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Last Name
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Michael S. Gilmore, Ph.D.

TitleSir William Osler Professor of Ophthalmology
InstitutionMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
DepartmentOphthalmology
AddressMassachusetts Eye & Ear Infrm
Howe Lab
243 Charles St
Boston MA 02114
Phone617/573-3845

 Mentoring 
 current student opportunities
Available: 09/30/11, Expires: 09/01/14

This project utilizes state-of-the-art genomic methods to identify genes that enable multidrug resistant bacteria, including Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, to infect or survive treatment. Genes identified are then tested using microarrays or other approaches to identify gene networks and to define precisely what the product of that gene contributes to infection or resistance. This knowledge is then used to design new therapeutic approaches, or to aid in the search for new antimicrobials.


 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Lebreton F, Valentino MD, Duncan LB, Zeng Q, Manson McGuire A, Earl AM, Gilmore MS. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Vagococcus lutrae Strain LBD1, Isolated from the Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides. Genome Announc. 2013; 1(6).
    View in: PubMed
  2. Gilmore MS, Lebreton F, Van Tyne D. Dual defensin strategy for targeting Enterococcus faecalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 10; 110(50):19980-1.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Dabul AN, Kos VN, Gilmore MS, Camargo IL. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain SA16, Representative of an Endemic Clone from a Brazilian Hospital. Genome Announc. 2013; 1(5).
    View in: PubMed
  4. McGilligan VE, Gregory-Ksander MS, Li D, Moore JE, Hodges RR, Gilmore MS, Moore TC, Dartt DA. Staphylococcus aureus Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cells. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74010.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Lebreton F, van Schaik W, Manson McGuire A, Godfrey P, Griggs A, Mazumdar V, Corander J, Cheng L, Saif S, Young S, Zeng Q, Wortman J, Birren B, Willems RJ, Earl AM, Gilmore MS. Emergence of Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Animal and Commensal Strains. MBio. 2013; 4(4).
    View in: PubMed
  6. Teixeira N, Varahan S, Gorman MJ, Palmer KL, Zaidman-Remy A, Yokohata R, Nakayama J, Hancock LE, Jacinto A, Gilmore MS, de Fátima Silva Lopes M. Drosophila Host Model Reveals New Enterococcus faecalis Quorum-Sensing Associated Virulence Factors. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64740.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Van Tyne D, Martin MJ, Gilmore MS. Structure, Function, and Biology of the Enterococcus faecalis Cytolysin. Toxins (Basel). 2013; 5(5):895-911.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Chibebe Junior J, Fuchs BB, Sabino CP, Junqueira JC, Jorge AO, Ribeiro MS, Gilmore MS, Rice LB, Tegos GP, Hamblin MR, Mylonakis E. Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapy Impair the Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a Whole Animal Insect Model. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55926.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Gilmore MS, Lebreton F, van Schaik W. Genomic transition of enterococci from gut commensals to leading causes of multidrug-resistant hospital infection in the antibiotic era. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 Feb; 16(1):10-6.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Weinberger AD, Wolf YI, Lobkovsky AE, Gilmore MS, Koonin EV. Viral diversity threshold for adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. MBio. 2012; 3(6).
    View in: PubMed
  11. Weinberger AD, Gilmore MS. CRISPR-Cas: to take up DNA or not-that is the question. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Aug 16; 12(2):125-6.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Kos VN, Desjardins CA, Griggs A, Cerqueira G, Van Tonder A, Holden MT, Godfrey P, Palmer KL, Bodi K, Mongodin EF, Wortman J, Feldgarden M, Lawley T, Gill SR, Haas BJ, Birren B, Gilmore MS. Comparative genomics of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their positions within the clade most commonly associated with Methicillin-resistant S. aureus hospital-acquired infection in the United States. MBio. 2012; 3(3).
