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profileMohammed Ragib Milad, Ph.D.

TitleAssociate Professor of Psychiatry
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentPsychiatry
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
Cny 2614
149 13th Street
Charlestown MA 02129
Phone617/724-8533
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Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Spencer AE, Faraone SV, Bogucki OE, Pope AL, Uchida M, Milad MR, Spencer TJ, Woodworth KY, Biederman J. Examining the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jan; 77(1):72-83. PMID: 26114394.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Rosenbaum BL, Bui E, Marin MF, Holt DJ, Lasko NB, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Milad MR. Reprint of: "Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear". Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Dec; 98(3 Pt 2):606-11. PMID: 26608179.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Hwang MJ, Zsido RG, Song H, Pace-Schott EF, Miller KK, Lebron-Milad K, Marin MF, Milad MR. Contribution of estradiol levels and hormonal contraceptives to sex differences within the fear network during fear conditioning and extinction. BMC Psychiatry. 2015; 15(1):295. PMID: 26581193; PMCID: PMC4652367.
  4. Engman J, Linnman C, Van Dijk KR, Milad MR. Amygdala subnuclei resting-state functional connectivity sex and estrogen differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Jan; 63:34-42. PMID: 26406106.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Faghih RT, Stokes PA, Marin MF, Zsido RG, Zorowitz S, Rosenbaum BL, Milad MR, Dougherty DD, Eskandar EN, Widge AS, Brown EN, Barbieri R. Characterization of fear conditioning and fear extinction by analysis of electrodermal activity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015 Aug; 2015:7814-8. PMID: 26738104.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Rosenbaum BL, Bui E, Marin MF, Holt DJ, Lasko NB, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Milad MR. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear. Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Oct; 98(1):59-64. PMID: 26151498.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Marin MF, Lonak SF, Milad MR. Augmentation of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy for PTSD With Cognitive Enhancers. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015 Jun; 17(6):39. PMID: 25894356.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Pace-Schott EF, Germain A, Milad MR. Sleep and REM sleep disturbance in the pathophysiology of PTSD: the role of extinction memory. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2015; 5:3. PMID: 26034578; PMCID: PMC4450835.
  9. Pace-Schott EF, Germain A, Milad MR. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction. Psychol Bull. 2015 Jul; 141(4):835-57. PMID: 25894546; PMCID: PMC4486610 [Available on 07/01/16].
  10. Maeng LY, Milad MR. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones. Horm Behav. 2015 Nov; 76:106-17. PMID: 25888456.
    View in: PubMed
  11. MacNamara A, Rabinak CA, Fitzgerald DA, Zhou XJ, Shankman SA, Milad MR, Phan KL. Neural correlates of individual differences in fear learning. Behav Brain Res. 2015; 287:34-41. PMID: 25819422; PMCID: PMC4424059 [Available on 07/01/16].
  12. Sierra-Mercado D, McAllister LM, Lee CC, Milad MR, Eskandar EN, Whalen MJ. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice. Brain Res. 2015 May 5; 1606:133-41. PMID: 25721797; PMCID: PMC4518729 [Available on 05/05/16].
  13. Maeng LY, Cover KK, Landau AJ, Milad MR, Lebron-Milad K. Protocol for studying extinction of conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats. J Vis Exp. 2015; (96). PMID: 25741747; PMCID: PMC4354674.
  14. Martínez KG, Franco-Chaves JA, Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Ethnic differences in physiological responses to fear conditioned stimuli. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114977. PMID: 25501365; PMCID: PMC4264849.
  15. McLaughlin NC, Strong D, Abrantes A, Garnaat S, Cerny A, O'Connell C, Fadok R, Spofford C, Rasmussen SA, Milad MR, Greenberg BD. Extinction retention and fear renewal in a lifetime obsessive-compulsive disorder sample. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Mar 1; 280:72-7. PMID: 25446749; PMCID: PMC4596815.
  16. Spring JD, Wood NE, Mueller-Pfeiffer C, Milad MR, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Prereactivation propranolol fails to reduce skin conductance reactivity to prepared fear-conditioned stimuli. Psychophysiology. 2015 Mar; 52(3):407-15. PMID: 25224026.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Holt DJ, Boeke EA, Wolthusen RP, Nasr S, Milad MR, Tootell RB. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:624. PMID: 25249955; PMCID: PMC4155784.
