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Keywords
Last Name
Institution

Bruce David Walker, M.D.

TitleProfessor of Medicine
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentMedicine
AddressRagon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard
Room 870
400 Technology Square
Cambridge MA 02139
Phone857/268-7072
Fax857/268-7142
Other Positions
TitleProfessor of Microbiology and Immunobiology
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunobiology

TitleProfessor in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases
InstitutionHarvard School of Public Health
DepartmentImmunology and Infectious Diseases


 Mentoring 
 completed student projects
Assessment of technical difficulties in amplifying and sequencing HIV and developmet of new work protocol for sequencing
International, 06/16/08 - 08/08/08
Clinical Elective at McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa, January 2005
International, 01/03/05 - 01/30/05
The Influence of the Availability of ARV Therapy on Doctor’s Relationship with Patients with HIV
International/Summer, 06/23/03 - 08/31/03
Investigation of Health Care Management Procedures for HIV/AIDS Clinic Scale-up of Antiretroviral Treatment with PEPFAR Funding
International, 06/24/04 - 08/24/04
Clinical Elective at McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa, January 2005
International, 01/03/05 - 01/30/05
Clinical Research at McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa, spring 2005
International, 01/30/05 - 03/31/05
Serum markers for immune activation in HIV-1 subtype C infected adults
International/Summer, 06/15/12 - 08/15/12
Clinical Elective at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa
International, 01/07/06 - 03/04/06

 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Wong EB, Akilimali NA, Govender P, Sullivan ZA, Cosgrove C, Pillay M, Lewinsohn DM, Bishai WR, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Klenerman P, Kasprowicz VO. Low Levels of Peripheral CD161++CD8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Are Found in HIV and HIV/TB Co-Infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83474.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Vaidya SA, Streeck H, Beckwith N, Ghebremichael M, Pereyra F, Kwon DS, Addo MM, Rychert J, Routy JP, Jessen H, Kelleher AD, Hecht F, Sekaly RP, Carrington M, Walker BD, Allen TM, Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M. Temporal effect of HLA-B*57 on viral control during primary HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2013; 10(1):139.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Kulkarni S, Qi Y, O'huigin C, Pereyra F, Ramsuran V, McLaren P, Fellay J, Nelson G, Chen H, Liao W, Bass S, Apps R, Gao X, Yuki Y, Lied A, Ganesan A, Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Wolinsky S, Walker BD, Carrington M. Genetic interplay between HLA-C and MIR148A in HIV control and Crohn disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 17; 110(51):20705-10.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Kløverpris HN, Jackson A, Handley A, Hayes P, Gilmour J, Riddell L, Chen F, Atkins M, Boffito M, Walker BD, Ackland J, Sullivan M, Goulder P. Non-Immunogenicity of Overlapping Gag Peptides Pulsed on Autologous Cells after Vaccination of HIV Infected Individuals. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e74389.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Mann JK, Byakwaga H, Kuang XT, Le AQ, Brumme CJ, Mwimanzi P, Omarjee S, Martin E, Lee GQ, Baraki B, Danroth R, McCloskey R, Muzoora C, Bangsberg DR, Hunt PW, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Harrigan PR, Martin JN, Ndung'u T, Brockman MA, Brumme ZL. Ability of HIV-1 Nef to downregulate CD4 and HLA class I differs among viral subtypes. Retrovirology. 2013; 10:100.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Ranasinghe S, Walker BD. Programming CMV for vaccine vector design. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Sep 10; 31(9):811-2.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Adland E, Carlson JM, Paioni P, Kløverpris H, Shapiro R, Ogwu A, Riddell L, Luzzi G, Chen F, Balachandran T, Heckerman D, Stryhn A, Edwards A, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Buus S, Goulder P, Matthews PC. Nef-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses Contribute to HIV-1 Immune Control. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73117.
    View in: PubMed
  8. McLaren PJ, Coulonges C, Ripke S, van den Berg L, Buchbinder S, Carrington M, Cossarizza A, Dalmau J, Deeks SG, Delaneau O, De Luca A, Goedert JJ, Haas D, Herbeck JT, Kathiresan S, Kirk GD, Lambotte O, Luo M, Mallal S, van Manen D, Martinez-Picado J, Meyer L, Miro JM, Mullins JI, Obel N, O'Brien SJ, Pereyra F, Plummer FA, Poli G, Qi Y, Rucart P, Sandhu MS, Shea PR, Schuitemaker H, Theodorou I, Vannberg F, Veldink J, Walker BD, Weintrob A, Winkler CA, Wolinsky S, Telenti A, Goldstein DB, de Bakker PI, Zagury JF, Fellay J. Association Study of Common Genetic Variants and HIV-1 Acquisition in 6,300 Infected Cases and 7,200 Controls. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jul; 9(7):e1003515.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Kløverpris HN, Stryhn A, Harndahl M, Carlson JM, Leslie AJ, Chen F, Riddell L, Mulenga J, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Buus S, Goulder P. HLA-A*68:02-restricted Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses can drive selection pressure on HIV but are subdominant and ineffective. AIDS. 2013 Jul 17; 27(11):1717-23.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Kløverpris HN, Stryhn A, Harndahl M, Payne R, Towers GJ, Chen F, Riddell L, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Leslie A, Buus S, Goulder P. HLA-Specific Intracellular Epitope Processing Shapes an Immunodominance Pattern for HLA-B*57 That Is Distinct from HLA-B*58:01. J Virol. 2013 Oct; 87(19):10889-94.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Walker BD, Yu XG. Unravelling the mechanisms of durable control of HIV-1. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Jun 25; 13(7):487-98.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Shasha D, Walker BD. Lessons to be Learned from Natural Control of HIV - Future Directions, Therapeutic, and Preventive Implications. Front Immunol. 2013; 4:162.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Ranasinghe S, Cutler S, Davis I, Lu R, Soghoian DZ, Qi Y, Sidney J, Kranias G, Flanders MD, Lindqvist M, Kuhl B, Alter G, Deeks SG, Walker BD, Gao X, Sette A, Carrington M, Streeck H. Association of HLA-DRB1-restricted CD4(+) T cell responses with HIV immune control. Nat Med. 2013 Jul; 19(7):930-3.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Pellegrini M, Walker BD. Host pathogen interactions at the coalface of immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Aug; 25(4):425-7.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Youngblood B, Noto A, Porichis F, Akondy RS, Ndhlovu ZM, Austin JW, Bordi R, Procopio FA, Miura T, Allen TM, Sidney J, Sette A, Walker BD, Ahmed R, Boss JM, Sékaly RP, Kaufmann DE. Cutting Edge: Prolonged Exposure to HIV Reinforces a Poised Epigenetic Program for PD-1 Expression in Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells. J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15; 191(2):540-4.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Koff WC, Burton DR, Johnson PR, Walker BD, King CR, Nabel GJ, Ahmed R, Bhan MK, Plotkin SA. Accelerating next-generation vaccine development for global disease prevention. Science. 2013 May 31; 340(6136):1232910.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Koff WC, Russell ND, Walport M, Feinberg MB, Shiver JW, Karim SA, Walker BD, McGlynn MG, Nweneka CV, Nabel GJ. Accelerating the development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine: HIV vaccine case study for the Decade of Vaccines. Vaccine. 2013 Apr 18; 31 Suppl 2:B204-8.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Ferguson AL, Mann JK, Omarjee S, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Chakraborty AK. Translating HIV Sequences into Quantitative Fitness Landscapes Predicts Viral Vulnerabilities for Rational Immunogen Design. Immunity. 2013 Mar 21; 38(3):606-17.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Mwimanzi P, Markle TJ, Ogata Y, Martin E, Tokunaga M, Mahiti M, Kuang XT, Walker BD, Brockman MA, Brumme ZL, Ueno T. Dynamic range of Nef functions in chronic HIV-1 infection. Virology. 2013 May 10; 439(2):74-80.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Walker BD, Hirsch MS. Antiretroviral therapy in early HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 17; 368(3):279-81.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Mwimanzi P, Markle TJ, Martin E, Ogata Y, Kuang XT, Tokunaga M, Mahiti M, Pereyra F, Miura T, Walker BD, Brumme ZL, Brockman MA, Ueno T. Attenuation of multiple Nef functions in HIV-1 elite controllers. Retrovirology. 2013; 10:1.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Ndhlovu ZM, Chibnik LB, Proudfoot J, Vine S, McMullen A, Cesa K, Porichis F, Jones RB, Alvino DM, Hart MG, Stampouloglou E, Piechocka-Trocha A, Kadie C, Pereyra F, Heckerman D, De Jager PL, Walker BD, Kaufmann DE. High-dimensional immunomonitoring models of HIV-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses accurately identify subjects achieving spontaneous viral control. Blood. 2013 Jan 31; 121(5):801-11.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Walker B, McMichael A. The T-Cell Response to HIV. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012; 2(11).