    View in: PubMed
  13. Suzuki T, Campbell J, Kim Y, Swoboda JG, Mylonakis E, Walker S, Gilmore MS. Wall teichoic acid protects Staphylococcus aureus from inhibition by Congo red and other dyes. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep; 67(9):2143-51.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Weinberger AD, Sun CL, Plucinski MM, Denef VJ, Thomas BC, Horvath P, Barrangou R, Gilmore MS, Getz WM, Banfield JF. Persisting viral sequences shape microbial CRISPR-based immunity. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012; 8(4):e1002475.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Sadaka A, Durand ML, Gilmore MS. Bacterial endophthalmitis in the age of outpatient intravitreal therapies and cataract surgeries: host-microbe interactions in intraocular infection. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Jul; 31(4):316-31.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Govindarajan B, Menon BB, Spurr-Michaud S, Rastogi K, Gilmore MS, Argüeso P, Gipson IK. A metalloproteinase secreted by Streptococcus pneumoniae removes membrane mucin MUC16 from the epithelial glycocalyx barrier. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e32418.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Palmer KL, Godfrey P, Griggs A, Kos VN, Zucker J, Desjardins C, Cerqueira G, Gevers D, Walker S, Wortman J, Feldgarden M, Haas B, Birren B, Gilmore MS. Comparative genomics of enterococci: variation in Enterococcus faecalis, clade structure in E. faecium, and defining characteristics of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. MBio. 2012; 3(1):e00318-11.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Campbell J, Singh AK, Swoboda JG, Gilmore MS, Wilkinson BJ, Walker S. An antibiotic that inhibits a late step in wall teichoic acid biosynthesis induces the cell wall stress stimulon in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Apr; 56(4):1810-20.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Rigottier-Gois L, Alberti A, Houel A, Taly JF, Palcy P, Manson J, Pinto D, Matos RC, Carrilero L, Montero N, Tariq M, Karsens H, Repp C, Kropec A, Budin-Verneuil A, Benachour A, Sauvageot N, Bizzini A, Gilmore MS, Bessières P, Kok J, Huebner J, Lopes F, Gonzalez-Zorn B, Hartke A, Serror P. Large-scale screening of a targeted Enterococcus faecalis mutant library identifies envelope fitness factors. PLoS One. 2011; 6(12):e29023.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Behlau I, Mukherjee K, Todani A, Tisdale AS, Cade F, Wang L, Leonard EM, Zakka FR, Gilmore MS, Jakobiec FA, Dohlman CH, Klibanov AM. Biocompatibility and biofilm inhibition of N,N-hexyl,methyl-polyethylenimine bonded to Boston Keratoprosthesis materials. Biomaterials. 2011 Dec; 32(34):8783-96.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Suzuki T, Campbell J, Swoboda JG, Walker S, Gilmore MS. Role of wall teichoic acids in Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 May; 52(6):3187-92.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Michaux C, Sanguinetti M, Reffuveille F, Auffray Y, Posteraro B, Gilmore MS, Hartke A, Giard JC. SlyA is a transcriptional regulator involved in the virulence of Enterococcus faecalis. Infect Immun. 2011 Jul; 79(7):2638-45.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Palmer KL, Daniel A, Hardy C, Silverman J, Gilmore MS. Genetic basis for daptomycin resistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Jul; 55(7):3345-56.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Ribeiro T, Santos S, Marques MI, Gilmore M, de Fátima Silva Lopes M. Identification of a new gene, vanV, in vanB operons of Enterococcus faecalis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011 Jun; 37(6):554-7.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Klocke J, Barcia RN, Heimer S, Cario E, Zieske J, Gilmore MS, Ksander BR, Gregory MS. Spontaneous bacterial keratitis in CD36 knockout mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jan; 52(1):256-63.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Yiu G, Young L, Gilmore M, Chodosh J. Prophylaxis against postoperative endophthalmitis in cataract surgery. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2011; 51(4):67-83.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Suzuki T, Swoboda JG, Campbell J, Walker S, Gilmore MS. In vitro antimicrobial activity of wall teichoic acid biosynthesis inhibitors against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb; 55(2):767-74.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Palmer KL, Gilmore MS. Multidrug-resistant enterococci lack CRISPR-cas. MBio. 2010; 1(4).
    View in: PubMed
  29. Palmer KL, Kos VN, Gilmore MS. Horizontal gene transfer and the genomics of enterococcal antibiotic resistance. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Oct; 13(5):632-9.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Heimer SR, Yamada A, Russell H, Gilmore M. Response of corneal epithelial cells to Staphylococcus aureus. Virulence. 2010 Jul-Aug; 1(4):223-35.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Suzuki T, Yamada A, Gilmore MS. Host-pathogen interactions in the cornea. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010 May; 54(3):191-3.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Manson JM, Hancock LE, Gilmore MS. Mechanism of chromosomal transfer of Enterococcus faecalis pathogenicity island, capsule, antimicrobial resistance, and other traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 6; 107(27):12269-74.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Palmer KL, Carniol K, Manson JM, Heiman D, Shea T, Young S, Zeng Q, Gevers D, Feldgarden M, Birren B, Gilmore MS. High-quality draft genome sequences of 28 Enterococcus sp. isolates. J Bacteriol. 2010 May; 192(9):2469-70.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Swoboda JG, Meredith TC, Campbell J, Brown S, Suzuki T, Bollenbach T, Malhowski AJ, Kishony R, Gilmore MS, Walker S. Discovery of a small molecule that blocks wall teichoic acid biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. ACS Chem Biol. 2009 Oct 16; 4(10):875-83.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Roux A, Payne SM, Gilmore MS. Microbial telesensing: probing the environment for friends, foes, and food. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Aug 20; 6(2):115-24.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Yan X, Zhao C, Budin-Verneuil A, Hartke A, Rincé A, Gilmore MS, Auffray Y, Pichereau V. The (p)ppGpp synthetase RelA contributes to stress adaptation and virulence in Enterococcus faecalis V583. Microbiology. 2009 Oct; 155(Pt 10):3226-37.
