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Charles Clifton Richardson, M.D.

TitleEdward S. Wood Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
InstitutionHarvard Medical School
DepartmentBiological Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology
AddressHarvard Medical School
C2-219a
240 Longwood Ave
Boston MA 02115
Phone617/432-1864
Fax617/432-3362

 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Akabayov SR, Akabayov B, Richardson CC, Wagner G. Molecular Crowding Enhanced ATPase Activity of the RNA Helicase eIF4A Correlates with Compaction of Its Quaternary Structure and Association with eIF4G. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Jul 10; 135(27):10040-7.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Akabayov B, Akabayov SR, Lee SJ, Wagner G, Richardson CC. Impact of macromolecular crowding on DNA replication. Nat Commun. 2013 Mar 19; 4:1615.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Zhu B, Tabor S, Raytcheva DA, Hernandez A, King JA, Richardson CC. The RNA polymerase of marine cyanophage syn5. J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 1; 288(5):3545-52.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Lee SJ, Zhu B, Akabayov B, Richardson CC. Zinc-binding Domain of the Bacteriophage T7 DNA Primase Modulates Binding to the DNA Template. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 9; 287(46):39030-40.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Tran NQ, Lee SJ, Akabayov B, Johnson DE, Richardson CC. Thioredoxin, the processivity factor, sequesters an exposed cysteine in the thumb domain of bacteriophage t7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 16; 287(47):39732-41.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Kulczyk AW, Akabayov B, Lee SJ, Bostina M, Berkowitz SA, Richardson CC. An Interaction between DNA Polymerase and Helicase Is Essential for the High Processivity of the Bacteriophage T7 Replisome. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 9; 287(46):39050-60.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Zhang H, Lee SJ, Kulczyk AW, Zhu B, Richardson CC. Heterohexamer of 56- and 63-kDa Gene 4 Helicase-Primase of Bacteriophage T7 in DNA Replication. J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 5; 287(41):34273-87.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Tran NQ, Tabor S, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Kulczyk AW, Richardson CC. Characterization of a nucleotide kinase encoded by bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 24; 287(35):29468-78.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Kulczyk AW, Richardson CC. Molecular interactions in the priming complex of bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 12; 109(24):9408-13.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Zhang H, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. The roles of tryptophans in primer synthesis by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 6; 287(28):23644-56.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Zhu B, Lee SJ, Tan M, Wang ED, Richardson CC. Gene 5.5 protein of bacteriophage T7 in complex with Escherichia coli nucleoid protein H-NS and transfer RNA masks transfer RNA priming in T7 DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 22; 109(21):8050-5.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Zhang H, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Essential protein interactions within the replisome regulate DNA replication. Cell Cycle. 2011 Oct 15; 10(20):3413-4.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Choreography of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2011 Oct; 15(5):580-6.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Satapathy AK, Kulczyk AW, Ghosh S, van Oijen AM, Richardson CC. Coupling dTTP hydrolysis with DNA unwinding by the DNA helicase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 30; 286(39):34468-78.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Zhu B, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Bypass of a nick by the replisome of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12; 286(32):28488-97.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Akabayov B, Kulczyk AW, Akabayov SR, Theile C, McLaughlin LW, Beauchamp B, van Oijen AM, Richardson CC. Pyrovanadolysis, a pyrophosphorolysis-like reaction mediated by pyrovanadate, Mn2+, and DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 19; 286(33):29146-57.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Zhang H, Lee SJ, Zhu B, Tran NQ, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Helicase-DNA polymerase interaction is critical to initiate leading-strand DNA synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jun 7; 108(23):9372-7.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Satapathy AK, Richardson CC. The glutamate switch of bacteriophage T7 DNA helicase: role in coupling nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) and DNA binding to NTP hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 1; 286(26):23113-20.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Loparo JJ, Kulczyk AW, Richardson CC, van Oijen AM. Simultaneous single-molecule measurements of phage T7 replisome composition and function reveal the mechanism of polymerase exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 1; 108(9):3584-9.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Akabayov B, Akabayov SR, Lee SJ, Tabor S, Kulczyk AW, Richardson CC. Conformational dynamics of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and its processivity factor, Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 24; 107(34):15033-8.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Molecular basis for recognition of nucleoside triphosphate by gene 4 helicase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 8; 285(41):31462-71.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Tran NQ, Lee SJ, Richardson CC, Tabor S. A novel nucleotide kinase encoded by gene 1.7 of bacteriophage T7. Mol Microbiol. 2010 Jul; 77(2):492-504.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Zhu B, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Direct role for the RNA polymerase domain of T7 primase in primer delivery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 18; 107(20):9099-104.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Ghosh S, Hamdan SM, Richardson CC. Two modes of interaction of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 with the DNA polymerase-thioredoxin complex. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4; 285(23):18103-12.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Satapathy AK, Kochaniak AB, Mukherjee S, Crampton DJ, van Oijen A, Richardson CC. Residues in the central beta-hairpin of the DNA helicase of bacteriophage T7 are important in DNA unwinding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 13; 107(15):6782-7.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Lee SJ, Zhu B, Hamdan SM, Richardson CC. Mechanism of sequence-specific template binding by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jul; 38(13):4372-83.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Kulczyk AW, Tanner NA, Loparo JJ, Richardson CC, van Oijen AM. Direct observation of enzymes replicating DNA using a single-molecule DNA stretching assay. J Vis Exp. 2010; (37).