  18. Milad MR, Rosenbaum BL, Simon NM. Neuroscience of fear extinction: implications for assessment and treatment of fear-based and anxiety related disorders. Behav Res Ther. 2014 Nov; 62:17-23. PMID: 25204715.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Cover KK, Maeng LY, Lebrón-Milad K, Milad MR. Mechanisms of estradiol in fear circuitry: implications for sex differences in psychopathology. Transl Psychiatry. 2014; 4:e422. PMID: 25093600; PMCID: PMC4150242.
  20. Graham BM, Milad MR. Inhibition of estradiol synthesis impairs fear extinction in male rats. Learn Mem. 2014 Jul; 21(7):347-50. PMID: 24939838; PMCID: PMC4061425.
  21. Milad MR, Radulovic J. Introduction to the special issue of Neurobiology of Learning and Memory on fear extinction. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Sep; 113:1-2. PMID: 24727221.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Marin MF, Camprodon JA, Dougherty DD, Milad MR. Device-based brain stimulation to augment fear extinction: implications for PTSD treatment and beyond. Depress Anxiety. 2014 Apr; 31(4):269-78. PMID: 24634247.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Shvil E, Sullivan GM, Schafer S, Markowitz JC, Campeas M, Wager TD, Milad MR, Neria Y. Sex differences in extinction recall in posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot fMRI study. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Sep; 113:101-8. PMID: 24560771; PMCID: PMC4053517.
  24. Pace-Schott EF, Tracy LE, Rubin Z, Mollica AG, Ellenbogen JM, Bianchi MT, Milad MR, Pitman RK, Orr SP. Interactions of time of day and sleep with between-session habituation and extinction memory in young adult males. Exp Brain Res. 2014 May; 232(5):1443-58. PMID: 24481663; PMCID: PMC4013206.
  25. Rabinak CA, Angstadt M, Lyons M, Mori S, Milad MR, Liberzon I, Phan KL. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Sep; 113:125-34. PMID: 24055595; PMCID: PMC3960373.
  26. Pace-Schott EF, Spencer RM, Vijayakumar S, Ahmed NA, Verga PW, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Nov; 47(11):1776-84. PMID: 23992769; PMCID: PMC3791331.
  27. Lebrón-Milad K, Tsareva A, Ahmed N, Milad MR. Sex differences and estrous cycle in female rats interact with the effects of fluoxetine treatment on fear extinction. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Sep 15; 253:217-22. PMID: 23886596; PMCID: PMC4106477.
  28. Bui E, Orr SP, Jacoby RJ, Keshaviah A, LeBlanc NJ, Milad MR, Pollack MH, Simon NM. Two weeks of pretreatment with escitalopram facilitates extinction learning in healthy individuals. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013 Sep; 28(5):447-56. PMID: 23776033.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Admon R, Milad MR, Hendler T. A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013 Jul; 17(7):337-47. PMID: 23768722.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Milad MR, Furtak SC, Greenberg JL, Keshaviah A, Im JJ, Falkenstein MJ, Jenike M, Rauch SL, Wilhelm S. Deficits in conditioned fear extinction in obsessive-compulsive disorder and neurobiological changes in the fear circuit. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Jun; 70(6):608-18; quiz 554. PMID: 23740049.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Li Y, Meloni EG, Carlezon WA, Milad MR, Pitman RK, Nader K, Bolshakov VY. Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19; 110(12):4798-803. PMID: 23487762; PMCID: PMC3607055.
  32. Graham BM, Milad MR. Blockade of estrogen by hormonal contraceptives impairs fear extinction in female rats and women. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 15; 73(4):371-8. PMID: 23158459; PMCID: PMC3557577.
  33. Inslicht SS, Metzler TJ, Garcia NM, Pineles SL, Milad MR, Orr SP, Marmar CR, Neylan TC. Sex differences in fear conditioning in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Jan; 47(1):64-71. PMID: 23107307; PMCID: PMC3806498.
  34. Pitman RK, Rasmusson AM, Koenen KC, Shin LM, Orr SP, Gilbertson MW, Milad MR, Liberzon I. Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Nov; 13(11):769-87. PMID: 23047775.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Martínez KG, Castro-Couch M, Franco-Chaves JA, Ojeda-Arce B, Segura G, Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Correlations between psychological tests and physiological responses during fear conditioning and renewal. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2012; 2(1):16. PMID: 22985550; PMCID: PMC3511243.
  36. Holt DJ, Coombs G, Zeidan MA, Goff DC, Milad MR. Failure of neural responses to safety cues in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Sep; 69(9):893-903. PMID: 22945619; PMCID: PMC3767036.