    View in: PubMed
  37. McBride SM, Coburn PS, Baghdayan AS, Willems RJ, Grande MJ, Shankar N, Gilmore MS. Genetic variation and evolution of the pathogenicity island of Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol. 2009 May; 191(10):3392-402.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Behlau I, Gilmore MS. Microbial biofilms in ophthalmology and infectious disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 126(11):1572-81.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Suzuki T, Wada T, Kozai S, Ike Y, Gilmore MS, Ohashi Y. Contribution of secreted proteases to the pathogenesis of postoperative Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008 Oct; 34(10):1776-84.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Ricciuto J, Heimer SR, Gilmore MS, Argüeso P. Cell surface O-glycans limit Staphylococcus aureus adherence to corneal epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2008 Nov; 76(11):5215-20.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Camargo IL, Zanella RC, Gilmore MS, Darini AL. Virulence factors in vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin- susceptible Enterococcus faecalis from Brazil. Braz J Microbiol. 2008 Apr; 39(2):273-8.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Whiston EA, Sugi N, Kamradt MC, Sack C, Heimer SR, Engelbert M, Wawrousek EF, Gilmore MS, Ksander BR, Gregory MS. alphaB-crystallin protects retinal tissue during Staphylococcus aureus-induced endophthalmitis. Infect Immun. 2008 Apr; 76(4):1781-90.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Camargo IL, Gilmore MS. Staphylococcus aureus--probing for host weakness? J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr; 190(7):2253-6.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Demuth A, Aharonowitz Y, Bachmann TT, Blum-Oehler G, Buchrieser C, Covacci A, Dobrindt U, Emödy L, van der Ende A, Ewbank J, Fernández LA, Frosch M, García-Del Portillo F, Gilmore MS, Glaser P, Goebel W, Hasnain SE, Heesemann J, Islam K, Korhonen T, Maiden M, Meyer TF, Montecucco C, Oswald E, Parkhill J, Pucciarelli MG, Ron E, Svanborg C, Uhlin BE, Wai SN, Wehland J, Hacker J. Pathogenomics: an updated European Research Agenda. Infect Genet Evol. 2008 May; 8(3):386-93.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Manson JM, Rauch M, Gilmore MS. The commensal microbiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; 635:15-28.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Gilmore MS. Microbiology Section Editor. Albert & Jakobiec's. Principles & Practice of Ophthalmology. 2008.
  47. Gilmore MS and J-Carlos Abad. Parasitic and Rickettsial Ocular Infections. In Albert & Jakobiec's Principles & Practice of Ophthalmology, . 2008.
  48. Blalock TD, Spurr-Michaud SJ, Tisdale AS, Heimer SR, Gilmore MS, Ramesh V, Gipson IK. Functions of MUC16 in corneal epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct; 48(10):4509-18.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Gilmore MS. Introducing Ilene K. Gipson, the 2007 recipient of the Friedenwald award. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct; 48(10):4390.
    View in: PubMed
  50. McBride SM, Fischetti VA, Leblanc DJ, Moellering RC, Gilmore MS. Genetic diversity among Enterococcus faecalis. PLoS One. 2007; 2(7):e582.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Callegan MC, Gilmore MS, Gregory M, Ramadan RT, Wiskur BJ, Moyer AL, Hunt JJ, Novosad BD. Bacterial endophthalmitis: therapeutic challenges and host-pathogen interactions. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2007 Mar; 26(2):189-203.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Cox CR, Gilmore MS. Native microbial colonization of Drosophila melanogaster and its use as a model of Enterococcus faecalis pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2007 Apr; 75(4):1565-76.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Manson JM, M Rauch, and MS Gilmore. Commensal microbiology of the gastrointestinal tract. In: GI Microbiota and regulation of the immune system. 2007.
  54. Gregory M, Callegan MC, Gilmore MS. Role of bacterial and host factors in infectious endophthalmitis. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2007; 92:266-75.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Camargo IL, Gilmore MS, Darini AL. Multilocus sequence typing and analysis of putative virulence factors in vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolates from Brazil. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Nov; 12(11):1123-30.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Manson JM, Gilmore MS. Pathogenicity island integrase cross-talk: a potential new tool for virulence modulation. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Aug; 61(3):555-9.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Camargo IL, Dalla Costa LM, Woodford N, Gilmore MS, Darini AL. Sequence analysis of Enterococcus faecium strain 10/96A (VanD4), the original vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Jul; 44(7):2635-7.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Spoering AL, Gilmore MS. Quorum sensing and DNA release in bacterial biofilms. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006 Apr; 9(2):133-7.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Manson JM and MS Gilmore. Pathogenomics of Enterococcus faecalis. In: Pathogenomics: Genome Analysis of Pathogenic Microbes . 2006; 125-148.
  60. Gregory M, MS Gilmore, and MC Callegan. Role of Bacterial and Host Factors in Infectious Endophthalmitis. In: Niederkorn JY, Kaplan HJ (eds): Immune Response and the Eye. Chem. Immunol. Allergy. 2006; 92(10):1-10.
  61. Carniol K and MS Gilmore. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. 3rd edition. Joseph Alouf and Michel Popoff (Eds.). Academic Press/Elsevier. 2006; 717-721.
  62. Callegan MC, Kane ST, Cochran DC, Novosad B, Gilmore MS, Gominet M, Lereclus D. Bacillus endophthalmitis: roles of bacterial toxins and motility during infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Sep; 46(9):3233-8.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Kobayakawa S, Jett BD, Gilmore MS. Biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis on intraocular lens material. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Sep; 30(9):741-5.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Engelbert M, Gilmore MS. Fas ligand but not complement is critical for control of experimental Staphylococcus aureus Endophthalmitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jul; 46(7):2479-86.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Gilmore MS, Haas W. The selective advantage of microbial fratricide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14; 102(24):8401-2.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Cox CR, Coburn PS, Gilmore MS. Enterococcal cytolysin: a novel two component peptide system that serves as a bacterial defense against eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Feb; 6(1):77-84.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Kobayakawa S and MS Gilmore. Biofilm formation on intraocular contact lens materials. Current Eye Research. 2005; 30 (9):741-5.