    View in: PubMed
  28. Etson CM, Hamdan SM, Richardson CC, van Oijen AM. Thioredoxin suppresses microscopic hopping of T7 DNA polymerase on duplex DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 2; 107(5):1900-5.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Ghosh S, Marintcheva B, Takahashi M, Richardson CC. C-terminal phenylalanine of bacteriophage T7 single-stranded DNA-binding protein is essential for strand displacement synthesis by T7 DNA polymerase at a nick in DNA. J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 30; 284(44):30339-49.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Zhu B, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. An in trans interaction at the interface of the helicase and primase domains of the hexameric gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7 modulates their activities. J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 28; 284(35):23842-51.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Lee SJ, Chowdhury K, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Rescue of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase of low processivity by suppressor mutations affecting gene 3 endonuclease. J Virol. 2009 Sep; 83(17):8418-27.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Marintcheva B, Qimron U, Yu Y, Tabor S, Richardson CC, Richardson C. Mutations in the gene 5 DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 suppress the dominant lethal phenotype of gene 2.5 ssDNA binding protein lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine. Mol Microbiol. 2009 May; 72(4):869-80.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Satapathy AK, Crampton DJ, Beauchamp BB, Richardson CC. Promiscuous usage of nucleotides by the DNA helicase of bacteriophage T7: determinants of nucleotide specificity. J Biol Chem. 2009 May 22; 284(21):14286-95.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Akabayov B, Lee SJ, Akabayov SR, Rekhi S, Zhu B, Richardson CC. DNA recognition by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7: a structure-function study of the zinc-binding domain. Biochemistry. 2009 Mar 3; 48(8):1763-73.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Hamdan SM, Richardson CC. Motors, switches, and contacts in the replisome. Annu Rev Biochem. 2009; 78:205-43.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Hamdan SM, Loparo JJ, Takahashi M, Richardson CC, van Oijen AM. Dynamics of DNA replication loops reveal temporal control of lagging-strand synthesis. Nature. 2009 Jan 15; 457(7227):336-9.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Ghosh S, Hamdan SM, Cook TE, Richardson CC. Interactions of Escherichia coli thioredoxin, the processivity factor, with bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and helicase. J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 14; 283(46):32077-84.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Scholle MD, Banach BS, Hamdan SM, Richardson CC, Kay BK. Peptide ligands specific to the oxidized form of Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 Nov; 1784(11):1735-41.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Tran NQ, Rezende LF, Qimron U, Richardson CC, Tabor S. Gene 1.7 of bacteriophage T7 confers sensitivity of phage growth to dideoxythymidine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 8; 105(27):9373-8.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Lee SJ, Qimron U, Richardson CC. Communication between subunits critical to DNA binding by hexameric helicase of bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 1; 105(26):8908-13.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Marintcheva B, Marintchev A, Wagner G, Richardson CC. Acidic C-terminal tail of the ssDNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 and ssDNA compete for the same binding surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12; 105(6):1855-60.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Qimron U, Kulczyk AW, Hamdan SM, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Inadequate inhibition of host RNA polymerase restricts T7 bacteriophage growth on hosts overexpressing udk. Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jan; 67(2):448-57.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Hamdan SM, Johnson DE, Tanner NA, Lee JB, Qimron U, Tabor S, van Oijen AM, Richardson CC. Dynamic DNA helicase-DNA polymerase interactions assure processive replication fork movement. Mol Cell. 2007 Aug 17; 27(4):539-49.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Johnson DE, Takahashi M, Hamdan SM, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Exchange of DNA polymerases at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 27; 104(13):5312-7.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Qimron U, Marintcheva B, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Genomewide screens for Escherichia coli genes affecting growth of T7 bacteriophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 12; 103(50):19039-44.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Shokri L, Marintcheva B, Richardson CC, Rouzina I, Williams MC. Single molecule force spectroscopy of salt-dependent bacteriophage T7 gene 2.5 protein binding to single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15; 281(50):38689-96.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Lee SJ, Marintcheva B, Hamdan SM, Richardson CC. The C-terminal residues of bacteriophage T7 gene 4 helicase-primase coordinate helicase and DNA polymerase activities. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 1; 281(35):25841-9.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Marintcheva B, Hamdan SM, Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Essential residues in the C terminus of the bacteriophage T7 gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 1; 281(35):25831-40.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Crampton DJ, Ohi M, Qimron U, Walz T, Richardson CC. Oligomeric states of bacteriophage T7 gene 4 primase/helicase. J Mol Biol. 2006 Jul 14; 360(3):667-77.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Qimron U, Lee SJ, Hamdan SM, Richardson CC. Primer initiation and extension by T7 DNA primase. EMBO J. 2006 May 17; 25(10):2199-208.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Lee JB, Hite RK, Hamdan SM, Xie XS, Richardson CC, van Oijen AM. DNA primase acts as a molecular brake in DNA replication. Nature. 2006 Feb 2; 439(7076):621-4.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Crampton DJ, Mukherjee S, Richardson CC. DNA-induced switch from independent to sequential dTTP hydrolysis in the bacteriophage T7 DNA helicase. Mol Cell. 2006 Jan 20; 21(2):165-74.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Roden M, Laakso M, Johns D, Widel M, Urquhart R, Richardson C, Mariz S, Tan MH. Long-term effects of pioglitazone and metformin on insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2005 Aug; 22(8):1101-6.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Acidic residues in the nucleotide-binding site of the bacteriophage T7 DNA primase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 22; 280(29):26984-91.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Hamdan SM, Marintcheva B, Cook T, Lee SJ, Tabor S, Richardson CC. A unique loop in T7 DNA polymerase mediates the binding of helicase-primase, DNA binding protein, and processivity factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 5; 102(14):5096-101.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Dutta S, Li Y, Johnson D, Dzantiev L, Richardson CC, Romano LJ, Ellenberger T. Crystal structures of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-aminofluorene in complex with T7 DNA polymerase reveal mechanisms of mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16; 101(46):16186-91.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Andraos N, Tabor S, Richardson CC. The highly processive DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T5. Role of the unique N and C termini. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 26; 279(48):50609-18.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Kumar JK, Chiu ET, Tabor S, Richardson CC. A unique region in bacteriophage t7 DNA polymerase important for exonucleolytic hydrolysis of DNA. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 1; 279(40):42018-25.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Crampton DJ, Guo S, Johnson DE, Richardson CC. The arginine finger of bacteriophage T7 gene 4 helicase: role in energy coupling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 30; 101(13):4373-8.
    View in: PubMed
  60. He ZG, Richardson CC. Effect of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins on the helicase and primase activities of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 21; 279(21):22190-7.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Lee SJ, Richardson CC. The linker region between the helicase and primase domains of the gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Role in helicase conformation and activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 28; 279(22):23384-93.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Kumar JK, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Proteomic analysis of thioredoxin-targeted proteins in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 16; 101(11):3759-64.
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  63. Scholl D, Kieleczawa J, Kemp P, Rush J, Richardson CC, Merril C, Adhya S, Molineux IJ. Genomic analysis of bacteriophages SP6 and K1-5, an estranged subgroup of the T7 supergroup. J Mol Biol. 2004 Jan 30; 335(5):1151-71.
    View in: PubMed
  64. van Oijen AM, Blainey PC, Crampton DJ, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T, Xie XS. Single-molecule kinetics of lambda exonuclease reveal base dependence and dynamic disorder. Science. 2003 Aug 29; 301(5637):1235-8.