    View in: PubMed
  24. Angin M, King M, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Wucherpfennig KW, Addo MM. Identification of HIV-1-specific regulatory T-cells using HLA class II tetramers. AIDS. 2012 Oct 23; 26(16):2112-5.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Matthews PC, Listgarten J, Carlson JM, Payne R, Huang KH, Frater J, Goedhals D, Steyn D, van Vuuren C, Paioni P, Jooste P, Ogwu A, Shapiro R, Mncube Z, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Heckerman D, Goulder PJ. Co-Operative Additive Effects between HLA Alleles in Control of HIV-1. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47799.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Burton DR, Ahmed R, Barouch DH, Butera ST, Crotty S, Godzik A, Kaufmann DE, McElrath MJ, Nussenzweig MC, Pulendran B, Scanlan CN, Schief WR, Silvestri G, Streeck H, Walker BD, Walker LM, Ward AB, Wilson IA, Wyatt R. A Blueprint for HIV Vaccine Discovery. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Oct 18; 12(4):396-407.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Zhu J, Gaiha GD, John SP, Pertel T, Chin CR, Gao G, Qu H, Walker BD, Elledge SJ, Brass AL. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 by Inhibition of BRD4. Cell Rep. 2012 Oct 25; 2(4):807-16.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Chopera DR, Cotton LA, Zawaira A, Mann JK, Ngandu NK, Ntale R, Carlson JM, Mlisana K, Woodman Z, de Assis Rosa D, Martin E, Miura T, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Gray CM, Martin DP, Ndung'u T, Brockman MA, Karim SA, Brumme ZL, Williamson C. Intersubtype differences in the effect of a rare p24 gag mutation on HIV-1 replicative fitness. J Virol. 2012 Dec; 86(24):13423-33.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Goulder PJ, Walker BD. HIV and HLA class I: an evolving relationship. Immunity. 2012 Sep 21; 37(3):426-40.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Kløverpris HN, Harndahl M, Leslie AJ, Carlson JM, Ismail N, van der Stok M, Huang KH, Chen F, Riddell L, Steyn D, Goedhals D, van Vuuren C, Frater J, Walker BD, Carrington M, Ndung'u T, Buus S, Goulder P. HIV control through a single nucleotide on the HLA-B locus. J Virol. 2012 Nov; 86(21):11493-500.
    View in: PubMed
  31. McElrath MJ, Walker BD. Is an HIV vaccine possible? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 1; 60 Suppl 2:S41-3.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Klein F, Gaebler C, Mouquet H, Sather DN, Lehmann C, Scheid JF, Kraft Z, Liu Y, Pietzsch J, Hurley A, Poignard P, Feizi T, Morris L, Walker BD, Fätkenheuer G, Seaman MS, Stamatatos L, Nussenzweig MC. Broad neutralization by a combination of antibodies recognizing the CD4 binding site and a new conformational epitope on the HIV-1 envelope protein. J Exp Med. 2012 Jul 30; 209(8):1469-79.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Stephenson KE, Li H, Walker BD, Michael NL, Barouch DH. Gag-specific cellular immunity determines in vitro viral inhibition and in vivo virologic control following simian immunodeficiency virus challenges of vaccinated rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2012 Sep; 86(18):9583-9.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Walker BD. Secrets of the HIV controllers: A rare group of HIV-positive individuals need no medicine to keep the virus in check. Their good fortune could point the way to more powerful treatments--and perhaps a vaccine. Sci Am. 2012 Jul; 307(1):44-51.