  68. Engelbert, M and MS Gilmore. Role of complement and Fas ligand in S. aureus endophthalmitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005; 46 (7):2479-86.
  69. Coburn PS, Pillar CM, Jett BD, Haas W, Gilmore MS. Enterococcus faecalis senses target cells and in response expresses cytolysin. Science. 2004 Dec 24; 306(5705):2270-2.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Carniol K, Gilmore MS. Signal transduction, quorum-sensing, and extracellular protease activity in Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2004 Dec; 186(24):8161-3.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Tendolkar PM, Baghdayan AS, Gilmore MS, Shankar N. Enterococcal surface protein, Esp, enhances biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis. Infect Immun. 2004 Oct; 72(10):6032-9.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Rumpel S, Razeto A, Pillar CM, Vijayan V, Taylor A, Giller K, Gilmore MS, Becker S, Zweckstetter M. Structure and DNA-binding properties of the cytolysin regulator CylR2 from Enterococcus faecalis. EMBO J. 2004 Sep 15; 23(18):3632-42.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Pillar CM, Gilmore MS. Enterococcal virulence--pathogenicity island of E. Faecalis. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1; 9:2335-46.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Engelbert M, Mylonakis E, Ausubel FM, Calderwood SB, Gilmore MS. Contribution of gelatinase, serine protease, and fsr to the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3628-33.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Hufnagel M, Hancock LE, Koch S, Theilacker C, Gilmore MS, Huebner J. Serological and genetic diversity of capsular polysaccharides in Enterococcus faecalis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Jun; 42(6):2548-57.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Shankar N, Coburn P, Pillar C, Haas W, Gilmore M. Enterococcal cytolysin: activities and association with other virulence traits in a pathogenicity island. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004 Apr; 293(7-8):609-18.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Razeto A, Giller K, Haas W, Gilmore MS, Zweckstetter M, Becker S. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin repressor CylR2. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Apr; 60(Pt 4):746-8.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Coburn PS, Gilmore MS. The Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin: a novel toxin active against eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Cell Microbiol. 2003 Oct; 5(10):661-9.
    View in: PubMed
  79. Hancock LE, Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Molecular analysis of the Enterococcus faecalis serotype 2 polysaccharide determinant. J Bacteriol. 2003 Aug; 185(15):4393-401.
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  80. Gilmore KS, Srinivas P, Akins DR, Hatter KL, Gilmore MS. Growth, development, and gene expression in a persistent Streptococcus gordonii biofilm. Infect Immun. 2003 Aug; 71(8):4759-66.
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  81. Callegan MC, Kane ST, Cochran DC, Gilmore MS, Gominet M, Lereclus D. Relationship of plcR-regulated factors to Bacillus endophthalmitis virulence. Infect Immun. 2003 Jun; 71(6):3116-24.
    View in: PubMed
  82. Gilmore MS, Ferretti JJ. Microbiology. The thin line between gut commensal and pathogen. Science. 2003 Mar 28; 299(5615):1999-2002.
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  83. Callegan MC, Cochran DC, Kane ST, Gilmore MS, Gominet M, Lereclus D. Contribution of membrane-damaging toxins to Bacillus endophthalmitis pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2002 Oct; 70(10):5381-9.
    View in: PubMed
  84. Greenfield RA, Drevets DA, Gilmore MS. Anthrax. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2002 Sep; 95(9):587-91.
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  85. Jett BD, Gilmore MS. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by human corneal epithelial cells: role of bacterial fibronectin-binding protein and host cell factors. Infect Immun. 2002 Aug; 70(8):4697-700.
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  86. Mylonakis E, Engelbert M, Qin X, Sifri CD, Murray BE, Ausubel FM, Gilmore MS, Calderwood SB. The Enterococcus faecalis fsrB gene, a key component of the fsr quorum-sensing system, is associated with virulence in the rabbit endophthalmitis model. Infect Immun. 2002 Aug; 70(8):4678-81.
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  87. Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Differential expression of virulence-related genes in Enterococcus faecalis in response to biological cues in serum and urine. Infect Immun. 2002 Aug; 70(8):4344-52.
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  88. Gilmore MS. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance: where Newton meets Darwin. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 292(2):65.
    View in: PubMed
  89. Shankar N, Baghdayan AS, Gilmore MS. Modulation of virulence within a pathogenicity island in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Nature. 2002 Jun 13; 417(6890):746-50.
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  90. Greenfield RA, Lutz BD, Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Unconventional biological threats and the molecular biological response to biological threats. Am J Med Sci. 2002 Jun; 323(6):350-7.
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  91. Callegan MC, Kane ST, Cochran DC, Gilmore MS. Molecular mechanisms of Bacillus endophthalmitis pathogenesis. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 May-Jun; 21(5-6):367-73.
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  92. Ruan X, Chodosh J, Callegan MC, Booth MC, Lee TD, Kumar P, Gilmore MS, Pereira HA. Corneal expression of the inflammatory mediator CAP37. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 May; 43(5):1414-21.