  37. Rabinak CA, Angstadt M, Sripada CS, Abelson JL, Liberzon I, Milad MR, Phan KL. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jan; 64:396-402. PMID: 22796109; PMCID: PMC3445738.
  38. Lebron-Milad K, Graham BM, Milad MR. Low estradiol levels: a vulnerability factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jul 1; 72(1):6-7. PMID: 22682395.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Lebron-Milad K, Abbs B, Milad MR, Linnman C, Rougemount-Bücking A, Zeidan MA, Holt DJ, Goldstein JM. Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: a preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2012; 2(1):7. PMID: 22738021; PMCID: PMC3416700.
  40. Zeidan MA, Lebron-Milad K, Thompson-Hollands J, Im JJ, Dougherty DD, Holt DJ, Orr SP, Milad MR. Test-retest reliability during fear acquisition and fear extinction in humans. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012 Apr; 18(4):313-7. PMID: 21592319.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Furtak SC, Pitman RK, Quirk GJ, Milad MR. Resting amygdala and medial prefrontal metabolism predicts functional activation of the fear extinction circuit. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 169(4):415-23. PMID: 22318762; PMCID: PMC4080711.
  42. Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Reprint of: Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning. Biol Psychol. 2013 Jan; 92(1):26-35. PMID: 22425559.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Lebron-Milad K, Milad MR. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2012; 2(1):3. PMID: 22738383; PMCID: PMC3384233.
  44. Rodman AM, Milad MR, Deckersbach T, Im J, Chou T, Dougherty DD. Neuroimaging contributions to novel surgical treatments for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012 Feb; 12(2):219-27. PMID: 22288677.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Fear extinction as a model for translational neuroscience: ten years of progress. Annu Rev Psychol. 2012; 63:129-51. PMID: 22129456.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning. Biol Psychol. 2012 Feb; 89(2):450-9. PMID: 22207247; PMCID: PMC3269527.
  47. Milad MR, Rauch SL. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond segregated cortico-striatal pathways. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012 Jan; 16(1):43-51. PMID: 22138231.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Linnman C, Zeffiro TA, Pitman RK, Milad MR. An fMRI study of unconditioned responses in post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2011; 1(1):8. PMID: 22738227; PMCID: PMC3384234.
  49. Graham BM, Milad MR. The study of fear extinction: implications for anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec; 168(12):1255-65. PMID: 21865528; PMCID: PMC4118766.
  50. Pitman RK, Milad MR, Igoe SA, Vangel MG, Orr SP, Tsareva A, Gamache K, Nader K. Systemic mifepristone blocks reconsolidation of cue-conditioned fear; propranolol prevents this effect. Behav Neurosci. 2011 Aug; 125(4):632-8. PMID: 21688892.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Zeidan MA, Igoe SA, Linnman C, Vitalo A, Levine JB, Klibanski A, Goldstein JM, Milad MR. Estradiol modulates medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activity during fear extinction in women and female rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Nov 15; 70(10):920-7. PMID: 21762880; PMCID: PMC3197763.
  52. Shin LM, Bush G, Milad MR, Lasko NB, Brohawn KH, Hughes KC, Macklin ML, Gold AL, Karpf RD, Orr SP, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Exaggerated activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during cognitive interference: a monozygotic twin study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Sep; 168(9):979-85. PMID: 21724666; PMCID: PMC3773363.
  53. Linnman C, Rougemont-Bücking A, Beucke JC, Zeffiro TA, Milad MR. Unconditioned responses and functional fear networks in human classical conditioning. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Aug 1; 221(1):237-45. PMID: 21377494; PMCID: PMC3092385.
  54. Milad MR, Zeidan MA, Contero A, Pitman RK, Klibanski A, Rauch SL, Goldstein JM. The influence of gonadal hormones on conditioned fear extinction in healthy humans. Neuroscience. 2010 Jul 14; 168(3):652-8. PMID: 20412837; PMCID: PMC2881679.
  55. Rougemont-Bücking A, Linnman C, Zeffiro TA, Zeidan MA, Lebron-Milad K, Rodriguez-Romaguera J, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Milad MR. Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2011 Aug; 17(4):227-36. PMID: 20406268.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Quirk GJ, Milad MR. Neuroscience: Editing out fear. Nature. 2010 Jan 7; 463(7277):36-7. PMID: 20054384.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Shin LM, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Karpf RD, Milad MR, Orr SP, Goetz JM, Fischman AJ, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Resting metabolic activity in the cingulate cortex and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 66(10):1099-107. PMID: 19805700; PMCID: PMC3752096.