    View in: PubMed
  35. McLaren PJ, Ripke S, Pelak K, Weintrob AC, Patsopoulos NA, Jia X, Erlich RL, Lennon NJ, Kadie CM, Heckerman D, Gupta N, Haas DW, Deeks SG, Pereyra F, Walker BD, de Bakker PI. Fine-mapping classical HLA variation associated with durable host control of HIV-1 infection in African Americans. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Oct 1; 21(19):4334-47.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Chen H, Ndhlovu ZM, Liu D, Porter LC, Fang JW, Darko S, Brockman MA, Miura T, Brumme ZL, Schneidewind A, Piechocka-Trocha A, Cesa KT, Sela J, Cung TD, Toth I, Pereyra F, Yu XG, Douek DC, Kaufmann DE, Allen TM, Walker BD. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection. Nat Immunol. 2012 Jul; 13(7):691-700.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Mitchell JE, Chetty S, Govender P, Pillay M, Jaggernath M, Kasmar A, Ndung'u T, Klenerman P, Walker BD, Kasprowicz VO. Prospective monitoring reveals dynamic levels of T cell immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV infected individuals. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e37920.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Zhang SC, Martin E, Shimada M, Godfrey SB, Fricke J, Locastro S, Lai NY, Liebesny P, Carlson JM, Brumme CJ, Ogbechie OA, Chen H, Walker BD, Brumme ZL, Kavanagh DG, Le Gall S. Aminopeptidase substrate preference affects HIV epitope presentation and predicts immune escape patterns in HIV-infected individuals. J Immunol. 2012 Jun 15; 188(12):5924-34.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Ndhlovu ZM, Proudfoot J, Cesa K, Alvino DM, McMullen A, Vine S, Stampouloglou E, Piechocka-Trocha A, Walker BD, Pereyra F. Elite controllers with low to absent effector CD8+ T cell responses maintain highly functional, broadly directed central memory responses. J Virol. 2012 Jun; 86(12):6959-69.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Brockman MA, Chopera DR, Olvera A, Brumme CJ, Sela J, Markle TJ, Martin E, Carlson JM, Le AQ, McGovern R, Cheung PK, Kelleher AD, Jessen H, Markowitz M, Rosenberg E, Frahm N, Sanchez J, Mallal S, John M, Harrigan PR, Heckerman D, Brander C, Walker BD, Brumme ZL. Uncommon pathways of immune escape attenuate HIV-1 integrase replication capacity. J Virol. 2012 Jun; 86(12):6913-23.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Thobakgale CF, Fadda L, Lane K, Toth I, Pereyra F, Bazner S, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES, Alter G, Carrington M, Allen TM, Altfeld M. Frequent and strong antibody-mediated natural killer cell activation in response to HIV-1 Env in individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2012 Jun; 86(12):6986-93.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Angin M, Streeck H, Wen F, King M, Pereyra F, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Addo MM. Regulatory T cell frequencies do not correlate with breadth or magnitude of HIV-1-specific T cell responses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Aug; 28(8):749-51.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Li JZ, Brumme CJ, Lederman MM, Brumme ZL, Wang H, Spritzler J, Carrington M, Medvik K, Walker BD, Schooley RT, Kuritzkes DR. Characteristics and outcomes of initial virologic suppressors during analytic treatment interruption in a therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e34134.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Angin M, Kwon DS, Streeck H, Wen F, King M, Rezai A, Law K, Hongo TC, Pyo A, Piechocka-Trocha A, Toth I, Pereyra F, Ghebremichael M, Rodig SJ, Milner DA, Richter JM, Altfeld M, Kaufmann DE, Walker BD, Addo MM. Preserved function of regulatory T cells in chronic HIV-1 infection despite decreased numbers in blood and tissue. J Infect Dis. 2012 May 15; 205(10):1495-500.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Chang JJ, Lacas A, Lindsay RJ, Doyle EH, Axten KL, Pereyra F, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Allen TM, Altfeld M. Differential regulation of toll-like receptor pathways in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2012 Mar 13; 26(5):533-41.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Henn MR, Boutwell CL, Charlebois P, Lennon NJ, Power KA, Macalalad AR, Berlin AM, Malboeuf CM, Ryan EM, Gnerre S, Zody MC, Erlich RL, Green LM, Berical A, Wang Y, Casali M, Streeck H, Bloom AK, Dudek T, Tully D, Newman R, Axten KL, Gladden AD, Battis L, Kemper M, Zeng Q, Shea TP, Gujja S, Zedlack C, Gasser O, Brander C, Hess C, Günthard HF, Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Bazner S, Rychert J, Tinsley JP, Mayer KH, Rosenberg E, Pereyra F, Levin JZ, Young SK, Jessen H, Altfeld M, Birren BW, Walker BD, Allen TM. Whole genome deep sequencing of HIV-1 reveals the impact of early minor variants upon immune recognition during acute infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(3):e1002529.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Lee W, Kuchar DL, Walker BD, Subbiah RN. Isolated ventricular noncompaction: implications for mechanisms of sudden cardiac death. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013 May; 36(5):e153-5.
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  48. Soghoian DZ, Jessen H, Flanders M, Sierra-Davidson K, Cutler S, Pertel T, Ranasinghe S, Lindqvist M, Davis I, Lane K, Rychert J, Rosenberg ES, Piechocka-Trocha A, Brass AL, Brenchley JM, Walker BD, Streeck H. HIV-specific cytolytic CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection predict disease outcome. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Feb 29; 4(123):123ra25.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Carlson JM, Listgarten J, Pfeifer N, Tan V, Kadie C, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Shapiro R, Frater J, Brumme ZL, Goulder PJ, Heckerman D. Widespread impact of HLA restriction on immune control and escape pathways of HIV-1. J Virol. 2012 May; 86(9):5230-43.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Varadarajan N, Kwon DS, Law KM, Ogunniyi AO, Anahtar MN, Richter JM, Walker BD, Love JC. Rapid, efficient functional characterization and recovery of HIV-specific human CD8+ T cells using microengraving. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6; 109(10):3885-90.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Julg B, Poole D, Ghebremichael M, Castilla C, Altfeld M, Sunpath H, Murphy RA, Walker BD. Factors predicting discordant virological and immunological responses to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 clade C infected Zulu/Xhosa in South Africa. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e31161.
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  52. Jia M, Hong K, Chen J, Ruan Y, Wang Z, Su B, Ren G, Zhang X, Liu Z, Zhao Q, Li D, Peng H, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Yu XG, Shao Y. Preferential CTL targeting of Gag is associated with relative viral control in long-term surviving HIV-1 infected former plasma donors from China. Cell Res. 2012 May; 22(5):903-14.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Mothe B, Llano A, Ibarrondo J, Zamarreño J, Schiaulini M, Miranda C, Ruiz-Riol M, Berger CT, Herrero MJ, Palou E, Plana M, Rolland M, Khatri A, Heckerman D, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Weiner D, Paredes R, Clotet B, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN, Mullins JI, Brander C. CTL responses of high functional avidity and broad variant cross-reactivity are associated with HIV control. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29717.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Carrington M, Walker BD. Immunogenetics of spontaneous control of HIV. Annu Rev Med. 2012; 63:131-45.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Mothe B, Llano A, Ibarrondo J, Daniels M, Miranda C, Zamarreño J, Bach V, Zuniga R, Pérez-Álvarez S, Berger CT, Puertas MC, Martinez-Picado J, Rolland M, Farfan M, Szinger JJ, Hildebrand WH, Yang OO, Sanchez-Merino V, Brumme CJ, Brumme ZL, Heckerman D, Allen TM, Mullins JI, Gómez G, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Gatell JM, Clotet B, Korber BT, Sanchez J, Brander C. Definition of the viral targets of protective HIV-1-specific T cell responses. J Transl Med. 2011; 9:208.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Wright JK, Brumme ZL, Julg B, van der Stok M, Mncube Z, Gao X, Carlson JM, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brockman MA, Ndung'u T. Lack of association between HLA class II alleles and in vitro replication capacities of recombinant viruses encoding HIV-1 subtype C Gag-protease from chronically infected individuals. J Virol. 2012 Jan; 86(2):1273-6.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Kloverpris HN, Stryhn A, Harndahl M, van der Stok M, Payne RP, Matthews PC, Chen F, Riddell L, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Buus S, Goulder P. HLA-B*57 Micropolymorphism shapes HLA allele-specific epitope immunogenicity, selection pressure, and HIV immune control. J Virol. 2012 Jan; 86(2):919-29.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Ranasinghe S, Flanders M, Cutler S, Soghoian DZ, Ghebremichael M, Davis I, Lindqvist M, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Heckerman D, Streeck H. HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses to different viral proteins have discordant associations with viral load and clinical outcome. J Virol. 2012 Jan; 86(1):277-83.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Walker BD, Ahmed R, Plotkin S. Moving ahead an HIV vaccine: use both arms to beat HIV. Nat Med. 2011 Oct; 17(10):1194-5.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Varadarajan N, Julg B, Yamanaka YJ, Chen H, Ogunniyi AO, McAndrew E, Porter LC, Piechocka-Trocha A, Hill BJ, Douek DC, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Love JC. A high-throughput single-cell analysis of human CD8? T cell functions reveals discordance for cytokine secretion and cytolysis. J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov; 121(11):4322-31.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Radebe M, Nair K, Chonco F, Bishop K, Wright JK, van der Stok M, Bassett IV, Mncube Z, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Ndung'u T. Limited immunogenicity of HIV CD8+ T-cell epitopes in acute Clade C virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 1; 204(5):768-76.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Buranapraditkun S, Hempel U, Pitakpolrat P, Allgaier RL, Thantivorasit P, Lorenzen SI, Sirivichayakul S, Hildebrand WH, Altfeld M, Brander C, Walker BD, Phanuphak P, Hansasuta P, Rowland-Jones SL, Allen TM, Ruxrungtham K. A novel immunodominant CD8+ T cell response restricted by a common HLA-C allele targets a conserved region of Gag HIV-1 clade CRF01_AE infected Thais. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23603.