    View in: PubMed
  65. He ZG, Rezende LF, Willcox S, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. The carboxyl-terminal domain of bacteriophage T7 single-stranded DNA-binding protein modulates DNA binding and interaction with T7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 8; 278(32):29538-45.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Rezende LF, Willcox S, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. A single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 defective in DNA annealing. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 1; 278(31):29098-105.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Kato M, Ito T, Wagner G, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T. Modular architecture of the bacteriophage T7 primase couples RNA primer synthesis to DNA synthesis. Mol Cell. 2003 May; 11(5):1349-60.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Johnson DE, Richardson CC. A covalent linkage between the gene 5 DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 and Escherichia coli thioredoxin, the processivity factor: fate of thioredoxin during DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 27; 278(26):23762-72.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Hyland EM, Rezende LF, Richardson CC. The DNA binding domain of the gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 28; 278(9):7247-56.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Rezende LF, Hollis T, Ellenberger T, Richardson CC. Essential amino acid residues in the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7. Identification of the dimer interface. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 27; 277(52):50643-53.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Interaction of adjacent primase domains within the hexameric gene 4 helicase-primase of bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 1; 99(20):12703-8.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Lee J, Chastain PD, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. Lagging strand synthesis in coordinated DNA synthesis by bacteriophage t7 replication proteins. J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 8; 316(1):19-34.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Lee SJ, Richardson CC. Essential lysine residues in the RNA polymerase domain of the gene 4 primase-helicase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 28; 276(52):49419-26.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Kumar JK, Kremsdorf R, Tabor S, Richardson CC. A Mutation in the gene-encoding bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase that renders the phage temperature-sensitive. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7; 276(49):46151-9.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Hollis T, Stattel JM, Walther DS, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T. Structure of the gene 2.5 protein, a single-stranded DNA binding protein encoded by bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 14; 98(17):9557-62.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Kumar JK, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Role of the C-terminal residue of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 14; 276(37):34905-12.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Kato M, Frick DN, Lee J, Tabor S, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T. A complex of the bacteriophage T7 primase-helicase and DNA polymerase directs primer utilization. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 15; 276(24):21809-20.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Frick DN, Richardson CC. DNA primases. Annu Rev Biochem. 2001; 70:39-80.
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  79. Martin KA, Schalm SS, Richardson C, Romanelli A, Keon KL, Blenis J. Regulation of ribosomal S6 kinase 2 by effectors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 16; 276(11):7884-91.
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  80. Richardson C, Jasin M. Coupled homologous and nonhomologous repair of a double-strand break preserves genomic integrity in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Dec; 20(23):9068-75.
    View in: PubMed
  81. Chowdhury K, Tabor S, Richardson CC. A unique loop in the DNA-binding crevice of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase influences primer utilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Nov 7; 97(23):12469-74.
    View in: PubMed
  82. Richardson C, Jasin M. Frequent chromosomal translocations induced by DNA double-strand breaks. Nature. 2000 Jun 8; 405(6787):697-700.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Tseng TY, Frick DN, Richardson CC. Characterization of a novel DNA primase from the Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage SP6. Biochemistry. 2000 Feb 22; 39(7):1643-54.
    View in: PubMed
  84. Richardson C, Jasin M. Recombination between two chromosomes: implications for genomic integrity in mammalian cells. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2000; 65:553-60.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Frick DN, Richardson CC. Interaction of bacteriophage T7 gene 4 primase with its template recognition site. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 10; 274(50):35889-98.
    View in: PubMed
  86. Frick DN, Kumar S, Richardson CC. Interaction of ribonucleoside triphosphates with the gene 4 primase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 10; 274(50):35899-907.
    View in: PubMed
  87. Canard B, Chowdhury K, Sarfati R, Doublié S, Richardson CC. The motif D loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase is critical for nucleoside 5'-triphosphate selectivity. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 10; 274(50):35768-76.
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  88. Guo S, Tabor S, Richardson CC. The linker region between the helicase and primase domains of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is critical for hexamer formation. J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 15; 274(42):30303-9.
    View in: PubMed
  89. Sawaya MR, Guo S, Tabor S, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T. Crystal structure of the helicase domain from the replicative helicase-primase of bacteriophage T7. Cell. 1999 Oct 15; 99(2):167-77.
    View in: PubMed
  90. Kusakabe T, Hine AV, Hyberts SG, Richardson CC. The Cys4 zinc finger of bacteriophage T7 primase in sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13; 96(8):4295-300.
    View in: PubMed
  91. Richardson C, Elliott B, Jasin M. Chromosomal double-strand breaks introduced in mammalian cells by expression of I-Sce I endonuclease. Methods Mol Biol. 1999; 113:453-63.
    View in: PubMed
  92. Frick DN, Baradaran K, Richardson CC. An N-terminal fragment of the gene 4 helicase/primase of bacteriophage T7 retains primase activity in the absence of helicase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jul 7; 95(14):7957-62.
    View in: PubMed
  93. Canard B, Sarfati SR, Richardson CC. Enhanced binding of azidothymidine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus 1 reverse transcriptase to the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate-terminated primer. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 5; 273(23):14596-604.
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  94. Lee J, Chastain PD, Kusakabe T, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. Coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis on a minicircular template. Mol Cell. 1998 Jun; 1(7):1001-10.
    View in: PubMed
  95. Kong D, Richardson CC. Role of the acidic carboxyl-terminal domain of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 in specific protein-protein interactions. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 13; 273(11):6556-64.
    View in: PubMed
  96. Kusakabe T, Baradaran K, Lee J, Richardson CC. Roles of the helicase and primase domain of the gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7 in accessing the primase recognition site. EMBO J. 1998 Mar 2; 17(5):1542-52.
    View in: PubMed
  97. Park K, Debyser Z, Tabor S, Richardson CC, Griffith JD. Formation of a DNA loop at the replication fork generated by bacteriophage T7 replication proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 27; 273(9):5260-70.
    View in: PubMed
  98. Doublié S, Tabor S, Long AM, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T. Crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 A resolution. Nature. 1998 Jan 15; 391(6664):251-8.
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  99. Canard B, Sarfati R, Richardson CC. Binding of RNA template to a complex of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase/primer/template. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14; 94(21):11279-84.