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  93. Jett BD, Gilmore MS. Host-parasite interactions in Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 May-Jun; 21(5-6):397-404.
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  94. Leid JG, Costerton JW, Shirtliff ME, Gilmore MS, Engelbert M. Immunology of Staphylococcal biofilm infections in the eye: new tools to study biofilm endophthalmitis. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 May-Jun; 21(5-6):405-13.
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  95. Archimbaud C, Shankar N, Forestier C, Baghdayan A, Gilmore MS, Charbonné F, Joly B. In vitro adhesive properties and virulence factors of Enterococcusfaecalis strains. Res Microbiol. 2002 Mar; 153(2):75-80.
    View in: PubMed
  96. Hancock LE, Gilmore MS. The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 5; 99(3):1574-9.
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  97. Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Antibiotic-resistant enterococci: the mechanisms and dynamics of drug introduction and resistance. Microbes Infect. 2002 Feb; 4(2):215-24.
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  98. Haas W, Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Two-component regulator of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin responds to quorum-sensing autoinduction. Nature. 2002 Jan 3; 415(6867):84-7.
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  99. Gilmore KS, DF Sahm and MS Gilmore. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials: Mechanisms, genetics, medical practice and public health. A. Salyers, K. Lewis, H. Taber, and R. Wax, ed. Marcel Dekker Inc. 2002; 331-354.
  100. Callegan MC, Engelbert M, Parke DW, Jett BD, Gilmore MS. Bacterial endophthalmitis: epidemiology, therapeutics, and bacterium-host interactions. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jan; 15(1):111-24.
    View in: PubMed
  101. Gentry-Weeks C, Coburn PS, Gilmore MS. Phages and other mobile virulence elements in gram-positive pathogens. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002; 264(2):79-94.
    View in: PubMed
  102. Callegan, MC, MS Gilmore and DW Parke II. The pathogenesis of infectious endophthalmitis. Duane’s Ophthalmology, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia PA. In press. 2002.
  103. Michael S. Gilmore. The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. 2002.
  104. Gilmore MS. Molecular Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 2002; 292:65-140.
  105. Haas W and MS Gilmore. Quorum sensing autoinduction of Enterococcus faecalis cytolytic toxin. Nature. 2002; 415:84-87.
  106. Pillar, CM and MS Gilmore. Virulence plasmids of gram positive pathogens. The Biology of Plasmids, G. Phillips and B. Funnell, eds., ASM Press, Washington DC. In press. 2002.
  107. Gilmore MS, PS Coburn, SR Nallapareddy, and BE Murray. Enterococcal Virulence. The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology and Antibiotic Resistance, Eds. MS Gilmore, D Clewell, P Courvalin, GM Dunny, BE Murray, and L Rice. ASM Press, Washington, DC. In Press. 2002.
  108. Huycke MM, Moore D, Joyce W, Wise P, Shepard L, Kotake Y, Gilmore MS. Extracellular superoxide production by Enterococcus faecalis requires demethylmenaquinone and is attenuated by functional terminal quinol oxidases. Mol Microbiol. 2001 Nov; 42(3):729-40.
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  109. Callegan MC, Parke DW, Gilmore MS. Corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy for bacillus endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Sep; 119(9):1391-3.
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  110. Francia MV, Haas W, Wirth R, Samberger E, Muscholl-Silberhorn A, Gilmore MS, Ike Y, Weaver KE, An FY, Clewell DB. Completion of the nucleotide sequence of the Enterococcus faecalis conjugative virulence plasmid pAD1 and identification of a second transfer origin. Plasmid. 2001 Sep; 46(2):117-27.
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  111. Shankar N, Lockatell CV, Baghdayan AS, Drachenberg C, Gilmore MS, Johnson DE. Role of Enterococcus faecalis surface protein Esp in the pathogenesis of ascending urinary tract infection. Infect Immun. 2001 Jul; 69(7):4366-72.
    View in: PubMed
  112. Booth MC, Pence LM, Mahasreshti P, Callegan MC, Gilmore MS. Clonal associations among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various sites of infection. Infect Immun. 2001 Jan; 69(1):345-52.
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  113. Mundy, L.M., D.F. Sahm, and M.S. Gilmore. Enterococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Clin. Microbiol. 2001; 13:513-522.
  114. Mundy LM, Sahm DF, Gilmore M. Relationships between enterococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000 Oct; 13(4):513-22.
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  115. Callegan MC, Booth MC, Gilmore MS. In vitro pharmacodynamics of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against common ocular pathogens. Cornea. 2000 Jul; 19(4):539-45.
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  116. Callegan MC, Booth MC, Jett BD, Gilmore MS. Pathogenesis of gram-positive bacterial endophthalmitis. Infect Immun. 1999 Jul; 67(7):3348-56.
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  117. Callegan MC, Jett BD, Hancock LE, Gilmore MS. Role of hemolysin BL in the pathogenesis of extraintestinal Bacillus cereus infection assessed in an endophthalmitis model. Infect Immun. 1999 Jul; 67(7):3357-66.
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  118. Coburn PS, Hancock LE, Booth MC, Gilmore MS. A novel means of self-protection, unrelated to toxin activation, confers immunity to the bactericidal effects of the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin. Infect Immun. 1999 Jul; 67(7):3339-47.