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  63. Kasprowicz VO, Mitchell JE, Chetty S, Govender P, Huang KH, Fletcher HA, Webster DP, Brown S, Kasmar A, Millington K, Day CL, Mkhwanazi N, McClurg C, Chonco F, Lalvani A, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Klenerman P. A molecular assay for sensitive detection of pathogen-specific T-cells. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e20606.
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  64. Novitsky V, Ndung'u T, Wang R, Bussmann H, Chonco F, Makhema J, De Gruttola V, Walker BD, Essex M. Extended high viremics: a substantial fraction of individuals maintain high plasma viral RNA levels after acute HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS. 2011 Jul 31; 25(12):1515-22.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Scheid JF, Mouquet H, Ueberheide B, Diskin R, Klein F, Oliveira TY, Pietzsch J, Fenyo D, Abadir A, Velinzon K, Hurley A, Myung S, Boulad F, Poignard P, Burton DR, Pereyra F, Ho DD, Walker BD, Seaman MS, Bjorkman PJ, Chait BT, Nussenzweig MC. Sequence and structural convergence of broad and potent HIV antibodies that mimic CD4 binding. Science. 2011 Sep 16; 333(6049):1633-7.
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  66. Berger CT, Frahm N, Price DA, Mothe B, Ghebremichael M, Hartman KL, Henry LM, Brenchley JM, Ruff LE, Venturi V, Pereyra F, Sidney J, Sette A, Douek DC, Walker BD, Kaufmann DE, Brander C. High-functional-avidity cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HLA-B-restricted Gag-derived epitopes associated with relative HIV control. J Virol. 2011 Sep; 85(18):9334-45.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Dahirel V, Shekhar K, Pereyra F, Miura T, Artyomov M, Talsania S, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Carrington M, Irvine DJ, Walker BD, Chakraborty AK. Coordinate linkage of HIV evolution reveals regions of immunological vulnerability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 12; 108(28):11530-5.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Ndhlovu ZM, Piechocka-Trocha A, Vine S, McMullen A, Koofhethile KC, Goulder PJ, Ndung'u T, Barouch DH, Walker BD. Mosaic HIV-1 Gag antigens can be processed and presented to human HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2011 Jun 15; 186(12):6914-24.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Li JZ, Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Wang H, Spritzler J, Robertson MN, Lederman MM, Carrington M, Walker BD, Schooley RT, Kuritzkes DR. Factors associated with viral rebound in HIV-1-infected individuals enrolled in a therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial. J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1; 203(7):976-83.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Thobakgale CF, Streeck H, Mkhwanazi N, Mncube Z, Maphumulo L, Chonco F, Prendergast A, Tudor-Williams G, Walker BD, Goulder PJ, Altfeld M, Ndung'u T. Short communication: CD8(+) T cell polyfunctionality profiles in progressive and nonprogressive pediatric HIV type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Sep; 27(9):1005-12.
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  72. Chen H, Li C, Huang J, Cung T, Seiss K, Beamon J, Carrington MF, Porter LC, Burke PS, Yang Y, Ryan BJ, Liu R, Weiss RH, Pereyra F, Cress WD, Brass AL, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Yu XG, Lichterfeld M. CD4+ T cells from elite controllers resist HIV-1 infection by selective upregulation of p21. J Clin Invest. 2011 Apr; 121(4):1549-60.
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  73. Wright JK, Novitsky V, Brockman MA, Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Wang B, Losina E, Leshwedi M, van der Stok M, Maphumulo L, Mkhwanazi N, Chonco F, Goulder PJ, Essex M, Walker BD, Ndung'u T. Influence of Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity on disease progression in individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol. 2011 Apr; 85(8):3996-4006.
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  74. Hersperger AR, Martin JN, Shin LY, Sheth PM, Kovacs CM, Cosma GL, Makedonas G, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Kaul R, Deeks SG, Betts MR. Increased HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell cytotoxic potential in HIV elite controllers is associated with T-bet expression. Blood. 2011 Apr 7; 117(14):3799-808.
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  75. Brumme ZL, Li C, Miura T, Sela J, Rosato PC, Brumme CJ, Markle TJ, Martin E, Block BL, Trocha A, Kadie CM, Allen TM, Pereyra F, Heckerman D, Walker BD, Brockman MA. Reduced replication capacity of NL4-3 recombinant viruses encoding reverse transcriptase-integrase sequences from HIV-1 elite controllers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Feb; 56(2):100-8.
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  76. Julg B, Moodley ES, Qi Y, Ramduth D, Reddy S, Mncube Z, Gao X, Goulder PJ, Detels R, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Carrington M. Possession of HLA class II DRB1*1303 associates with reduced viral loads in chronic HIV-1 clade C and B infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 15; 203(6):803-9.
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  77. Mureithi MW, Cohen K, Moodley R, Poole D, Mncube Z, Kasmar A, Moody DB, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Ndung'u T. Impairment of CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells in chronic HIV type 1 clade C infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 May; 27(5):501-9.
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  78. Addo MM, Altfeld M, Brainard DM, Rathod A, Piechocka-Trocha A, Fideli U, Mulenga J, Shutes E, Alvino DM, Hunter E, Allen SA, Walker BD. Lack of detectable HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in Zambian HIV-1-exposed seronegative partners of HIV-1-positive individuals. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 15; 203(2):258-62.
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  79. Rodríguez-García M, Porichis F, de Jong OG, Levi K, Diefenbach TJ, Lifson JD, Freeman GJ, Walker BD, Kaufmann DE, Kavanagh DG. Expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on human macrophages is up-regulated by HIV-1 and differentially modulated by IL-10. J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Apr; 89(4):507-15.
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  81. Chevalier MF, Jülg B, Pyo A, Flanders M, Ranasinghe S, Soghoian DZ, Kwon DS, Rychert J, Lian J, Muller MI, Cutler S, McAndrew E, Jessen H, Pereyra F, Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Streeck H. HIV-1-specific interleukin-21+ CD4+ T cell responses contribute to durable viral control through the modulation of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell function. J Virol. 2011 Jan; 85(2):733-41.
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  82. Singh R, Gaiha G, Werner L, McKim K, Mlisana K, Luban J, Walker BD, Karim SS, Brass AL, Ndung'u T. Association of TRIM22 with the type 1 interferon response and viral control during primary HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2011 Jan; 85(1):208-16.
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  83. Tay AE, Faddy S, Lim S, Walker BD, Kuchar D, Thorburn CW, Macdonald P, Keogh A, Kotlyar E, Farnsworth A, Hayward C, Jansz P, Granger E, Spratt P, Subbiah RN. Permanent pacing for late-onset atrioventricular block in patients with heart transplantation: a single center experience. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2011 Jan; 34(1):72-5.
