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Arthur Michael Kleinman, M.D.

TitleProfessor of Medical Anthropology in the Department of Social Medicine
InstitutionHarvard Medical School
DepartmentGlobal Health and Social Medicine
AddressHarvard University
Anthropology W. James Hall 330
33 Kirkland St
Cambridge MA 02138
Phone617/495-3846
Fax617/495-3557
Other Positions
TitleProfessor of Psychiatry
InstitutionCambridge Health Alliance
DepartmentPsychiatry


 Mentoring 
 completed student projects
Spaces of Care: An ethnographic investigation of care practices and their physical environments among Xhosa migrants in South Africa
International, 06/13/10 - 08/16/10
Non-melanoma skin cancer: risk factors and the situation facing the system of social security in health of Colombia
International, 06/15/11 - 08/03/11
Assessing Patient Attitudes Towards Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing
International, 06/24/02 - 08/12/02

 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Becker AE, Kleinman A. Mental health and the global agenda. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 3; 369(14):1380-1.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Becker AE, Kleinman A. Mental health and the global agenda. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jul 4; 369(1):66-73.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Kleinman A. From illness as culture to caregiving as moral experience. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 11; 368(15):1376-7.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Kleinman A. Rebalancing academic psychiatry: why it needs to happen - and soon. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 Dec; 201:421-2.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Kleinman A. Caregiving as moral experience. Lancet. 2012 Nov 3; 380(9853):1550-1.
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  6. Kleinman A. Epilogue. Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Jun; 27 Suppl 2:S81-2.
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  7. Kleinman A. Culture, bereavement, and psychiatry. Lancet. 2012 Feb 18; 379(9816):608-9.
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  8. Becker AE, Kleinman A. An agenda for closing resource gaps in global mental health: innovation, capacity building, and partnerships. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2012 Jan-Feb; 20(1):3-5.
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  9. Tucker JD, Kaufman J, Bhabha J, Kleinman A. Sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia: a biosocial analysis. J Infect Dis. 2011 Dec 1; 204 Suppl 5:S1203-5.
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  10. Kleinman A. A search for wisdom. Lancet. 2011 Nov 5; 378(9803):1621-2.
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  11. Collins PY, Patel V, Joestl SS, March D, Insel TR, Daar AS, Anderson W, Dhansay MA, Phillips A, Shurin S, Walport M, Ewart W, Savill SJ, Bordin IA, Costello EJ, Durkin M, Fairburn C, Glass RI, Hall W, Huang Y, Hyman SE, Jamison K, Kaaya S, Kapur S, Kleinman A, Ogunniyi A, Otero-Ojeda A, Poo MM, Ravindranath V, Sahakian BJ, Saxena S, Singer PA, Stein DJ. Grand challenges in global mental health. Nature. 2011 Jul 7; 475(7354):27-30.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Kleinman A. The divided self, hidden values, and moral sensibility in medicine. Lancet. 2011 Mar 5; 377(9768):804-5.
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  13. Kleinman A. Four social theories for global health. Lancet. 2010 May 1; 375(9725):1518-9.
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  14. Kleinman A. Remaking the moral person in China: implications for health. Lancet. 2010 Mar 27; 375(9720):1074-5.
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  15. Stewart KA, Keusch GT, Kleinman A. Values and moral experience in global health: bridging the local and the global. Glob Public Health. 2010; 5(2):115-21.
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  16. Kleinman A. "The third category of mental disorders" by Xu Youxin. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2009 Dec; 33(4):494-5.
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  17. Kleinman A. Global mental health: a failure of humanity. Lancet. 2009 Aug 22; 374(9690):603-4.
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  18. Kleinman A, Hall-Clifford R. Stigma: a social, cultural and moral process. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009 Jun; 63(6):418-9.
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  19. Kleinman A. Borderlands: professional life lived precariously but happily in anthropology and medicine. Med Humanit. 2009 Jun; 35(1):6.
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  20. Kleinman A. Caregiving: the odyssey of becoming more human. Lancet. 2009 Jan 24; 373(9660):292-3.
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  21. Yang LH, Kleinman A. 'Face' and the embodiment of stigma in China: the cases of schizophrenia and AIDS. Soc Sci Med. 2008 Aug; 67(3):398-408.