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  119. Gilmore MS, Hoch JA. Antibiotic resistance. A vancomycin surprise. Nature. 1999 Jun 10; 399(6736):524-5, 527.
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  120. Haas W, Gilmore MS. Molecular nature of a novel bacterial toxin: the cytolysin of Enterococcus faecalis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1999 May; 187(4):183-90.
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  121. Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Identification of aerobically and anaerobically induced genes in Enterococcus faecalis by random arbitrarily primed PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999 Apr; 65(4):1470-6.
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  122. Shankar V, Baghdayan AS, Huycke MM, Lindahl G, Gilmore MS. Infection-derived Enterococcus faecalis strains are enriched in esp, a gene encoding a novel surface protein. Infect Immun. 1999 Jan; 67(1):193-200.
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  123. Strausbaugh, LJ and MS Gilmore. Enterococcal infections. Streptococcal Infections: Clinical aspects, microbiology and molecular pathogenesis DL Stevens & EL Kaplan,eds.Oxford Univ.Press, NY. 1999; 280-301.
  124. Hancock. LE and MS Gilmore. Enterococcal Pathogenicity. In Gram Positive Pathogens, V. Fischetti, R. Novick, J. Ferretti, D. Portnoy and J. Rood, Eds. ASM Press. 1999; 251-258.
  125. Gilmore, MS, MC Callegan, and BD Jett. Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin and Bacillus cereus Bi- and Tri- component hemolysins. A Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, 2nd Edition (Joseph E. Alouf & John H. Freer, Eds ; Academic Press London). 1999; 419-434.
  126. Huycke MM, Sahm DF, Gilmore MS. Multiple-drug resistant enterococci: the nature of the problem and an agenda for the future. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998 Apr-Jun; 4(2):239-49.
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  127. Jett BD, Atkuri RV, Gilmore MS. Enterococcus faecalis localization in experimental endophthalmitis: role of plasmid-encoded aggregation substance. Infect Immun. 1998 Feb; 66(2):843-8.
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  128. Coburn, PS, H-G Sahl, RJ Siezen, and MS Gilmore. The Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin: a novel toxin with roots in the lantibiotic family. Bacterial Protein Toxins, Zent. bl. Bakteriol. Gustav Fischer Verlag. 1998; Suppl. 29.:409-410.
  129. Booth MC, Hatter KL, Miller D, Davis J, Kowalski R, Parke DW, Chodosh J, Jett BD, Callegan MC, Penland R, Gilmore MS. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis in endophthalmitis. Infect Immun. 1998 Jan; 66(1):356-60.
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  130. Jett BD, Hatter KL, Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Simplified agar plate method for quantifying viable bacteria. Biotechniques. 1997 Oct; 23(4):648-50.
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  131. Booth MC, Cheung AL, Hatter KL, Jett BD, Callegan MC, Gilmore MS. Staphylococcal accessory regulator (sar) in conjunction with agr contributes to Staphylococcus aureus virulence in endophthalmitis. Infect Immun. 1997 Apr; 65(4):1550-6.
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  132. Shankar V, Pichan P, Eddy RL, Tonk V, Nowak N, Sait SN, Shows TB, Schultz RE, Gotway G, Elkins RC, Gilmore MS, Sachdev GP. Chromosomal localization of a human mucin gene (MUC8) and cloning of the cDNA corresponding to the carboxy terminus. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1997 Mar; 16(3):232-41.
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  133. Jett BD, Parke DW, Booth MC, Gilmore MS. Host/parasite interactions in bacterial endophthalmitis. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1997 Feb; 285(3):341-67.
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  134. Shankar V, Gilmore MS. Characterization of the Enterococcus faecalis alpha C protein homolog. Evidence for the expression of alternate forms in commensal and infection derived isolates. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:1045-8.
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  135. Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Identification of virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis by differential display polymerase chain reaction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:777-9.
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  136. Hancock LE, Gilmore MS. Identification of a highly conserved lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification operon in Enterococcus faecalis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:1049-50.
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  137. Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. In vivo survival of Enterococcus faecalis is enhanced by extracellular superoxide production. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 418:781-4.
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  138. Booth MC, Bogie CP, Sahl HG, Siezen RJ, Hatter KL, Gilmore MS. Structural analysis and proteolytic activation of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin, a novel lantibiotic. Mol Microbiol. 1996 Sep; 21(6):1175-84.
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  139. Gilmore MS, Skaugen M, Nes I. Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin and lactocin S of Lactobacillus sake. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1996 Feb; 69(2):129-38.
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  140. Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Frequency of aggregation substance and cytolysin genes among enterococcal endocarditis isolates. Plasmid. 1995 Sep; 34(2):152-6.
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  141. Booth MC, Atkuri RV, Nanda SK, Iandolo JJ, Gilmore MS. Accessory gene regulator controls Staphylococcus aureus virulence in endophthalmitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Aug; 36(9):1828-36.
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  142. Huycke MM, Joyce WA, Gilmore MS. Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin without effect on the intestinal growth of susceptible enterococci in mice. J Infect Dis. 1995 Jul; 172(1):273-6.