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  84. Quigley M, Pereyra F, Nilsson B, Porichis F, Fonseca C, Eichbaum Q, Julg B, Jesneck JL, Brosnahan K, Imam S, Russell K, Toth I, Piechocka-Trocha A, Dolfi D, Angelosanto J, Crawford A, Shin H, Kwon DS, Zupkosky J, Francisco L, Freeman GJ, Wherry EJ, Kaufmann DE, Walker BD, Ebert B, Haining WN. Transcriptional analysis of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells shows that PD-1 inhibits T cell function by upregulating BATF. Nat Med. 2010 Oct; 16(10):1147-51.
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  85. Mouquet H, Scheid JF, Zoller MJ, Krogsgaard M, Ott RG, Shukair S, Artyomov MN, Pietzsch J, Connors M, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Ho DD, Wilson PC, Seaman MS, Eisen HN, Chakraborty AK, Hope TJ, Ravetch JV, Wardemann H, Nussenzweig MC. Polyreactivity increases the apparent affinity of anti-HIV antibodies by heteroligation. Nature. 2010 Sep 30; 467(7315):591-5.
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  86. Kim AY, Kuntzen T, Timm J, Nolan BE, Baca MA, Reyor LL, Berical AC, Feller AJ, Johnson KL, Schulze zur Wiesch J, Robbins GK, Chung RT, Walker BD, Carrington M, Allen TM, Lauer GM. Spontaneous control of HCV is associated with expression of HLA-B 57 and preservation of targeted epitopes. Gastroenterology. 2011 Feb; 140(2):686-696.e1.
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  87. Brockman MA, Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Miura T, Sela J, Rosato PC, Kadie CM, Carlson JM, Markle TJ, Streeck H, Kelleher AD, Markowitz M, Jessen H, Rosenberg E, Altfeld M, Harrigan PR, Heckerman D, Walker BD, Allen TM. Early selection in Gag by protective HLA alleles contributes to reduced HIV-1 replication capacity that may be largely compensated for in chronic infection. J Virol. 2010 Nov; 84(22):11937-49.
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  88. Rolland M, Carlson JM, Manocheewa S, Swain JV, Lanxon-Cookson E, Deng W, Rousseau CM, Raugi DN, Learn GH, Maust BS, Coovadia H, Ndung'u T, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brander C, Heckerman DE, Mullins JI. Amino-acid co-variation in HIV-1 Gag subtype C: HLA-mediated selection pressure and compensatory dynamics. PLoS One. 2010; 5(9).
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  89. Honeyborne I, Codoñer FM, Leslie A, Tudor-Williams G, Luzzi G, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Goulder PJ, Prado JG. HLA-Cw*03-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses targeting the HIV-1 gag major homology region drive virus immune escape and fitness constraints compensated for by intracodon variation. J Virol. 2010 Nov; 84(21):11279-88.
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  90. Wright JK, Brumme ZL, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Kadie CM, Brumme CJ, Wang B, Losina E, Miura T, Chonco F, van der Stok M, Mncube Z, Bishop K, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brockman MA, Ndung'u T. Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity in HIV-1 subtype C chronic infection: associations with HLA type and clinical parameters. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(20):10820-31.
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  91. Williams K, Seiss K, Beamon J, Pereyra F, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Yu XG, Lichterfeld M. Epigenetic regulation of telomerase expression in HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells. AIDS. 2010 Jul 31; 24(12):1964-6.
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  92. Leslie A, Matthews PC, Listgarten J, Carlson JM, Kadie C, Ndung'u T, Brander C, Coovadia H, Walker BD, Heckerman D, Goulder PJ. Additive contribution of HLA class I alleles in the immune control of HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(19):9879-88.
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  93. Mkhwanazi N, Thobakgale CF, van der Stok M, Reddy S, Mncube Z, Chonco F, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Goulder PJ, Ndung'u T. Immunodominant HIV-1-specific HLA-B- and HLA-C-restricted CD8+ T cells do not differ in polyfunctionality. Virology. 2010 Sep 30; 405(2):483-91.
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  94. Julg B, Pereyra F, Buzón MJ, Piechocka-Trocha A, Clark MJ, Baker BM, Lian J, Miura T, Martinez-Picado J, Addo MM, Walker BD. Infrequent recovery of HIV from but robust exogenous infection of activated CD4(+) T cells in HIV elite controllers. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15; 51(2):233-8.
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  95. Huang J, Burke PS, Cung TD, Pereyra F, Toth I, Walker BD, Borges L, Lichterfeld M, Yu XG. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors maintain unique antigen-presenting properties of circulating myeloid dendritic cells in HIV-1-infected elite controllers. J Virol. 2010 Sep; 84(18):9463-71.
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  96. Hersperger AR, Pereyra F, Nason M, Demers K, Sheth P, Shin LY, Kovacs CM, Rodriguez B, Sieg SF, Teixeira-Johnson L, Gudonis D, Goepfert PA, Lederman MM, Frank I, Makedonas G, Kaul R, Walker BD, Betts MR. Perforin expression directly ex vivo by HIV-specific CD8 T-cells is a correlate of HIV elite control. PLoS Pathog. 2010 May; 6(5):e1000917.
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  97. Miura T, Brumme ZL, Brockman MA, Rosato P, Sela J, Brumme CJ, Pereyra F, Kaufmann DE, Trocha A, Block BL, Daar ES, Connick E, Jessen H, Kelleher AD, Rosenberg E, Markowitz M, Schafer K, Vaida F, Iwamoto A, Little S, Walker BD. Impaired replication capacity of acute/early viruses in persons who become HIV controllers. J Virol. 2010 Aug; 84(15):7581-91.
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  98. Kosmrlj A, Read EL, Qi Y, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Deeks SG, Pereyra F, Carrington M, Walker BD, Chakraborty AK. Effects of thymic selection of the T-cell repertoire on HLA class I-associated control of HIV infection. Nature. 2010 May 20; 465(7296):350-4.
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  99. Wong AH, Williams K, Reddy S, Wilson D, Giddy J, Alter G, Ghebremichael M, Carrington MN, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Carr WH. Alterations in natural killer cell receptor profiles during HIV type 1 disease progression among chronically infected South African adults. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Apr; 26(4):459-69.
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  100. Banerjee K, Klasse PJ, Sanders RW, Pereyra F, Michael E, Lu M, Walker BD, Moore JP. IgG subclass profiles in infected HIV type 1 controllers and chronic progressors and in uninfected recipients of Env vaccines. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Apr; 26(4):445-58.
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  101. Virgin HW, Walker BD. Immunology and the elusive AIDS vaccine. Nature. 2010 Mar 11; 464(7286):224-31.
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  102. Spentzou A, Bergin P, Gill D, Cheeseman H, Ashraf A, Kaltsidis H, Cashin-Cox M, Anjarwalla I, Steel A, Higgs C, Pozniak A, Piechocka-Trocha A, Wong J, Anzala O, Karita E, Dally L, Gotch F, Walker B, Gilmour J, Hayes P. Viral inhibition assay: a CD8 T cell neutralization assay for use in clinical trials of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. J Infect Dis. 2010 Mar; 201(5):720-9.