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  22. Kleinman AM, Bloom BR, Saich A, Mason KA, Aulino F. Avian and pandemic influenza: a biosocial approach. Introduction. J Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 15; 197 Suppl 1:S1-3.
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  23. Kleinman A. The normal, the pathological, and the existential. Compr Psychiatry. 2008 Mar-Apr; 49(2):111-2.
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  24. Kleinman A. Commentary on Alex Cohen et al: "Questioning an axiom: better prognosis for schizophrenia in the developing world". Schizophr Bull. 2008 Mar; 34(2):249-50.
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  25. Lee S, Kleinman A. Are somatoform disorders changing with time? The case of neurasthenia in China. Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec; 69(9):846-9.
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  26. Lee S, Tsang A, Li XY, Phillips MR, Kleinman A. Attitudes toward suicide among Chinese people in Hong Kong. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007 Oct; 37(5):565-75.
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  27. Lee DT, Kleinman J, Kleinman A. Rethinking depression: an ethnographic study of the experiences of depression among Chinese. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007 Jan-Feb; 15(1):1-8.
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  28. Yang LH, Kleinman A, Link BG, Phelan JC, Lee S, Good B. Culture and stigma: adding moral experience to stigma theory. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Apr; 64(7):1524-35.
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  29. Kleinman A, Benson P. Culture, moral experience and medicine. Mt Sinai J Med. 2006 Oct; 73(6):834-9.
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  30. Benson P, Kleinman A. Invited comments on the Shostak and Ottman review. Epilepsia. 2006 Oct; 47(10):1747-8; author reply 1755-6.
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  31. Kleinman A, Benson P. Anthropology in the clinic: the problem of cultural competency and how to fix it. PLoS Med. 2006 Oct; 3(10):e294.
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  32. Patel V, Saraceno B, Kleinman A. Beyond evidence: the moral case for international mental health. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Aug; 163(8):1312-5.
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  33. Keusch GT, Wilentz J, Kleinman A. Stigma and global health: developing a research agenda. Lancet. 2006 Feb 11; 367(9509):525-7.
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  34. Lee DT, Yip WC, Chen Y, Meng Q, Kleinman A. Ethno-psychometric evaluation of the General Health Questionnaire in rural China. Psychol Med. 2006 Feb; 36(2):249-55.
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  35. Lee S, Chan LY, Chau AM, Kwok KP, Kleinman A. The experience of SARS-related stigma at Amoy Gardens. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Nov; 61(9):2038-46.
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  36. Lee S, Chiu MY, Tsang A, Chui H, Kleinman A. Stigmatizing experience and structural discrimination associated with the treatment of schizophrenia in Hong Kong. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Apr; 62(7):1685-96.
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  37. Lee S, Lee MT, Chiu MY, Kleinman A. Experience of social stigma by people with schizophrenia in Hong Kong. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Feb; 186:153-7.
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  38. Kleinman A. Culture and depression. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 2; 351(10):951-3.
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  39. Patel V, Kleinman A. Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2003; 81(8):609-15.
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  40. Kleinman A. Introduction: common mental disorders, primary care, and the global mental health research agenda. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2003 May-Jun; 11(3):155-6.
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  41. Lee S, Kleinman A. Psychiatry in its political and professional contexts: a response to Robin Munro. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2002; 30(1):120-5.
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  42. Keshavjee S, Weiser S, Kleinman A. Medicine betrayed: hemophilia patients and HIV in the US. Soc Sci Med. 2001 Oct; 53(8):1081-94.
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  43. Kleinman A. Why psychiatry and cultural anthropology still need each other. Psychiatry. 2001; 64(1):14-6.
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  44. Kleinman A. Cross-cultural psychiatry: a psychiatric perspective on global change. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2001 Jan-Feb; 9(1):46-7.
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  45. Ji J, Kleinman A, Becker AE. Suicide in contemporary China: a review of China's distinctive suicide demographics in their sociocultural context. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2001 Jan-Feb; 9(1):1-12.
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  46. Kleinman A. Social violence: research questions on local experiences and global responses. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Nov; 56(11):978-9.
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  47. Mezzich JE, Kirmayer LJ, Kleinman A, Fabrega H, Parron DL, Good BJ, Lin KM, Manson SM. The place of culture in DSM-IV. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999 Aug; 187(8):457-64.