  58. Milad MR, Igoe SA, Lebron-Milad K, Novales JE. Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction. Neuroscience. 2009 Dec 15; 164(3):887-95. PMID: 19761818; PMCID: PMC2783784.
  59. Milad MR, Pitman RK, Ellis CB, Gold AL, Shin LM, Lasko NB, Zeidan MA, Handwerger K, Orr SP, Rauch SL. Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Dec 15; 66(12):1075-82. PMID: 19748076; PMCID: PMC2787650.
  60. Polli FE, Wright CI, Milad MR, Dickerson BC, Vangel M, Barton JJ, Rauch SL, Manoach DS. Hemispheric differences in amygdala contributions to response monitoring. Neuroreport. 2009 Mar 4; 20(4):398-402. PMID: 19218865; PMCID: PMC2650381.
  61. Pace-Schott EF, Milad MR, Orr SP, Rauch SL, Stickgold R, Pitman RK. Sleep promotes generalization of extinction of conditioned fear. Sleep. 2009 Jan; 32(1):19-26. PMID: 19189775; PMCID: PMC2625320.
  62. Holt DJ, Lebron-Milad K, Milad MR, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Cassidy BS, Walsh JP, Goff DC. Extinction memory is impaired in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Mar 15; 65(6):455-63. PMID: 18986648; PMCID: PMC3740529.
  63. Milad MR, Orr SP, Lasko NB, Chang Y, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Presence and acquired origin of reduced recall for fear extinction in PTSD: results of a twin study. J Psychiatr Res. 2008 Jun; 42(7):515-20. PMID: 18313695; PMCID: PMC2377011.
  64. Milad MR, Quirk GJ, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Fischl B, Rauch SL. A role for the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in fear expression. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 15; 62(10):1191-4. PMID: 17707349.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Milad MR, Rauch SL. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in anxiety disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Dec; 1121:546-61. PMID: 17698998.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Milad MR, Wright CI, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Quirk GJ, Rauch SL. Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep 1; 62(5):446-54. PMID: 17217927.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Milad MR, Goldstein JM, Orr SP, Wedig MM, Klibanski A, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Fear conditioning and extinction: influence of sex and menstrual cycle in healthy humans. Behav Neurosci. 2006 Dec; 120(6):1196-203. PMID: 17201462.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Orr SP, Milad MR, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Gilbertson MW, Pitman RK. Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biol Psychol. 2006 Oct; 73(3):262-71. PMID: 16828533.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Milad MR, Rauch SL, Pitman RK, Quirk GJ. Fear extinction in rats: implications for human brain imaging and anxiety disorders. Biol Psychol. 2006 Jul; 73(1):61-71. PMID: 16476517.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Rauch SL, Milad MR, Orr SP, Quinn BT, Fischl B, Pitman RK. Orbitofrontal thickness, retention of fear extinction, and extraversion. Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28; 16(17):1909-12. PMID: 16272877.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Milad MR, Quinn BT, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Fischl B, Rauch SL. Thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans is correlated with extinction memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26; 102(30):10706-11. PMID: 16024728; PMCID: PMC1180773.
  72. Milad MR, Orr SP, Pitman RK, Rauch SL. Context modulation of memory for fear extinction in humans. Psychophysiology. 2005 Jul; 42(4):456-64. PMID: 16008774.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Lebrón K, Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Delayed recall of fear extinction in rats with lesions of ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Learn Mem. 2004 Sep-Oct; 11(5):544-8. PMID: 15466306.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Milad MR, Vidal-Gonzalez I, Quirk GJ. Electrical stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex reduces conditioned fear in a temporally specific manner. Behav Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 118(2):389-94. PMID: 15113265.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature. 2002 Nov 7; 420(6911):70-4. PMID: 12422216.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Matta J, Navas J, Milad M, Manger R, Hupka A, Frazer T. A pilot study for the detection of acute ciguatera intoxication in human blood. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002; 40(1):49-57. PMID: 11990204.
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  77. Matta J, Milad M, Manger R, Tosteson T. Heavy metals, lipid peroxidation, and ciguatera toxicity in the liver of the Caribbean barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda). Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Oct; 70(1):69-79. PMID: 10493185.
    View in: PubMed
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