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  103. Bansal A, Carlson J, Yan J, Akinsiku OT, Schaefer M, Sabbaj S, Bet A, Levy DN, Heath S, Tang J, Kaslow RA, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Goulder PJ, Heckerman D, Hunter E, Goepfert PA. CD8 T cell response and evolutionary pressure to HIV-1 cryptic epitopes derived from antisense transcription. J Exp Med. 2010 Jan 18; 207(1):51-9.
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  104. Prado JG, Prendergast A, Thobakgale C, Molina C, Tudor-Williams G, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Goulder P. Replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted from mother to child is associated with pediatric disease progression rate. J Virol. 2010 Jan; 84(1):492-502.
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  105. Ferreira MA, Mangino M, Brumme CJ, Zhao ZZ, Medland SE, Wright MJ, Nyholt DR, Gordon S, Campbell M, McEvoy BP, Henders A, Evans DM, Lanchbury JS, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Haas DW, Soranzo N, Spector TD, de Bakker PI, Frazer IH, Montgomery GW, Martin NG. Quantitative trait loci for CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes and HIV-1 immune control. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Jan; 86(1):88-92.
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  108. Pereyra F, Palmer S, Miura T, Block BL, Wiegand A, Rothchild AC, Baker B, Rosenberg R, Cutrell E, Seaman MS, Coffin JM, Walker BD. Persistent low-level viremia in HIV-1 elite controllers and relationship to immunologic parameters. J Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15; 200(6):984-90.
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  109. Brumme ZL, John M, Carlson JM, Brumme CJ, Chan D, Brockman MA, Swenson LC, Tao I, Szeto S, Rosato P, Sela J, Kadie CM, Frahm N, Brander C, Haas DW, Riddler SA, Haubrich R, Walker BD, Harrigan PR, Heckerman D, Mallal S. HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B Gag, Pol and Nef proteins. PLoS One. 2009; 4(8):e6687.
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  110. Singh A, Page T, Moore PL, Allgaier RL, Hiramen K, Coovadia HM, Walker BD, Morris L, Ndung'u T. Functional and genetic analysis of coreceptor usage by dualtropic HIV-1 subtype C isolates. Virology. 2009 Oct 10; 393(1):56-67.
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  111. Thobakgale CF, Prendergast A, Crawford H, Mkhwanazi N, Ramduth D, Reddy S, Molina C, Mncube Z, Leslie A, Prado J, Chonco F, Mphatshwe W, Tudor-Williams G, Jeena P, Blanckenberg N, Dong K, Kiepiela P, Coovadia H, Ndung'u T, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Impact of HLA in mother and child on disease progression of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2009 Oct; 83(19):10234-44.
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  112. Lazaro E, Godfrey SB, Stamegna P, Ogbechie T, Kerrigan C, Zhang M, Walker BD, Le Gall S. Differential HIV epitope processing in monocytes and CD4 T cells affects cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition. J Infect Dis. 2009 Jul 15; 200(2):236-43.
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  113. Foo D, Walker BD, Kuchar DL, Thorburn CW, Tay A, Hayward CS, Macdonald P, Keogh A, Kotlyar E, Spratt P, Jansz P. Left ventricular mechanical assist devices and cardiac device interactions: an observational case series. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2009 Jul; 32(7):879-87.
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  114. Liu Q, Sun Y, Rihn S, Nolting A, Tsoukas PN, Jost S, Cohen K, Walker B, Alter G. Matrix metalloprotease inhibitors restore impaired NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2009 Sep; 83(17):8705-12.
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  115. Murphy RL, Autran B, Katlama C, Brucker G, Debre P, Calvez V, Clotet B, Clumeck N, Costagliola D, Deeks SG, Dorrell L, Gatell J, Haase A, Klein M, Lazzarin A, McMichael AJ, Papagno L, Schacker TW, Wain-Hobson S, Walker BD, Youle M. A step ahead on the HIV collaboratory. Science. 2009 Jun 5; 324(5932):1264-5.
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  116. Brumme ZL, Walker BD. Tracking the culprit: HIV-1 evolution and immune selection revealed by single-genome amplification. J Exp Med. 2009 Jun 8; 206(6):1215-8.
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  117. Streeck H, Jolin JS, Qi Y, Yassine-Diab B, Johnson RC, Kwon DS, Addo MM, Brumme C, Routy JP, Little S, Jessen HK, Kelleher AD, Hecht FM, Sekaly RP, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Carrington M, Altfeld M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses during primary infection are major determinants of the viral set point and loss of CD4+ T cells. J Virol. 2009 Aug; 83(15):7641-8.
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  118. Kaufmann DE, Walker BD. PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitory cosignaling pathways in HIV infection and the potential for therapeutic intervention. J Immunol. 2009 May 15; 182(10):5891-7.
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  119. Walley NM, Julg B, Dickson SP, Fellay J, Ge D, Walker BD, Carrington M, Cohen MS, de Bakker PI, Goldstein DB, Shianna KV, Haynes BF, Letvin NL, McMichael AJ, Michael NL, Weintrob AC. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines null promoter variant does not influence HIV-1 acquisition or disease progression. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 8; 5(5):408-10; author reply 418-9.
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  120. Julg B, Reddy S, van der Stok M, Kulkarni S, Qi Y, Bass S, Gold B, Nalls MA, Nelson GW, Walker BD, Carrington M, Ndung'u T. Lack of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines: no influence on HIV disease progression in an African treatment-naive population. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 8; 5(5):413-5; author reply 418-9.
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  121. Brainard DM, Seung E, Frahm N, Cariappa A, Bailey CC, Hart WK, Shin HS, Brooks SF, Knight HL, Eichbaum Q, Yang YG, Sykes M, Walker BD, Freeman GJ, Pillai S, Westmoreland SV, Brander C, Luster AD, Tager AM. Induction of robust cellular and humoral virus-specific adaptive immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humanized BLT mice. J Virol. 2009 Jul; 83(14):7305-21.
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  122. Brockman MA, Kwon DS, Tighe DP, Pavlik DF, Rosato PC, Sela J, Porichis F, Le Gall S, Waring MT, Moss K, Jessen H, Pereyra F, Kavanagh DG, Walker BD, Kaufmann DE. IL-10 is up-regulated in multiple cell types during viremic HIV infection and reversibly inhibits virus-specific T cells. Blood. 2009 Jul 9; 114(2):346-56.
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  123. Ramduth D, Day CL, Thobakgale CF, Mkhwanazi NP, de Pierres C, Reddy S, van der Stok M, Mncube Z, Nair K, Moodley ES, Kaufmann DE, Streeck H, Coovadia HM, Kiepiela P, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Immunodominant HIV-1 Cd4+ T cell epitopes in chronic untreated clade C HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2009; 4(4):e5013.
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  124. Crawford H, Lumm W, Leslie A, Schaefer M, Boeras D, Prado JG, Tang J, Farmer P, Ndung'u T, Lakhi S, Gilmour J, Goepfert P, Walker BD, Kaslow R, Mulenga J, Allen S, Goulder PJ, Hunter E. Evolution of HLA-B*5703 HIV-1 escape mutations in HLA-B*5703-positive individuals and their transmission recipients. J Exp Med. 2009 Apr 13; 206(4):909-21.
