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Novel Heterologous Adenovirus Prime-Boost HIV-1 Vaccine


Biography

Overview
Current HIV-1 vaccine candidates based on recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors are promising but may prove limited by the high prevalence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity in the developing world. To overcome this problem, we have constructed a series of novel serotype and novel chimeric rAd vectors that effectively circumvent anti-Ad5 immunity. We have also demonstrated that heterologous rAd prime-boost regimens utilizing two serologically distinct rAd vectors elicit remarkably potent immune responses, particularly regimens involving rAd26 priming and rAd5 or rAd5HVR48 boosting. In addition, we have generated rAd vectors expressing optimal C clade, M consensus, and M mosaic HIV-1 antigens designed to minimize genetic distance and to optimize T cell epitope coverage among global HIV-1 sequences. We therefore propose to develop a practical, two-injection, heterologous rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48 boost regimen expressing antigens optimized for global coverage as a novel candidate HIV-1 vaccine. To accomplish this goal, we propose three Projects and one Core: Project 1 (Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Adenovirus Prime-Boost HIV-1 Vaccine) will determine the optimal antigens for our multivalent HIV-1 vaccine candidate and will evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48 boost regimen against homologous and heterologous SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys. Project 2 (Clinical Evaluation of Novel Adenovirus Prime-Boost HIV-1 Vaccine) will assess the safety and immunogenicity of the optimal heterologous rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48 boost regimen in phase 1 and international phase 2a clinical trials in collaboration with the HIV Vaccine Trials. Network (HVTN). Project 3 (Manufacturing of Novel Adenovirus Prime-Boost HIV-1 Vaccine) will manufacture and release trivalent, clinical-grade rAd26 and rAd5HVR48 vaccine products at Crucell Holland BV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Core A (Administrative Core) will provide all the logistic, scientific, managerial, and financial oversight to facilitate and to coordinate the studies described in this IPCAVD program. By the end of the proposed 5-year period of support, we plan to have sufficient preclinical and clinical data to determine whether this vaccine may be a promising candidate for further development into advanced phase clinical trials including potential efficacy studies. PROJECT 1: Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Adenovirus Prime-Boost HIV-1 Vaccine: Dan H. Barouch PROJECT 1 DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Current HIV-1 vaccine candidates based on recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors are promising but may prove limited by the high prevalence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity in the developing world. To overcome this problem, we have constructed a series of novel serotype and novel chimeric rAd vectors that effectively circumvent anti-Ad5 immunity. We have also demonstrated that heterologous rAd prime-boost regimens utilizing two serologically distinct rAd vectors elicit remarkably potent immune responses, particularly regimens involving rAd26 priming and rAd5 or rAd5HVR48 boosting. In addition, we have generated rAd Vectors expressing optimal C clade, M consensus, and M mosaic HIV-1 antigens designed to minimize genetic distance and to optimize T cell epitope coverage among global HIV-1 sequences. We propose to develop a practical, two-injection, heterologous rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48 boost regimen expressing antigens optimized for global coverage as a novel candidate HIV-1 vaccine. The goals of Project 1 are to select the optimal antigens for our multivalent HIV-1 vaccine candidate and to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48 boost regimen in rhesus monkeys to support the clinical program in Project 2 and the manufacturing program in Project 3. In Project 1, we hypothesize that M consensus or M mosaic HIV-1 antigens will prove superior to naturally occurring C clade and VRC multiclade antigens for immunologic coverage of diverse global virus sequences. We further hypothesize that the optimal vaccine regimen expressing SIV antigens will afford significant protection against both homologous and heterologous SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys. To explore these hypotheses, we propose the following four Specific Aims: 1. To compare the magnitude and breadth of immune responses elicited by optimal C clade, M consensus, M mosaic, and VRC multiclade antigens in rhesus monkeys; 2. To determine the protective efficacy of the optimal vaccine regimen expressing various sets of SIV antigens against homologous SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys with anti-Ad5 immunity; 3. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the optimal vaccine regimen against heterologous SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys with anti-Ad5 immunity; and 4. To assess the mucosal immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the optimal vaccine regimen against multiple, low-dose, mucosal SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys with anti-Ad5 immunity.
U19AI078526
BAROUCH, DAN H.

Time
2008-08-15
2015-07-31
Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541.