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  100. Notarnicola SM, Mulcahy HL, Lee J, Richardson CC. The acidic carboxyl terminus of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 helicase/primase interacts with T7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 18; 272(29):18425-33.
    View in: PubMed
  101. Kusakabe T, Richardson CC. Gene 4 DNA primase of bacteriophage T7 mediates the annealing and extension of ribo-oligonucleotides at primase recognition sites. J Biol Chem. 1997 May 9; 272(19):12446-53.
    View in: PubMed
  102. Kong D, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. Gene 4 helicase of bacteriophage T7 mediates strand transfer through pyrimidine dimers, mismatches, and nonhomologous regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 1; 94(7):2987-92.
    View in: PubMed
  103. Kong D, Nossal NG, Richardson CC. Role of the bacteriophage T7 and T4 single-stranded DNA-binding proteins in the formation of joint molecules and DNA helicase-catalyzed polar branch migration. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 28; 272(13):8380-7.
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  104. Yang XM, Richardson CC. Amino acid changes in a unique sequence of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase alter the processivity of nucleotide polymerization. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 7; 272(10):6599-606.
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  105. Kusakabe T, Richardson CC. Template recognition and ribonucleotide specificity of the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 28; 272(9):5943-51.
    View in: PubMed
  106. Bedford E, Tabor S, Richardson CC. The thioredoxin binding domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase confers processivity on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jan 21; 94(2):479-84.
    View in: PubMed
  107. Yang X, Richardson CC. Structural and functional organization of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 27; 271(39):24207-12.
    View in: PubMed
  108. Himawan JS, Richardson CC. Amino acid residues critical for the interaction between bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 16; 271(33):19999-20008.
    View in: PubMed
  109. Kusakabe T, Richardson CC. The role of the zinc motif in sequence recognition by DNA primases. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 9; 271(32):19563-70.
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  110. Kong D, Richardson CC. Single-stranded DNA binding protein and DNA helicase of bacteriophage T7 mediate homologous DNA strand exchange. EMBO J. 1996 Apr 15; 15(8):2010-9.
    View in: PubMed
  111. Notarnicola SM, Park K, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. A domain of the gene 4 helicase/primase of bacteriophage T7 required for the formation of an active hexamer. J Biol Chem. 1995 Aug 25; 270(34):20215-24.
    View in: PubMed
  112. Mendelman LV, Kuimelis RG, McLaughlin LW, Richardson CC. Effects of base analog substitutions in the noncoding dC of the 3'-d(CTG)-5' template recognition site of the bacteriophage T7 primase. Biochemistry. 1995 Aug 15; 34(32):10187-93.
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  113. Tabor S, Richardson CC. A single residue in DNA polymerases of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I family is critical for distinguishing between deoxy- and dideoxyribonucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jul 3; 92(14):6339-43.
    View in: PubMed
  114. Hine AV, Richardson CC. A functional chimeric DNA primase: the Cys4 zinc-binding domain of bacteriophage T3 primase fused to the helicase of bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 6; 91(25):12327-31.
    View in: PubMed
  115. Alkhatib G, Roder J, Richardson C, Briedis D, Weinberg R, Smith D, Taylor J, Paoletti E, Shen SH. Characterization of a cleavage mutant of the measles virus fusion protein defective in syncytium formation. J Virol. 1994 Oct; 68(10):6770-4.
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  116. Mendelman LV, Beauchamp BB, Richardson CC. Requirement for a zinc motif for template recognition by the bacteriophage T7 primase. EMBO J. 1994 Aug 15; 13(16):3909-16.
    View in: PubMed
  117. Debyser Z, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Coordination of leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7. Cell. 1994 Apr 8; 77(1):157-66.
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  118. Alkhatib G, Shen SH, Briedis D, Richardson C, Massie B, Weinberg R, Smith D, Taylor J, Paoletti E, Roder J. Functional analysis of N-linked glycosylation mutants of the measles virus fusion protein synthesized by recombinant vaccinia virus vectors. J Virol. 1994 Mar; 68(3):1522-31.
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  119. Kim YT, Richardson CC. Acidic carboxyl-terminal domain of gene 2.5 protein of bacteriophage T7 is essential for protein-protein interactions. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 18; 269(7):5270-8.
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  120. Mendelman LV, Notarnicola SM, Richardson CC. Evidence for distinct primase and helicase domains in the 63-kDa gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Characterization of nucleotide binding site mutant. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 25; 268(36):27208-13.
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  121. Notarnicola SM, Richardson CC. The nucleotide binding site of the helicase/primase of bacteriophage T7. Interaction of mutant and wild-type proteins. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 25; 268(36):27198-207.
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  122. Kim YT, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 gene 2.5 protein: an essential protein for DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 1; 90(21):10173-7.
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  123. Wurgler SM, Richardson CC. DNA binding properties of the deoxyguanosine triphosphate triphosphohydrolase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 25; 268(27):20046-54.
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  124. Liu Q, Richardson CC. Gene 5.5 protein of bacteriophage T7 inhibits the nucleoid protein H-NS of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 1; 90(5):1761-5.
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  125. Lytvyn V, Fortin Y, Banville M, Arif B, Richardson C. Comparison of the thymidine kinase genes from three entomopoxviruses. J Gen Virol. 1992 Dec; 73 ( Pt 12):3235-40.
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  126. Mendelman LV, Notarnicola SM, Richardson CC. Roles of bacteriophage T7 gene 4 proteins in providing primase and helicase functions in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 15; 89(22):10638-42.
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  127. Himawan JS, Richardson CC. Genetic analysis of the interaction between bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 15; 89(20):9774-8.
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  128. Kim YT, Tabor S, Bortner C, Griffith JD, Richardson CC. Purification and characterization of the bacteriophage T7 gene 2.5 protein. A single-stranded DNA-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jul 25; 267(21):15022-31.
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  129. Kim YT, Tabor S, Churchich JE, Richardson CC. Interactions of gene 2.5 protein and DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jul 25; 267(21):15032-40.
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  130. Banville M, Dumas F, Trifiro S, Arif B, Richardson C. The predicted amino acid sequence of the spheroidin protein from Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus: lack of homology between major occlusion body proteins of different poxviruses. J Gen Virol. 1992 Mar; 73 ( Pt 3):559-66.
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  131. Tabor S, Richardson CC. A bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system for controlled exclusive expression of specific genes. 1985. Biotechnology. 1992; 24:280-4.