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  125. Julg B, Walker BD. The paradox of incomplete CD4+ cell count restoration despite successful antiretroviral treatment and the need to start highly active antiretroviral therapy early. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 15; 48(6):795-7.
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  126. Scheid JF, Mouquet H, Feldhahn N, Seaman MS, Velinzon K, Pietzsch J, Ott RG, Anthony RM, Zebroski H, Hurley A, Phogat A, Chakrabarti B, Li Y, Connors M, Pereyra F, Walker BD, Wardemann H, Ho D, Wyatt RT, Mascola JR, Ravetch JV, Nussenzweig MC. Broad diversity of neutralizing antibodies isolated from memory B cells in HIV-infected individuals. Nature. 2009 Apr 2; 458(7238):636-40.
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  127. Rousseau CM, Lockhart DW, Listgarten J, Maley SN, Kadie C, Learn GH, Nickle DC, Heckerman DE, Deng W, Brander C, Ndung'u T, Coovadia H, Goulder PJ, Korber BT, Walker BD, Mullins JI. Rare HLA drive additional HIV evolution compared to more frequent alleles. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Mar; 25(3):297-303.
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  134. Streeck H, Frahm N, Walker BD. The role of IFN-gamma Elispot assay in HIV vaccine research. Nat Protoc. 2009; 4(4):461-9.
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  137. Scheid JF, Mouquet H, Feldhahn N, Walker BD, Pereyra F, Cutrell E, Seaman MS, Mascola JR, Wyatt RT, Wardemann H, Nussenzweig MC. A method for identification of HIV gp140 binding memory B cells in human blood. J Immunol Methods. 2009 Apr 15; 343(2):65-7.
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  139. Kuntzen T, Timm J, Berical A, Lennon N, Berlin AM, Young SK, Lee B, Heckerman D, Carlson J, Reyor LL, Kleyman M, McMahon CM, Birch C, Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Ledlie T, Koehrsen M, Kodira C, Roberts AD, Lauer GM, Rosen HR, Bihl F, Cerny A, Spengler U, Liu Z, Kim AY, Xing Y, Schneidewind A, Madey MA, Fleckenstein JF, Park VM, Galagan JE, Nusbaum C, Walker BD, Lake-Bakaar GV, Daar ES, Jacobson IM, Gomperts ED, Edlin BR, Donfield SM, Chung RT, Talal AH, Marion T, Birren BW, Henn MR, Allen TM. Naturally occurring dominant resistance mutations to hepatitis C virus protease and polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve patients. Hepatology. 2008 Dec; 48(6):1769-78.
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  140. Huang S, Dunkley-Thompson J, Tang Y, Macklin EA, Steel-Duncan J, Singh-Minott I, Ryland EG, Smikle M, Walker BD, Christie CD, Feeney ME. Deficiency of HIV-Gag-specific T cells in early childhood correlates with poor viral containment. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 1; 181(11):8103-11.
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  142. Carlson JM, Brumme ZL, Rousseau CM, Brumme CJ, Matthews P, Kadie C, Mullins JI, Walker BD, Harrigan PR, Goulder PJ, Heckerman D. Phylogenetic dependency networks: inferring patterns of CTL escape and codon covariation in HIV-1 Gag. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008 Nov; 4(11):e1000225.
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  143. Minkis K, Kavanagh DG, Alter G, Bogunovic D, O'Neill D, Adams S, Pavlick A, Walker BD, Brockman MA, Gandhi RT, Bhardwaj N. Type 2 Bias of T cells expanded from the blood of melanoma patients switched to type 1 by IL-12p70 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells. Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 15; 68(22):9441-50.
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  145. Lichterfeld M, Mou D, Cung TD, Williams KL, Waring MT, Huang J, Pereyra F, Trocha A, Freeman GJ, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Yu XG. Telomerase activity of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells: constitutive up-regulation in controllers and selective increase by blockade of PD ligand 1 in progressors. Blood. 2008 Nov 1; 112(9):3679-87.
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  146. Haining WN, Ebert BL, Subrmanian A, Wherry EJ, Eichbaum Q, Evans JW, Mak R, Rivoli S, Pretz J, Angelosanto J, Smutko JS, Walker BD, Kaech SM, Ahmed R, Nadler LM, Golub TR. Identification of an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional signature of CD8 memory differentiation that is shared by T and B cells. J Immunol. 2008 Aug 1; 181(3):1859-68.
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  147. Brumme ZL, Tao I, Szeto S, Brumme CJ, Carlson JM, Chan D, Kadie C, Frahm N, Brander C, Walker B, Heckerman D, Harrigan PR. Human leukocyte antigen-specific polymorphisms in HIV-1 Gag and their association with viral load in chronic untreated infection. AIDS. 2008 Jul 11; 22(11):1277-86.
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  148. Prendergast A, Mphatswe W, Tudor-Williams G, Rakgotho M, Pillay V, Thobakgale C, McCarthy N, Morris L, Walker BD, Goulder P. Early virological suppression with three-class antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected African infants. AIDS. 2008 Jul 11; 22(11):1333-43.
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  149. Brumme ZL, Brumme CJ, Carlson J, Streeck H, John M, Eichbaum Q, Block BL, Baker B, Kadie C, Markowitz M, Jessen H, Kelleher AD, Rosenberg E, Kaldor J, Yuki Y, Carrington M, Allen TM, Mallal S, Altfeld M, Heckerman D, Walker BD. Marked epitope- and allele-specific differences in rates of mutation in human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) Gag, Pol, and Nef cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in acute/early HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2008 Sep; 82(18):9216-27.
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  151. Alter G, Rihn S, Streeck H, Teigen N, Piechocka-Trocha A, Moss K, Cohen K, Meier A, Pereyra F, Walker B, Altfeld M. Ligand-independent exhaustion of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-positive CD8+ T cells in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2008 Oct; 82(19):9668-77.
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  153. Marconi VC, Sunpath H, Lu Z, Gordon M, Koranteng-Apeagyei K, Hampton J, Carpenter S, Giddy J, Ross D, Holst H, Losina E, Walker BD, Kuritzkes DR. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 15; 46(10):1589-97.
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  156. Kaufmann DE, Walker BD. Programmed death-1 as a factor in immune exhaustion and activation in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2008 May; 3(3):362-7.
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  157. Zhuang Y, Sun Y, Zhai S, Huang D, Zhao S, Wang S, Kang W, Li X, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Yu XG. Relative dominance of Env-gp41-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responses in HIV-1 advanced infection. Curr HIV Res. 2008 May; 6(3):239-45.
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  160. Day CL, Mkhwanazi N, Reddy S, Mncube Z, van der Stok M, Klenerman P, Walker BD. Detection of polyfunctional Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells and association with viral load in HIV-1-infected persons. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1; 197(7):990-9.
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  161. Kasprowicz V, Ward SM, Turner A, Grammatikos A, Nolan BE, Lewis-Ximenez L, Sharp C, Woodruff J, Fleming VM, Sims S, Walker BD, Sewell AK, Lauer GM, Klenerman P. Defining the directionality and quality of influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell cross-reactivity in individuals infected with hepatitis C virus. J Clin Invest. 2008 Mar; 118(3):1143-53.