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  143. Shankar V, Gilmore MS, Sachdev GP. Further evidence that the human MUC2 gene transcripts in the intestine and trachea are identical. Biochem J. 1995 Feb 15; 306 ( Pt 1):311-2.
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  144. Jett BD, Jensen HG, Atkuri RV, Gilmore MS. Evaluation of therapeutic measures for treating endophthalmitis caused by isogenic toxin-producing and toxin-nonproducing Enterococcus faecalis strains. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Jan; 36(1):9-15.
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  145. Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Frequency of aggregation substance and cytolysin genes among enterococcal endocarditis isolates. Dev Biol Stand. 1995; 85:47-50.
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  146. Ferretti JJ, Gilmore MS, Klaenhammer TR, Brown, F. Genetics of Streptococci, Enterococci and Lactococci. Genetics of Streptococci, Enterococci and Lactococci. 1995.
  147. Sahm DF, Gilmore MS. High-level gentamicin resistance among enterococci. Dev Biol Stand. 1995; 85:99-105.
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  148. Shepard BD, Gilmore MS. Electroporation and efficient transformation of Enterococcus faecalis grown in high concentrations of glycine. Methods Mol Biol. 1995; 47:217-26.
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  149. Bogie CP, Hancock LE, Gilmore MS. The Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin determinant and its relationship to those encoding lantibiotics. Dev Biol Stand. 1995; 85:627-34.
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  150. Gilmore MS, Segarra RA, Booth MC, Bogie CP, Hall LR, Clewell DB. Genetic structure of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1-encoded cytolytic toxin system and its relationship to lantibiotic determinants. J Bacteriol. 1994 Dec; 176(23):7335-44.
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  151. Jett BD, Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Virulence of enterococci. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1994 Oct; 7(4):462-78.
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  152. Shankar V, Gilmore MS, Elkins RC, Sachdev GP. A novel human airway mucin cDNA encodes a protein with unique tandem-repeat organization. Biochem J. 1994 Jun 1; 300 ( Pt 2):295-8.
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  153. Sahm DF, Gilmore MS. Transferability and genetic relatedness of high-level gentamicin resistance among enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 May; 38(5):1194-6.
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  154. Huycke, MM, Gilmore, KS, Verville, T, Gilmore, MS. Analysis by PCR of high-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci. Pathogenic Streptococci: Present and Future. A Totolian, Ed. Lancer Publication, St. Petersburg. 1994; 274-275.
  155. Booth, MC, Atkuri, RV, Gilmore, MS. Toxin production contributes to severity of Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis. Advances in Ocular Immunology. RB Nussenblatt et al., Eds. Elsevier Science B.V. 1994; 269-272.
  156. Booth, MC, Bogie, CP, Gilmore, MS. Characterization of the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin and auxiliary functions. Pathogenic Streptococci: Present and Future A Totolian, Ed.Lancer Publication, St. Petersburg. 1994; 137-139.
  157. Tan S, Shankar V, Gilmore MS, Sachdev GP. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for canine beta-spectrin reveals high evolutionary conservation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Feb 20; 1172(1-2):217-9.
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  158. Shankar V, Tan S, Gilmore MS, Sachdev GP. Molecular cloning of the carboxy terminus of a canine tracheobronchial mucin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Dec 15; 189(2):958-64.
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  159. Huycke MM, Gilmore MS, Jett BD, Booth JL. Transfer of pheromone-inducible plasmids between Enterococcus faecalis in the Syrian hamster gastrointestinal tract. J Infect Dis. 1992 Nov; 166(5):1188-91.
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  160. Hynes WL, Ferretti JJ, Gilmore MS, Segarra RA. PCR amplification of streptococcal DNA using crude cell lysates. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Jul 1; 73(1-2):139-42.
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  161. Jett BD, Jensen HG, Nordquist RE, Gilmore MS. Contribution of the pAD1-encoded cytolysin to the severity of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis. Infect Immun. 1992 Jun; 60(6):2445-52.
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  162. Zarlenga LJ, Gilmore MS, Sahm DF. Effects of amino acids on expression of enterococcal vancomycin resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Apr; 36(4):902-5.
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  163. Stevens SX, Jensen HG, Jett BD, Gilmore MS. A hemolysin-encoding plasmid contributes to bacterial virulence in experimental Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 Apr; 33(5):1650-6.
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  164. Gilmore, MS, Booth, MC, Huycke, MM, Jensen, HG, Jett, BD, Segarra, RA. The Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin determinant and its contribution to disease. New Perspectives on Streptococci and Streptococcal Infections. 1992; Supp 22:357-360.
  165. Huycke MM, Spiegel CA, Gilmore MS. Bacteremia caused by hemolytic, high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Aug; 35(8):1626-34.
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  166. Virmani AK, Shankar V, Gilmore MS, Graves DC, Sachdev GP. Translation of messenger RNA from canine tracheal epithelial cells: identification of mucin core protein. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1991 Aug; 5(2):149-54.
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  167. Haglund LA, Flournoy DJ, Gilmore MS, Huycke MM. Enterococcus: an old pathogen with new tricks. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1991 Jul; 84(7):305-9.
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  168. Segarra RA, Booth MC, Morales DA, Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Molecular characterization of the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin activator. Infect Immun. 1991 Apr; 59(4):1239-46.