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  132. Mendelman LV, Richardson CC. Requirements for primer synthesis by bacteriophage T7 63-kDa gene 4 protein. Roles of template sequence and T7 56-kDa gene 4 protein. J Biol Chem. 1991 Dec 5; 266(34):23240-50.
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  133. Taylor J, Pincus S, Tartaglia J, Richardson C, Alkhatib G, Briedis D, Appel M, Norton E, Paoletti E. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing either the measles virus fusion or hemagglutinin glycoprotein protect dogs against canine distemper virus challenge. J Virol. 1991 Aug; 65(8):4263-74.
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  134. Pearson A, Richardson C, Yuen L. The 5' noncoding region sequence of the Choristoneura biennis entomopoxvirus spheroidin gene functions as an efficient late promoter in the mammalian vaccinia expression system. Virology. 1991 Feb; 180(2):561-6.
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  135. Vernet T, Tessier DC, Richardson C, Laliberté F, Khouri HE, Bell AW, Storer AC, Thomas DY. Secretion of functional papain precursor from insect cells. Requirement for N-glycosylation of the pro-region. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 25; 265(27):16661-6.
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  136. Donly C, Williams J, Richardson C, Tate W. Frameshifting at the internal stop codon within the mRNA for bacterial release factor-2 on eukaryotic ribosomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Aug 27; 1050(1-3):283-7.
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  137. Huber HE, Richardson CC. Processing of the primer for plus strand DNA synthesis by human immunodeficiency virus 1 reverse transcriptase. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jun 25; 265(18):10565-73.
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  138. Tabor S, Richardson CC. DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. Effect of pyrophosphorolysis and metal ions. J Biol Chem. 1990 May 15; 265(14):8322-8.
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  139. Yuen L, Dionne J, Arif B, Richardson C. Identification and sequencing of the spheroidin gene of Choristoneura biennis entomopoxvirus. Virology. 1990 Apr; 175(2):427-33.
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  140. Wurgler SM, Richardson CC. Structure and regulation of the gene for dGTP triphosphohydrolase from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Apr; 87(7):2740-4.
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  141. Nakai H, Richardson CC. The gene 1.2 protein of bacteriophage T7 interacts with the Escherichia coli dGTP triphosphohydrolase to form a GTP-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1990 Mar 15; 265(8):4411-9.
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  142. Alkhatib G, Richardson C, Shen SH. Intracellular processing, glycosylation, and cell-surface expression of the measles virus fusion protein (F) encoded by a recombinant adenovirus. Virology. 1990 Mar; 175(1):262-70.
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  143. Yao LJ, Richardson C, Ford C, Mathialagan N, Mackie G, Hammond GL, Harding PG, Possmayer F. Expression of mature pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) in Escherichia coli using truncated human SP-B cDNAs. Biochem Cell Biol. 1990 Feb; 68(2):559-66.
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  144. Rabkin SD, Richardson CC. In vivo analysis of the initiation of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication. Virology. 1990 Feb; 174(2):585-92.
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  145. Vialard J, Lalumière M, Vernet T, Briedis D, Alkhatib G, Henning D, Levin D, Richardson C. Synthesis of the membrane fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of measles virus, using a novel baculovirus vector containing the beta-galactosidase gene. J Virol. 1990 Jan; 64(1):37-50.
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  146. Bernstein JA, Richardson CC. Characterization of the helicase and primase activities of the 63-kDa component of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein. J Biol Chem. 1989 Aug 5; 264(22):13066-73.
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  147. Tabor S, Richardson CC. Effect of manganese ions on the incorporation of dideoxynucleotides by bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jun; 86(11):4076-80.
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  148. Tabor S, Richardson CC. Selective inactivation of the exonuclease activity of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase by in vitro mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 1989 Apr 15; 264(11):6447-58.
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  149. Huber HE, McCoy JM, Seehra JS, Richardson CC. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 reverse transcriptase. Template binding, processivity, strand displacement synthesis, and template switching. J Biol Chem. 1989 Mar 15; 264(8):4669-78.
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  150. Walfield AM, Roche ES, Zounes MC, Kirkpatrick H, Wild MA, Textor G, Tsai PK, Richardson C. Primary structure of an oligomeric antigen of Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 1989 Feb; 57(2):633-5.
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  151. Rabkin SD, Richardson CC. Initiation of DNA replication at cloned origins of bacteriophage T7. J Mol Biol. 1988 Dec 20; 204(4):903-16.
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  152. Bernstein JA, Richardson CC. Purification of the 56-kDa component of the bacteriophage T7 primase/helicase and characterization of its nucleoside 5'-triphosphatase activity. J Biol Chem. 1988 Oct 15; 263(29):14891-9.
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  153. Huber HE, Beauchamp BB, Richardson CC. Escherichia coli dGTP triphosphohydrolase is inhibited by gene 1.2 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 25; 263(27):13549-56.
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  154. Nakai H, Richardson CC. The effect of the T7 and Escherichia coli DNA-binding proteins at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 15; 263(20):9831-9.
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  155. Nakai H, Richardson CC. Leading and lagging strand synthesis at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7. Distinct properties of T7 gene 4 protein as a helicase and primase. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 15; 263(20):9818-30.
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  156. Beauchamp BB, Richardson CC. A unique deoxyguanosine triphosphatase is responsible for the optA1 phenotype of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr; 85(8):2563-7.
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  157. White JH, Richardson CC. Gene 19 of bacteriophage T7. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of its product. J Biol Chem. 1988 Feb 15; 263(5):2469-76.
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  158. Bernstein JA, Richardson CC. A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan; 85(2):396-400.
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  159. Huber HE, Tabor S, Richardson CC. Escherichia coli thioredoxin stabilizes complexes of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and primed templates. J Biol Chem. 1987 Nov 25; 262(33):16224-32.
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  160. Tabor S, Huber HE, Richardson CC. Escherichia coli thioredoxin confers processivity on the DNA polymerase activity of the gene 5 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1987 Nov 25; 262(33):16212-23.
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  161. Tabor S, Richardson CC. Selective oxidation of the exonuclease domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1987 Nov 15; 262(32):15330-3.
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  162. Tabor S, Richardson CC. DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul; 84(14):4767-71.
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  163. White JH, Richardson CC. Processing of concatemers of bacteriophage T7 DNA in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jun 25; 262(18):8851-60.
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  164. White JH, Richardson CC. Gene 18 protein of bacteriophage T7. Overproduction, purification, and characterization. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jun 25; 262(18):8845-50.