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  48. Kleinman A, Kleinman J. The transformation of everyday social experience: what a mental and social health perspective reveals about Chinese communities under global and local change. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1999 Mar; 23(1):7-24.
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  49. Kleinman A, Kleinman J, Lee S. Introduction to the transformation of social experience in Chinese society: anthropological, psychiatric and social medicine perspectives. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1999 Mar; 23(1):1-6.
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  50. Kleinman A. Moral experience and ethical reflection: can ethnography reconcile them? A quandary for "the new bioethics. Daedalus. 1999; 128(4):69-97.
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  51. Hicks MH, Kleinman A, Yang L. The social course of schizophrenia: local and societal factors. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 1998 Jul; 14(7):432-47.
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  52. Kleinman A, Becker AE. "Sociosomatics": the contributions of anthropology to psychosomatic medicine. Psychosom Med. 1998 Jul-Aug; 60(4):389-93.
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  53. Jenkins R, de Vries M, Eisenberg L, Kleinman A. WHO: where there is no vision, the people perish. Lancet. 1997 Nov 15; 350(9089):1480.
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  54. Desjarlais R, Kleinman A. Violence and well-being. Soc Sci Med. 1997 Oct; 45(8):1143-5.
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  55. Eisenberg L, Kleinman A, Cohen A. Child and adolescent mental health: a global perspective. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 1997 Jul-Sep; 10(3):9-10.
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  56. Lee S, Kleinman A. Mental illness and social change in China. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1997 May-Jun; 5(1):43-6.
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  57. Kleinman A, Cohen A. Psychiatry's global challenge. Sci Am. 1997 Mar; 276(3):86-9.
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  58. Kleinman A. Triumph or pyrrhic victory? The inclusion of culture in DSM-IV. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1997 Mar-Apr; 4(6):343-4.
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  59. Kleinman A. Suffering, ethics, and the politics of moral life. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1996 Sep; 20(3):287-90.
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  60. Kleinman A. China: the epidemiology of mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 1996 Aug; 169(2):129-30.
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  61. Kleinman A, Seymour A, Cohen A. World mental health: needs and resources. Behav Healthc Tomorrow. 1996 Aug; 5(4):28-31, 88-92.
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  62. Kleinman A. Sociosomatics: how the social world affects bodily processes. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 1996; 98(8):523-32.
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  63. Kleinman A. Mental health in low-income countries. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1995 Nov-Dec; 3(4):235-9.
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  64. Lewis-Fernández R, Kleinman A. Cultural psychiatry. Theoretical, clinical, and research issues. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1995 Sep; 18(3):433-48.
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  65. Kleinman A, Eisenberg L. Mental health in low-income countries. Nat Med. 1995 Jul; 1(7):630-1.
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  66. Kleinman A, Wang WZ, Li SC, Cheng XM, Dai XY, Li KT, Kleinman J. The social course of epilepsy: chronic illness as social experience in interior China. Soc Sci Med. 1995 May; 40(10):1319-30.
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  67. Xiong W, Phillips MR, Hu X, Wang R, Dai Q, Kleinman J, Kleinman A. Family-based intervention for schizophrenic patients in China. A randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 1994 Aug; 165(2):239-47.
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  68. Lewis-Fernández R, Kleinman A. Culture, personality, and psychopathology. J Abnorm Psychol. 1994 Feb; 103(1):67-71.
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  69. Ware NC, Kleinman A. Culture and somatic experience: the social course of illness in neurasthenia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosom Med. 1992 Sep-Oct; 54(5):546-60.
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  70. Sugar JA, Kleinman A, Eisenberg L. Psychiatric morbidity in developing countries and American psychiatry's role in international health. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1992 Apr; 43(4):355-60.
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  71. Mezzich JE, Fabrega H, Kleinman A. Cultural validity and DSM-IV. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1992 Jan; 180(1):4.
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  72. Kleinman A, Kleinman J. Suffering and its professional transformation: toward an ethnography of interpersonal experience. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1991 Sep; 15(3):275-301.
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  73. Lin KM, Kleinman AM. Psychopathology and clinical course of schizophrenia: a cross-cultural perspective. Schizophr Bull. 1988; 14(4):555-67.
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  74. Kleinman A. Anthropology and psychiatry. The role of culture in cross-cultural research on illness. Br J Psychiatry. 1987 Oct; 151:447-54.
