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Xi Chen, Ph.D.

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Xiamen University, Xiamen, ChinaPh.D.06/2009Magnetic Resonance Physics
National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD03/2014Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH08/2015Animal Neuroimaging

As a Magnetic Resonance (MR) Physicist, I have substantial background in MRS/MRI technical development. In particular, I have developed cutting-edge in vivo MR spectroscopy techniques on both clinical and preclinical MRI scanners to assess neurotransmitters and cerebral metabolites. I also performed a series of studies exploring the relations between regional neurotransmitters and brain functional network. My work was published in mainstream neuroscience, psychiatry and MRI journals such as Journal of Neuroscience, Cerebral Cortex, Schizophrenia Bulletin, Schizophrenia Research and Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and I have given numerous oral presentations at international conferences such as International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). My research interest is to develop cutting-edge neuroimaging techniques to better understand neurobiological mechanisms, better diagnosis and monitoring disease progression and treatment response of psychotic disorders.

The research activities and funding listed below are automatically derived from NIH ExPORTER and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing items. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
  1. BBRF Young Investigator Grant (Xi Chen) Jan 15, 2021 - Jan 14, 2023
    Brain & Behavior Research Foundation
    How neurotransmitter concentrations in default-mode network modulate brain functional activities and connectivities as psychosis progresses: a longitudinal study
    Role Description: By combining functional MRI (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques, it has been shown that the neurotransmitter concentrations in default-mode network (DMN) modulate the brain functional activities and resting-state connectivities. It was observed that the relationship between DMN neurotransmitter concentrations and the activities of brain functional network breaks down in first-episode psychosis patients in an ongoing study. In the current proposed study, these psychosis participants will be followed up with the same fMRI/MRS scans after four years, in order to monitor how neurotransmitter concentrations, brain functions as well as their relationship change as the disease progresses and medication takes effect.
    Role: Principal Investigator
  2. Livingston Fellowship Award (Xi Chen) Jul 1, 2020 - Jun 30, 2021
    Harvard Medical School
    Observing glutamate and lactate dynamics in schizophrenia during working memory task
    Role Description: The brain neurotransmission and energy metabolism systems are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. With functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) using the unique macromolecule suppression technique, glutamate and lactate dynamics can be simultaneously observed in the active brain area of schizophrenia patients during the working memory task with different loads. These fMRS measures more directly reflect behaviorally relevant neural activities and would help to better understand the underlying neurotransmission abnormalities and mitochondrial dysfunction of schizophrenia under cognitive stress.
    Role: Principal Investigator
  3. Pathways Research Award (Xi Chen) Apr 1, 2020 - Mar 31, 2022
    Alkermes, Inc
    In vivo observing brain lactate changes in first episode schizophrenia using 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Role Description: The project is to obtain brain energy metabolite information of newly diagnosed schizophrenia using MRI to better understand the pathophysiology of the brain disorder as well as potentially develop biomarkers to address treatment effects and optimize outcomes.
    Role: Principal Investigator

Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
  1. Kuan E, Chen X, Du F, Ongur D. N-acetylaspartate concentration in psychotic disorders: T2-relaxation effects. Schizophr Res. 2021 06; 232:42-44. PMID: 34015554; PMCID: PMC8217341.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  2. Paris JJ, Chen X, Anderson J, Qrareya AN, Mahdi F, Du F, McLaughlin JP, Kaufman MJ. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detection of metabolite abnormalities in aged Tat-transgenic mouse brain. Geroscience. 2021 08; 43(4):1851-1862. PMID: 33818687; PMCID: PMC8492857.
    Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  3. Yuksel C, Chen X, Chouinard VA, Nickerson LD, Gardner M, Cohen T, Öngür D, Du F. Abnormal Brain Bioenergetics in First-Episode Psychosis. Schizophr Bull Open. 2021 Jan; 2(1):sgaa073. PMID: 33554120; PMCID: PMC7848946.
    Citations: 1     
  4. Song X, Chen X, Yuksel C, Yuan J, Pizzagalli DA, Forester B, Öngür D, Du F. Bioenergetics and abnormal functional connectivity in psychotic disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2021 06; 26(6):2483-2492. PMID: 33398087; PMCID: PMC8254819.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  5. Duda JM, Moser AD, Zuo CS, Du F, Chen X, Perlo S, Richards CE, Nascimento N, Ironside M, Crowley DJ, Holsen LM, Misra M, Hudson JI, Goldstein JM, Pizzagalli DA. Repeatability and reliability of GABA measurements with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in healthy young adults. Magn Reson Med. 2021 05; 85(5):2359-2369. PMID: 33216412; PMCID: PMC7902337.
    Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  6. Zeng H, Zhang X, Wang W, Shen Z, Dai Z, Yu Z, Xu S, Yan G, Huang Q, Wu R, Chen X, Xu H. Maternal separation with early weaning impairs neuron-glia integrity: non-invasive evaluation and substructure demonstration. Sci Rep. 2020 11 10; 10(1):19440. PMID: 33173142.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  7. Lewandowski KE, Du F, Fan X, Chen X, Huynh P, Öngür D. Role of glia in prefrontal white matter abnormalities in first episode psychosis or mania detected by diffusion tensor spectroscopy. Schizophr Res. 2019 07; 209:64-71. PMID: 31101514; PMCID: PMC6661189.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  8. Chen X, Fan X, Hu Y, Zuo C, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Holt D, Gong Q, Yang Y, Pizzagalli DA, Du F, Ongur D. Regional GABA Concentrations Modulate Inter-network Resting-state Functional Connectivity. Cereb Cortex. 2019 04 01; 29(4):1607-1618. PMID: 29608677; PMCID: PMC6418388.
    Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  9. Chen X, Tamang SM, Du F, Ongur D. Glutamate diffusion in the rat brain in vivo under light and deep anesthesia conditions. Magn Reson Med. 2019 07; 82(1):84-94. PMID: 30860289.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  10. Gu H, Hu Y, Chen X, He Y, Yang Y. Regional excitation-inhibition balance predicts default-mode network deactivation via functional connectivity. Neuroimage. 2019 01 15; 185:388-397. PMID: 30359729.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  11. Xu S, Zhu W, Wan Y, Wang J, Chen X, Pi L, Lobo MK, Ren B, Ying Z, Morris M, Cao Q. Decreased Taurine and Creatine in the Thalamus May Relate to Behavioral Impairments in Ethanol-Fed Mice: A Pilot Study of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Mol Imaging. 2018 Jan-Dec; 17:1536012117749051. PMID: 29318932; PMCID: PMC5768247.
    Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
  12. Darnall RA, Chen X, Nemani KV, Sirieix CM, Gimi B, Knoblach S, McEntire BL, Hunt CE. Early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia in rodents is proinflammatory, impairs white matter integrity, and alters brain metabolism. Pediatr Res. 2017 07; 82(1):164-172. PMID: 28388601; PMCID: PMC5509485.
    Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  13. Kim SY, Cohen BM, Chen X, Lukas SE, Shinn AK, Yuksel AC, Li T, Du F, Öngür D. Redox Dysregulation in Schizophrenia Revealed by in vivo NAD+/NADH Measurement. Schizophr Bull. 2017 01; 43(1):197-204. PMID: 27665001.
    Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
  14. Gilli F, Chen X, Pachner AR, Gimi B. High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor Spinal Cord MRI Measures as Biomarkers of Disability Progression in a Rodent Model of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0160071. PMID: 27467829.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
  15. Hu Y, Chen X, Gu H, Yang Y. Resting-state glutamate and GABA concentrations predict task-induced deactivation in the default mode network. J Neurosci. 2013 Nov 20; 33(47):18566-73. PMID: 24259578.
    Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:Humans
  16. Xu S, Ji Y, Chen X, Yang Y, Gullapalli RP, Masri R. In vivo high-resolution localized (1) H MR spectroscopy in the awake rat brain at 7 T. Magn Reson Med. 2013 Apr; 69(4):937-43. PMID: 22570299.
    Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  17. Lin M, Lin Y, Chen X, Cai S, Chen Z. High-resolution absorptive intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields. J Magn Reson. 2012 Jan; 214(1):289-95. PMID: 22206769.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
  18. Lin M, Chen X, Cai C, Cai S, Chen Z. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy in unstable and inhomogeneous fields via stroboscopic acquisition. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011 Jun; 79(1):112-7. PMID: 21458369.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  19. Lin M, Huang Y, Chen X, Cai S, Chen Z. High-resolution 2D NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences with efficient acquisition schemes. J Magn Reson. 2011 Jan; 208(1):87-94. PMID: 21051250.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  20. Lin M, Chen X, Cai S, Chen Z. High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy in unstable fields via intermolecular zero-quantum coherences. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010 Jun 21; 12(23):6014-20. PMID: 20428575.
    Citations:    Fields:    
  21. Huang Y, Chen X, Cai S, Cai C, Chen Z. High-resolution two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in inhomogeneous fields: new application of intermolecular zero-quantum coherences. J Chem Phys. 2010 Apr 07; 132(13):134507. PMID: 20387941.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  22. Huang Y, Cai S, Chen X, Chen Z. Intermolecular single-quantum coherence sequences for high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields. J Magn Reson. 2010 Mar; 203(1):100-7. PMID: 20053574.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
  23. Zhang W, Cai C, Cai S, Chen X, Chen Z. Intermolecular double-quantum coherence NMR spectroscopy in moderate inhomogeneous fields. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2009 Dec; 74(5):1138-44. PMID: 19828362.
    Citations: 1     Fields:    
  24. Chen X, Lin M, Chen Z, Zhong J. Fast acquisition scheme for achieving high-resolution MRS with J-scaling under inhomogeneous fields. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Apr; 61(4):775-84. PMID: 19189293.
    Citations: 2     Fields:    
  25. Chen X, Lin M, Chen Z, Cai S, Zhong J. High-resolution intermolecular zero-quantum coherence spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields with effective solvent suppression. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2007 Dec 21; 9(47):6231-40. PMID: 18046472.
    Citations: 3     Fields:    
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Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.