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  165. Myers JA, Beauchamp BB, Richardson CC. Gene 1.2 protein of bacteriophage T7. Effect on deoxyribonucleotide pools. J Biol Chem. 1987 Apr 15; 262(11):5288-92.
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  166. Myers JA, Beauchamp BB, White JH, Richardson CC. Purification and characterization of the gene 1.2 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1987 Apr 15; 262(11):5280-7.
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  167. Ikeda RA, Richardson CC. Enzymatic properties of a proteolytically nicked RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1987 Mar 15; 262(8):3790-9.
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  168. Ikeda RA, Richardson CC. Interactions of a proteolytically nicked RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 with its promoter. J Biol Chem. 1987 Mar 15; 262(8):3800-8.
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  169. Richardson C, Hull D, Greer P, Hasel K, Berkovich A, Englund G, Bellini W, Rima B, Lazzarini R. The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the fusion protein of measles virus (Edmonston strain): a comparison of fusion proteins from several different paramyxoviruses. Virology. 1986 Dec; 155(2):508-23.
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  170. Huber HE, Russel M, Model P, Richardson CC. Interaction of mutant thioredoxins of Escherichia coli with the gene 5 protein of phage T7. The redox capacity of thioredoxin is not required for stimulation of DNA polymerase activity. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15; 261(32):15006-12.
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  171. Nakai H, Richardson CC. Dissection of RNA-primed DNA synthesis catalyzed by gene 4 protein and DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. Coupling of RNA primer and DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15; 261(32):15217-24.
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  172. Nakai H, Richardson CC. Interactions of the DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in RNA-primed DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15; 261(32):15208-16.
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  173. Ikeda RA, Richardson CC. Interactions of the RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 with its promoter during binding and initiation of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jun; 83(11):3614-8.
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  174. Curran JA, Richardson C, Kolakofsky D. Ribosomal initiation at alternate AUGs on the Sendai virus P/C mRNA. J Virol. 1986 Feb; 57(2):684-7.
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  175. Fuller CW, Richardson CC. Initiation of DNA replication at the primary origin of bacteriophage T7 by purified proteins. Initiation of bidirectional synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1985 Mar 10; 260(5):3197-206.
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  176. Fuller CW, Richardson CC. Initiation of DNA replication at the primary origin of bacteriophage T7 by purified proteins. Site and direction of initial DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1985 Mar 10; 260(5):3185-96.
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  177. Matson SW, Richardson CC. Nucleotide-dependent binding of the gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7 to single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 1985 Feb 25; 260(4):2281-7.
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  178. Tabor S, Richardson CC. A bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system for controlled exclusive expression of specific genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Feb; 82(4):1074-8.
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  179. Matson SW, Tabor S, Richardson CC. The gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Characterization of helicase activity. J Biol Chem. 1983 Nov 25; 258(22):14017-24.
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  180. Matson SW, Richardson CC. DNA-dependent nucleoside 5'-triphosphatase activity of the gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1983 Nov 25; 258(22):14009-16.
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  181. Lechner RL, Richardson CC. A preformed, topologically stable replication fork. Characterization of leading strand DNA synthesis catalyzed by T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gene 4 protein. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 25; 258(18):11185-96.
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  182. Lechner RL, Engler MJ, Richardson CC. Characterization of strand displacement synthesis catalyzed by bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 25; 258(18):11174-84.
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  183. Engler MJ, Lechner RL, Richardson CC. Two forms of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 25; 258(18):11165-73.
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  184. Engler MJ, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 DNA replication. Synthesis of lagging strands in a reconstituted system using purified proteins. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 25; 258(18):11197-205.
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  185. Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7: minimal requirements for the replication of a duplex DNA molecule. Cell. 1983 Jun; 33(2):315-7.
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  186. Fuller CW, Beauchamp BB, Engler MJ, Lechner RL, Matson SW, Tabor S, White JH, Richardson CC. Mechanisms for the initiation of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1983; 47 Pt 2:669-79.
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  187. Saito H, Richardson CC. Processing of mRNA by ribonuclease III regulates expression of gene 1.2 of bacteriophage T7. Cell. 1981 Dec; 27(3 Pt 2):533-42.
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  188. Romano LJ, Tamanoi F, Richardson CC. Initiation of DNA replication at the primary origin of bacteriophage T7 by purified proteins: requirement for T7 RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jul; 78(7):4107-11.
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  189. Saito H, Richardson CC. Genetic analysis of gene 1.2 of bacteriophage T7: isolation of a mutant of Escherichia coli unable to support the growth of T7 gene 1.2 mutants. J Virol. 1981 Jan; 37(1):343-51.
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  190. Tabor S, Richardson CC. Template recognition sequence for RNA primer synthesis by gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jan; 78(1):205-9.
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  191. Saito H, Tabor S, Tamanoi F, Richardson CC. Nucleotide sequence of the primary origin of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication: relationship to adjacent genes and regulatory elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul; 77(7):3917-21.
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  192. Tamanoi F, Saito H, Richardson CC. Physical mapping of primary and secondary origins of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 May; 77(5):2656-60.
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  193. Hori K, Mark DF, Richardson CC. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase of bacteriophage T7. Characterization of the exonuclease activities of the gene 5 protein and the reconstituted polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1979 Nov 25; 254(22):11598-604.
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  194. Hori K, Mark DF, Richardson CC. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase of bacteriophage T7. Purification and properties of the phage-encoded subunit, the gene 5 protein. J Biol Chem. 1979 Nov 25; 254(22):11591-7.
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  195. Romano LJ, Richardson CC. Characterization of the ribonucleic acid primers and the deoxyribonucleic acid product synthesized by the DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1979 Oct 25; 254(20):10483-9.
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  196. Romano LJ, Richardson CC. Requirements for synthesis of ribonucleic acid primers during lagging strand synthesis by the DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1979 Oct 25; 254(20):10476-82.
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  197. LeClerc JE, Richardson CC. Gene 2 protein of bacteriophage T7: purification and requirement for packaging of T7 DNA in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct; 76(10):4852-6.
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  198. Richardson CC, Romano LJ, Kolodner R, LeClerc JE, Tamanoi F, Engler MJ, Dean FB, Richardson DS. Replication of bacteriophage T7 DNA by purified proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979; 43 Pt 1:427-40.