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  75. Kleinman A. Understanding the impact of illness on the individual and the family. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1986 Apr; 24(4):33-6.
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  76. Lin EH, Carter WB, Kleinman AM. An exploration of somatization among Asian refugees and immigrants in primary care. Am J Public Health. 1985 Sep; 75(9):1080-4.
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  77. Kleinman A. The cultural meanings and social uses of illness. A role for medical anthropology and clinically oriented social science in the development of primary care theory and research. J Fam Pract. 1983 Mar; 16(3):539-45.
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  78. Kleinman A, Gale JL. Patients treated by physicians and folk healers: a comparative outcome study in Taiwan. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1982 Dec; 6(4):405-23.
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  79. Beitman BD, Featherstone H, Kastner L, Katon W, Kleinman A. Steps toward patient acknowledgement of psychosocial factors. J Fam Pract. 1982 Dec; 15(6):1119-26.
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  80. Kleinman A. Neurasthenia and depression: a study of somatization and culture in China. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1982 Jun; 6(2):117-90.
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  81. Rosen G, Kleinman A, Katon W. Somatization in family practice: a biopsychosocial approach. J Fam Pract. 1982 Mar; 14(3):493-502.
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  82. Katon W, Kleinman A, Rosen G. Depression and somatization: a review. Part II. Am J Med. 1982 Feb; 72(2):241-7.
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  83. Lin KM, Inui TS, Kleinman AM, Womack WM. Sociocultural determinants of the help-seeking behavior of patients with mental illness. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1982 Feb; 170(2):78-85.
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  84. Kleinman A. On illness meanings and clinical interpretation: not 'rational man', but a rational approach to man the sufferer/man the healer. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1981 Dec; 5(4):373-7.
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  85. Lin KM, Kleinman A. Recent development of psychiatric epidemiology in China. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1981 Jun; 5(2):135-43.
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  86. Smilkstein G, Kleinman A, Chrisman N, Rosen G, Katon W. The clinical social science conference in biopsychosocial teaching. J Fam Pract. 1981 Feb; 12(2):347-53.
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  87. Ries RK, Bokan JA, Kleinman A, Schuckit MA. Psychiatric consultation-liaison service: patients, requests, and functions. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1980 Sep; 2(3):204-12.
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  88. Kleinman A. Major conceptual and research issues for cultural (anthropological) psychiatry. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1980 Mar; 4(1):3-13.
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  89. Manschreck TC, Kleinman AM. Psychiatry's identity crisis: a critical rational remedy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1979 Jul; 1(2):166-73.
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  90. Kleinman A, Mechanic D. Some observations of mental illness and its treatment in the People's Republic of China. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1979 May; 167(5):267-74.
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  91. Kleinman A, Sung LH. Why do indigenous practitioners successfully heal? Soc Sci Med Med Anthropol. 1979 Jan; 13 B(1):7-26.
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  92. Kleinman A. Culture and depression. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1978 Dec; 2(4):295-6.
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  93. Kleinman A, Mendelsohn E. Systems of medical knowledge: a comparative approach. J Med Philos. 1978 Dec; 3(4):314-30.
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  94. Kleinman AM. Three faces of culture-bound syndromes: their implications for cross-cultural research. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1978 Sep; 2(3):207-8.
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  95. Kleinman A. Clinical relevance of anthropological and cross-cultural research: concepts and strategies. Am J Psychiatry. 1978 Apr; 135(4):427-31.
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  96. Kleinman A. Concepts and a model for the comparison of medical systems as cultural systems. Soc Sci Med. 1978 Apr; 12(2B):85-95.
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  97. Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Feb; 88(2):251-8.
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  98. Kleinman AM. Depression, somatization and the "new cross-cultural psychiatry". Soc Sci Med. 1977 Jan; 11(1):3-10.
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  99. Kleinman A. Explaining the efficacy of indigenous therapies: the need for interdisciplinary research. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1977; 1(2):133-4.
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  100. Kleinman A. Culture, and illness: a question of models. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1977; 1(3):229-31.
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  101. Kleinman AM. The symbolic context of Chinese medicine: a comparative approach to the study of traditional medical and psychiatric forms of care in Chinese culture. Am J Chin Med (Gard City N Y). 1975 Apr; 3(2):103-24.
    View in: PubMed
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