; 382(6592):585-6. PMID: 8757124.
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  161. Ahima RS, Prabakaran D, Mantzoros C, Qu D, Lowell B, Maratos-Flier E, Flier JS. Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting. Nature. 1996 Jul 18; 382(6588):250-2. PMID: 8717038.
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  162. Mantzoros CS, Qu D, Frederich RC, Susulic VS, Lowell BB, Maratos-Flier E, Flier JS. Activation of beta(3) adrenergic receptors suppresses leptin expression and mediates a leptin-independent inhibition of food intake in mice. Diabetes. 1996 Jul; 45(7):909-14. PMID: 8666142.
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  163. Vidal-Puig A, Jimenez-Liñan M, Lowell BB, Hamann A, Hu E, Spiegelman B, Flier JS, Moller DE. Regulation of PPAR gamma gene expression by nutrition and obesity in rodents. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jun 01; 97(11):2553-61. PMID: 8647948; PMCID: PMC507341.
  164. Hamann A, Flier JS, Lowell BB. Decreased brown fat markedly enhances susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Endocrinology. 1996 Jan; 137(1):21-9. PMID: 8536614.
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  165. Susulic VS, Frederich RC, Lawitts J, Tozzo E, Kahn BB, Harper ME, Himms-Hagen J, Flier JS, Lowell BB. Targeted disruption of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 08; 270(49):29483-92. PMID: 7493988.
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  166. Frederich RC, Hamann A, Anderson S, Löllmann B, Lowell BB, Flier JS. Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action. Nat Med. 1995 Dec; 1(12):1311-4. PMID: 7489415.
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  167. Hamann A, Benecke H, Le Marchand-Brustel Y, Susulic VS, Lowell BB, Flier JS. Characterization of insulin resistance and NIDDM in transgenic mice with reduced brown fat. Diabetes. 1995 Nov; 44(11):1266-73. PMID: 7589822.
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  168. Frederich RC, Löllmann B, Hamann A, Napolitano-Rosen A, Kahn BB, Lowell BB, Flier JS. Expression of ob mRNA and its encoded protein in rodents. Impact of nutrition and obesity. J Clin Invest. 1995 Sep; 96(3):1658-63. PMID: 7657836; PMCID: PMC185793.
  169. Lowell BB, Flier JS. The potential significance of beta 3 adrenergic receptors. J Clin Invest. 1995 Mar; 95(3):923. PMID: 7883990; PMCID: PMC441421.
  170. Napolitano A, Lowell BB, Damm D, Leibel RL, Ravussin E, Jimerson DC, Lesem MD, Van Dyke DC, Daly PA, Chatis P, et al. Concentrations of adipsin in blood and rates of adipsin secretion by adipose tissue in humans with normal, elevated and diminished adipose tissue mass. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994 Apr; 18(4):213-8. PMID: 8044195.
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  171. Lowell BB, S-Susulic V, Hamann A, Lawitts JA, Himms-Hagen J, Boyer BB, Kozak LP, Flier JS. Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue. Nature. 1993 Dec 23-30; 366(6457):740-2. PMID: 8264795.
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  172. White RT, Damm D, Hancock N, Rosen BS, Lowell BB, Usher P, Flier JS, Spiegelman BM. Human adipsin is identical to complement factor D and is expressed at high levels in adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 1992 May 05; 267(13):9210-3. PMID: 1374388.
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  173. Napolitano A, Lowell BB, Flier JS. Alterations in sympathetic nervous system activity do not regulate adipsin gene expression in mice. Int J Obes. 1991 Mar; 15(3):227-35. PMID: 1646181.
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  174. Lowell BB, Flier JS. Differentiation dependent biphasic regulation of adipsin gene expression by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Endocrinology. 1990 Dec; 127(6):2898-906. PMID: 2249632.
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  175. Lowell BB, Napolitano A, Usher P, Dulloo AG, Rosen BS, Spiegelman BM, Flier JS. Reduced adipsin expression in murine obesity: effect of age and treatment with the sympathomimetic-thermogenic drug mixture ephedrine and caffeine. Endocrinology. 1990 Mar; 126(3):1514-20. PMID: 2307116.
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  176. Spiegelman BM, Lowell B, Napolitano A, Dubuc P, Barton D, Francke U, Groves DL, Cook KS, Flier JS. Adrenal glucocorticoids regulate adipsin gene expression in genetically obese mice. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 25; 264(3):1811-5. PMID: 2912985.
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  177. Flier JS, Lowell B, Napolitano A, Usher P, Rosen B, Cook KS, Spiegelman B. Adipsin: regulation and dysregulation in obesity and other metabolic states. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1989; 45:567-80; discussion 580-1. PMID: 2682848.
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  178. Lowell BB, Goodman MN. Protein sparing in skeletal muscle during prolonged starvation. Dependence on lipid fuel availability. Diabetes. 1987 Jan; 36(1):14-9. PMID: 3792662.
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  179. Lowell BB, Ruderman NB, Goodman MN. Regulation of myofibrillar protein degradation in rat skeletal muscle during brief and prolonged starvation. Metabolism. 1986 Dec; 35(12):1121-7. PMID: 3537631.
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  180. Lowell BB, Ruderman NB, Goodman MN. Evidence that lysosomes are not involved in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Biochem J. 1986 Feb 15; 234(1):237-40. PMID: 3707546; PMCID: PMC1146553.
  181. Goodman MN, Lowell B, Belur E, Ruderman NB. Sites of protein conservation and loss during starvation: influence of adiposity. Am J Physiol. 1984 May; 246(5 Pt 1):E383-90. PMID: 6720943.
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  182. Goodman MN, Lowell B, Ruderman NB. Protein conservation during starvation: possible role of lipid fuels. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982; 102 Pt C:317-31. PMID: 7167465.
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  183. Lowell BB, Wade GN, Gray JM, Gold RM, Petrulavage J. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity in rats with obesity-inducing hypothalamic knife cuts. Physiol Behav. 1980 Jul; 25(1):113-6. PMID: 6997903.
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  184. Lowell BB, Gold RM, Adamchuk CA. Hypothalamic knife cut obesity in hyper or hypothyroid rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1980 Jun; 12(6):837-41. PMID: 7403201.
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  185. Gold RM, Klein MG, Ringuette BA, Lowell BB, Katz R. Non-effect of Massachusetts cement kiln dust upon the food intake, body weight, or activity of female rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1979 Jan; 10(1):1-3. PMID: 571605.
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