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  199. Campbell JL, Tamanoi F, Richardson CC, Studier FW. Cloning of the T7 genome in Escherichia coli: use of recombination between cloned sequences and bacteriophage T7 to identify genes involved in recombination and a clone containing the origin of T7 DNA replication. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979; 43 Pt 1:441-8.
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  200. Campbell JL, Richardson CC, Studier FW. Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 May; 75(5):2276-80.
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  201. Kolodner R, Masamune Y, LeClerc JE, Richardson CC. Gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Purification physical properties, and stimulation of T7 DNA polymerase during the elongation of polynucleotide chains. J Biol Chem. 1978 Jan 25; 253(2):566-73.
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  202. Kolodner R, Richardson CC. Gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Characterization of the product synthesized by the T7 DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein in the absence of ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphates. J Biol Chem. 1978 Jan 25; 253(2):574-84.
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  203. Masamune Y, Richardson CC. Priming of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis on phage fd and phiX174 templates by oligoribonucleotides contaminating nucleoside 5'-triphosphates. J Biol Chem. 1977 Dec 10; 252(23):8498-053.
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  204. Mark DF, Chase JW, Richardson CC. Genetic mapping of trxA, a gene affecting thioredoxin in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1977 Oct 20; 155(2):145-52.
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  205. Kolodner R, Richardson CC. Replication of duplex DNA by bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein is accompanied by hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Apr; 74(4):1525-9.
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  206. Chase JW, Richardson CC. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in exonuclease VII. J Bacteriol. 1977 Feb; 129(2):934-47.
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  207. Fleischman RA, Cambell JL, Richardson CC. Modification and restriction of T-even bacteriophages. In vitro degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid containing 5-hydroxymethylctosine. J Biol Chem. 1976 Mar 25; 251(6):1561-70.
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  208. Mark DF, Richardson CC. Escherichia coli thioredoxin: a subunit of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Mar; 73(3):780-4.
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  209. Masker WE, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication in vitro. V. Synthesis of intact chromosomes of bacteriophage T7. J Mol Biol. 1976 Feb 5; 100(4):543-56.
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  210. Masker WE, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication in vitro VI. Synthesis of biologically active T7 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1976 Feb 5; 100(4):557-67.
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  211. Modrich P, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication invitro. Bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase: an an emzyme composed of phage- and host-specific subunits. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jul 25; 250(14):5515-22.
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  212. Modrich P, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 Deoxyribonucleic acid replication in vitro. A protein of Escherichia coli required for bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase activity. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jul 25; 250(14):5508-14.
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  213. Hinkle DC, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication in vitro. Purification and properties of the gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jul 25; 250(14):5523-9.
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  214. Livingston DM, Hinkle DC, Richardson CC. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase III of Escherichia coli. Purification and properties. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jan 25; 250(2):461-9.
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  215. Livingston DM, Richardson CC. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase III of Escherichia coli. Characterization of associated exonuclease activities. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jan 25; 250(2):470-8.
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  216. Chase JW, Richardson CC. Exonuclease VII of Escherichia coli. Basic Life Sci. 1975; 5A:225-34.
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  217. Campbell JL, Shizuya H, Richardson CC. Mapping of a mutation, polB100, affecting deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase II in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1974 Aug; 119(2):494-9.
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  218. Chase JW, Richardson CC. Exonuclease VII of Escherichia coli. Purification and properties. J Biol Chem. 1974 Jul 25; 249(14):4545-52.
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  219. Chase JW, Richardson CC. Exonuclease VII of Escherichia coli. Mechanism of action. J Biol Chem. 1974 Jul 25; 249(14):4553-61.
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  220. Shizuya H, Livingston DM, Richardson CC. Isolation of a specialized transducing bacteriophage lambda carrying the polC locus of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Jul; 71(7):2614-7.
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  221. Hinkle DC, Richardson CC. Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication in vitro. Requirements for deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and characterization of the product. J Biol Chem. 1974 May 10; 249(9):2974-80.
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  222. Shizuya H, Richardson CC. Synthesis of bacteriophage lambda DNA in vitro: requirement for O and P gene products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 May; 71(5):1758-62.
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  223. Eichhorn GL, Berger NA, Butzov JJ, Clark P, Heim J, Pitha J, Richardson C, Rifkind JM, Shin Y, Tarien E. Some effects of metal ions on the structure and function of nucleic acids. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1973; 40:43-66.
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  224. Scheffler IE, Richardson CC. Chemical and enzymatic studies of deoxyribonucleic acid covalently linked to Ficoll. J Biol Chem. 1972 Sep 25; 247(18):5736-45.
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  225. Moses RE, Campbell JL, Fleischman RA, Frenkel GD, Mulcahy HL, Shizuya H, Richardson CC. Enzymatic mechanisms of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Fed Proc. 1972 Sep-Oct; 31(5):1415-21.
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  226. Campbell JL, Soll L, Richardson CC. Isolation and partial characterization of a mutant of Escherichia coli deficient in DNA polymerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Aug; 69(8):2090-4.
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  227. Grippo P, Richardson CC. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1971 Nov 25; 246(22):6867-73.
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  228. Masamune Y, Frenkel GD, Richardson CC. A mutant of bacteriophage T7 deficient in polynucleotide ligase. J Biol Chem. 1971 Nov 25; 246(22):6874-9.
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  229. Fleischman RA, Richardson CC. Analysis of host range restriction in Escherichia coli treated with toluene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Oct; 68(10):2527-31.
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  230. Frenkel GD, Richardson CC. The deoxyribonuclease induced after infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T5. II. Role of the enzyme in replication of the pahge deoxyribonucleic acid. J Biol Chem. 1971 Aug 10; 246(15):4848-52.
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  231. Frenkel GD, Richardson CC. The deoxyribonuclease induced after infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T5. I. Characterization of the enzyme as a 5'-exonuclease. J Biol Chem. 1971 Aug 10; 246(15):4839-47.
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  232. Harvey CL, Gabriel TF, Wilt EM, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. IX. Synthesis and properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid adenylate in the phage T4 ligase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1971 Jul 25; 246(14):4523-30.
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  233. Masamune Y, Richardson CC. Strand displacement during deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis at single strand breaks. J Biol Chem. 1971 Apr 25; 246(8):2692-701.
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  234. Masamune Y, Fleischman RA, Richardson CC. Enzymatic removal and replacement of nucleotides at single strand breaks in deoxyribonucleic acid. J Biol Chem. 1971 Apr 25; 246(8):2680-91.