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  169. Cruz-Rodz, AL, Gilmore, MS. Electroporation of glycine-treated Enterococcus faecalis. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Streptococci, Lactococci and Enterococci. 1991.
  170. Gilmore, MS. Enterococcus faecalis hemolysin/bacteriocin. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Streptococci, Lactococci and Enterococci. 1991; 206-213.
  171. Gilmore MS, Segarra RA, Booth MC. An HlyB-type function is required for expression of the Enterococcus faecalis hemolysin/bacteriocin. Infect Immun. 1990 Dec; 58(12):3914-23.
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  172. Jett BD, Gilmore MS. The growth-inhibitory effect of the Enterococcus faecalis bacteriocin encoded by pAD1 extends to the oral streptococci. J Dent Res. 1990 Oct; 69(10):1640-5.
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  173. Cruz-Rodz AL, Gilmore MS. High efficiency introduction of plasmid DNA into glycine treated Enterococcus faecalis by electroporation. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Oct; 224(1):152-4.
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  174. Ike Y, Clewell DB, Segarra RA, Gilmore MS. Genetic analysis of the pAD1 hemolysin/bacteriocin determinant in Enterococcus faecalis: Tn917 insertional mutagenesis and cloning. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jan; 172(1):155-63.
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  175. Sahm DF, Kissinger J, Gilmore MS, Murray PR, Mulder R, Solliday J, Clarke B. In vitro susceptibility studies of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Sep; 33(9):1588-91.
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  176. Benjamin D, Hartmann DP, Bazar LS, Jacobson RJ, Gilmore MS. Human B cell lines can be triggered to secrete an interleukin 2-like molecule. Cell Immunol. 1989 Jun; 121(1):30-48.
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  177. Gilmore MS, Cruz-Rodz AL, Leimeister-Wächter M, Kreft J, Goebel W. A Bacillus cereus cytolytic determinant, cereolysin AB, which comprises the phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase genes: nucleotide sequence and genetic linkage. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb; 171(2):744-53.
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  178. Gradus MS, Gilmore M, Lerner M. An isolation method of DNA from Pneumocystis carinii: a quantitative comparison to known parasitic protozoan DNA. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1988; 89(1):75-7.
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  179. Gradus, MS, Lerner, M, Gilmore, MS. An isolation method of DNA from Pneumocystis carinii: A quantitative comparison to known parasitic protozoan DNA. Comp Biochem Physio. 1988; 89B:75-77.
  180. Gilmore, MS, Behnke, D, Roe, BA, Clewell, DB. Molecular level characterization of the Streptococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 hemolysin/bacteriocin determinant. Streptococcal Genetics, JJ Ferretti and R Curtiss III, Eds. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. 1987; 153-158.
  181. Rocourt, J, Gilmore, MS, Goebel, W, Seeliger, HPR. DNA relatedness among Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua bacteriophages. Sys Appl Microbiol. 1986; 8:42-47.
  182. Chakraborty, T, Gilmore, M, Hacker, J, Hule, B, Kathariou, S, Knapp, S, Kreft, J, Muller, B, Leimeister, M, Parrisius, J, Wagner, W, Goebel, W. Genetic approaches to study haemolytic toxins in bacteria. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg I Abt Supp. 1986; 15:241-252.
  183. Gilmore MS. Molecular cloning of genes encoding gram-positive virulence factors. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1985; 118:219-234.
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  184. Gilmore, MS, Gilmore, KS, Goebel, W. A new “ordered” DNA sequencing strategy based on a novel method for the rapid purification of near milligram quantities of a cloned restriction fragment. Gene Anal Techniques. 1985; 2:108-114.
  185. Kreft, J, Gilmore, MS, Muller, B, Weidinger, G, Goebel, W. Cloning and characterization of the gene for a cytolysin in Bacillus. Genetics and Biotechnology of the Bacilli Academic Press. 1984.
  186. Behnke, D, Gilmore, MS, Ferretti, JJ. Molecular cloning of plasmid and chromosomal DNA fragments into the double selective streptococcal plasmid vector pGB301. Basic Concepts of Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, SE Holm and P Christensen, Eds. Reedbooks Ltd. 1982.
  187. Behnke, D, Gilmore, MS, Ferretti, JJ. Vector plasmid family and its use for molecular cloning in streptococci. Microbiology-1982. 1982.
  188. Gilmore, MS, Ferretti, JJ, Behnke, D, Malke, H. Conservation of MLS-resistance and putative replication function sequences on streptococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids. Basic Concepts of Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases SE Holm and P Christensen, Eds. Reedbooks Ltd. 1982.
  189. Gilmore, MS, Behnke, D, Ferretti, JJ. Evolutionary relatedness of MLS resistance and replication function sequences on streptococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids. Microbiology-1982. 1982.
  190. Behnke D, Gilmore MS, Ferretti JJ. Plasmid pGB301, a new multiple resistance streptococcal cloning vehicle and its use in cloning of a gentamicin/kanamycin resistance determinant. Mol Gen Genet. 1981; 182(3):414-21.
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  191. Behnke D, Gilmore MS. Location of antibiotic resistance determinants, copy control, and replication functions on the double-selective streptococcal cloning vector pGB301. Mol Gen Genet. 1981; 184(1):115-20.
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