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  235. Fareed GC, Wilt EM, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. 8. Hybrids of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotide homopolymers as substrates for polynucleotide ligase of bacteriophage T4. J Biol Chem. 1971 Feb 25; 246(4):925-32.
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  236. Moses RE, Richardson CC. A new DNA polymerase activity of Escherichia coli. I. Purification and properties of the activity present in E. coli polA1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1970 Dec 24; 41(6):1557-64.
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  237. Moses RE, Richardson CC. A new DNA polymerase acitvity of Escherichia coli. II. Properties of the enzyme purified from wild-type E. coli and DNA-ts mutants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1970 Dec 24; 41(6):1565-71.
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  238. Center MS, Richardson CC. An endonuclease induced after infection of Escherichia coli with bacteriophage T7. II. Specificity of the enzyme toward single- and double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. J Biol Chem. 1970 Dec 10; 245(23):6292-9.
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  239. Center MS, Richardson CC. An endonuclease induced after infection of Escherichia coli with bacteriophage T7. I. Purification and properties of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1970 Dec 10; 245(23):6285-91.
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  240. Moses RE, Richardson CC. Replication and repair of DNA in cells of Escherichia coli treated with toluene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Oct; 67(2):674-81.
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  241. Jacquemin-Sablon A, Richardson CC. Analysis of the interruptions in bacteriophage T5 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1970 Feb 14; 47(3):477-93.
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  242. Center MS, Studier FW, Richardson CC. The structural gene for a T7 endonuclease essential for phage DNA synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Jan; 65(1):242-8.
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  243. Richardson CC. Enzymes in DNA metabolism. Annu Rev Biochem. 1969; 38:795-840.
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  244. Masamune Y, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. IV. DNA synthesis in E. coli infected with ligase-negative mutants of phage T4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Dec; 61(4):1328-35.
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  245. Weiss B, Jacquemin-Sablon A, Live TR, Fareed GC, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. VI. Further purification and properties of polynucleotide ligase from Escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage T4. J Biol Chem. 1968 Sep 10; 243(17):4543-55.
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  246. Weiss B, Thompson A, Richardson CC. Ezymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. VII. Properties of the enzyme-adenylate intermediate in the polynucleotide ligase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1968 Sep 10; 243(17):4556-63.
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  247. Weiss B, Live TR, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. V. End group labeling and analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid containing single straned breaks. J Biol Chem. 1968 Sep 10; 243(17):4530-42.
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  248. Richardson CC, Masamune Y, Live TR, Jacquemin-Sablon A, Weiss B, Fareed GC. Studies on the joining of DNA by polynucleotide ligase of phage T4. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1968; 33:151-64.
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  249. Weiss B, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breadage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. 3. An enzyme-adenylate intermediate in the polynucleotide ligase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1967 Sep 25; 242(18):4270-2.
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  250. Fareed GC, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid. II. The structural gene for polynucleotide ligase in bacteriophage T4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Aug; 58(2):665-72.
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  251. Weiss B, Richardson CC. Enzymatic breakage and joining of deoxyribonucleic acid, I. Repair of single-strand breaks in DNA by an enzyme system from Escherichia coli infected with T4 bacteriophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Apr; 57(4):1021-8.
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  252. Weiss B, Richardson CC. The 5'-terminal dinucleotides of the separated strands of T7 bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. J Mol Biol. 1967 Feb 14; 23(3):405-15.
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  253. MacHattie LA, Ritchie DA, Thomas CA, Richardson CC. Terminal repetition in permuted T2 bacteriophage DNA molecules. J Mol Biol. 1967 Feb 14; 23(3):355-63.
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  254. Richardson CC, Weiss B. The enzymatic phosphorylation of nucleic acids and its application to end-group analysis. J Gen Physiol. 1966 Jul; 49(6):81-97.
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  255. Richardson CC. Influence of glucosylation of deoxyribonucleic acid on hydrolysis by deoxyribonucleases of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 10; 241(9):2084-92.
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  256. Richardson CC. The 5'-terminal nucleotides of T7 bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. J Mol Biol. 1966 Jan; 15(1):49-61.
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  257. Weiss B, Richardson CC. End-group labeling of nucleic acids by enzymatic phosphorylation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1966; 31:471-8.
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  258. Lehman IR, Linn S, Richardson CC. Nucleases as reagents in the study of nucleic acid structure. Fed Proc. 1965 Nov-Dec; 24(6):1466-72.
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  259. Richardson CC. Phosphorylation of nucleic acid by an enzyme from T4 bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965 Jul; 54(1):158-65.
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  260. RICHARDSON CC, INMAN RB, KORNBERG A. ENZYMIC SYNTHESIS OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID. 18. THE REPAIR OF PARTIALLY SINGLE-STRANDED DNA TEMPLATES BY DNA POLYMERASE. J Mol Biol. 1964 Jul; 9:46-69.
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  261. SCHILDKRAUT CL, RICHARDSON CC, KORNBERG A. ENZYMIC SYNTHESIS OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID. XVII. SOME UNUSUAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PRODUCT PRIMED BY NATIVE DNA TEMPLATES. J Mol Biol. 1964 Jul; 9:24-45.
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  262. RICHARDSON CC, SCHILDKRAUT CL, APOSHIAN HV, KORNBERG A. ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID. XIV. FURTHER PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID POLYMERASE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI. J Biol Chem. 1964 Jan; 239:222-32.
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  263. LEHMAN IR, RICHARDSON CC. THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEASES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI. IV. AN EXONUCLEASE ACTIVITY PRESENT IN PURIFIED PREPARATIONS OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID POLYMERASE. J Biol Chem. 1964 Jan; 239:233-41.
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  264. RICHARDSON CC, KORNBERG A. A DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID PHOSPHATASE-EXONUCLEASE FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI. I. PURIFICATION OF THE ENZYME AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY. J Biol Chem. 1964 Jan; 239:242-50.
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  265. RICHARDSON CC, LEHMAN IR, KORNBERG A. A DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID PHOSPHATASE-EXONUCLEASE FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EXONUCLEASE ACTIVITY. J Biol Chem. 1964 Jan; 239:251-8.
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  266. Richardson, C. C., Schildkraut, C. L., and Kornberg, A. . Studies on the replication of DNA by DNA polymerases. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 1963; 28:9-19.
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