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  167. Rolland M, Heckerman D, Deng W, Rousseau CM, Coovadia H, Bishop K, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brander C, Mullins JI. Broad and Gag baised HIV – 1 epitopeprepertoires are associated with lower viral loads. PLoS One. 2008; 3(1):e1424.
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  169. Ngumbela KC, Day CL, Mncube Z, Nair K, Ramduth D, Thobakgale C, Moodley E, Reddy S, de Pierres C, Mkhwanazi N, Bishop K, van der Stok M, Ismail N, Honeyborne I, Crawford H, Kavanagh DG, Rousseau C, Nickle D, Mullins J, Heckerman D, Korber B, Coovadia H, Kiepiela P, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Targeting of a CD8 T cell env epitope presented by HLA A-B*5802 is associated with markers of HIV disease progression and lack of selection pressure. AIDS Res Hum Restroviruses. 2008; 24(1):72-82.
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  171. Dong K, Thabethe Z, Hurtado R, Sibaya T, Dlwati H, Walker B, Wilson D. Challenges to the success of HIV and tuberculosis care and treatment in the public health sector in South Africa. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 1; 196 Suppl 3:S491-6.
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  174. Frahm N, Kaufmann DE, Yusim K, Muldoon M, Kesmir C, Linde CH, Fischer W, Allen TM, Li B, McMahon BH, Faircloth KL, Hewitt HS, Mackey EW, Miura T, Khatri A, Wolinsky S, McMichael A, Funkhouser RK, Walker BD, Brander C, Korber BT. Increased sequence diversity coverage improves detection of HIV-specific T cell responses. J Immunol. 2007 Nov 15; 179(10):6638-50.
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  177. Dolan MJ, Kulkarni H, Camargo JF, He W, Smith A, Anaya JM, Miura T, Hecht FM, Mamtani M, Pereyra F, Marconi V, Mangano A, Sen L, Bologna R, Clark RA, Anderson SA, Delmar J, O'Connell RJ, Lloyd A, Martin J, Ahuja SS, Agan BK, Walker BD, Deeks SG, Ahuja SK. CCL3L1 and CCR5 influence cell-mediated immunity and affect HIV-AIDS pathogenesis via viral entry-independent mechanisms. Nat Immunol. 2007 Dec; 8(12):1324-36.
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  184. Yu XG, Lichterfeld M, Williams KL, Martinez-Picado J, Walker BD. Random T-cell receptor recruitment in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T cells from genetically identical twins infected with the same HIV-1 strain. J Virol. 2007 Nov; 81(22):12666-9.
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  185. Frahm N, Yusim K, Suscovich TJ, Adams S, Sidney J, Hraber P, Hewitt HS, Linde CH, Kavanagh DG, Woodberry T, Henry LM, Faircloth K, Listgarten J, Kadie C, Jojic N, Sango K, Brown NV, Pae E, Zaman MT, Bihl F, Khatri A, John M, Mallal S, Marincola FM, Walker BD, Sette A, Heckerman D, Korber BT, Brander C. Extensive HLA class I allele promiscuity among viral CTL epitopes. Eur J Immunol. 2007 Sep; 37(9):2419-33.
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  186. Deeks SG, Walker BD. Human immunodeficiency virus controllers: mechanisms of durable virus control in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Immunity. 2007 Sep; 27(3):406-16.
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  187. Chen J, Hong K, Jia M, Liu H, Zhang Y, Liu S, Zhang X, Zhao H, Peng H, Ma P, Xing H, Ruan Y, Williams KL, Yu XG, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Shao Y. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in Chinese infected with HIV-1 B'/C Recombinant (CRF07_BC). Retrovirology. 2007; 4:62.
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  188. Brockman MA, Schneidewind A, Lahaie M, Schmidt A, Miura T, Desouza I, Ryvkin F, Derdeyn CA, Allen S, Hunter E, Mulenga J, Goepfert PA, Walker BD, Allen TM. Escape and compensation from early HLA-B57-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte pressure on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag alter capsid interactions with cyclophilin A. J Virol. 2007 Nov; 81(22):12608-18.
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  193. Brainard DM, Tager AM, Misdraji J, Frahm N, Lichterfeld M, Draenert R, Brander C, Walker BD, Luster AD. Decreased CXCR3+ CD8 T-cells in advanced HIV infection suggests a homing defect contributes to CTL dysfunction. J Virol Aug;. 2007; 81(16):8439-50.
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  196. Martin MP, Qi Y, Gao X, Yamada E, Martin JN, Pereyra F, Colombo S, Brown EE, Shupert WL, Phair J, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Telenti A, Connors M, O'Brien SJ, Walker BD, Parham P, Deeks SG, McVicar DW, Carrington M. Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1. Nat Genet. 2007 Jun; 39(6):733-40.
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  202. Streeck H, Schweighardt B, Jessen H, Allgaier RL, Wrin T, Stawiski EW, Jessen AB, Allen TM, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Loss of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses associated with very rapid HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS. 2007 Apr 23; 21(7):889-91.
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  206. Gasser O, Bihl FK, Wolbers M, Loggi E, Steffen I, Hirsch HH, Günthard HF, Walker BD, Brander C, Battegay M, Hess C. HIV patients developing primary CNS lymphoma lack EBV-specific CD4+ T cell function irrespective of absolute CD4+ T cell counts. PLoS Med. 2007 Mar 27; 4(3):e96.
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  207. Bhattacharya T, Daniels M, Heckerman D, Foley B, Frahm N, Kadie C, Carlson J, Yusim K, McMahon B, Gaschen B, Mallal S, Mullins JI, Nickle DC, Herbeck J, Rousseau C, Learn GH, Miura T, Brander C, Walker B, Korber B. Founder effects in the assessment of HIV polymorphisms and HLA allele associations. Science. 2007 Mar 16; 315(5818):1583-6.
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  208. Zhao S, Zhai S, Zhuang Y, Wang S, Huang D, Kang W, Li X, Yu XG, Walker BD, Altfeld MA, Sun Y. Inter-clade cross-reactivity of HIV-1-specific T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in China. Curr HIV Res. 2007 Mar; 5(2):251-9.
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  209. Rousseau CM, Learn GH, Bhattacharya T, Nickle DC, Heckerman D, Chetty S, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Kiepiela P, Korber BT, Mullins JI. Extensive intrasubtype recombination in South African human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C infections. J Virol. 2007 May; 81(9):4492-500.
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  210. Lichterfeld M, Yu XG, Mui SK, Williams KL, Trocha A, Brockman MA, Allgaier RL, Waring MT, Koibuchi T, Johnston MN, Cohen D, Allen TM, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Selective depletion of high-avidity human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T cells after early HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2007 Apr; 81(8):4199-214.
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  212. Wang S, Sun Y, Zhai S, Zhuang Y, Zhao S, Kang W, Li X, Huang D, Yu XG, Walker BD, Altfeld MA. Identification of HLA-A11-restricted HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in China. Curr HIV Res. 2007 Jan; 5(1):119-28.
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  213. Kaufmann DE, Walker BD. Treatment interruption to boost specific HIV immunity in acute infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2007 Jan; 2(1):21-5.
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  216. Fischer W, Perkins S, Theiler J, Bhattacharya T, Yusim K, Funkhouser R, Kuiken C, Haynes B, Letvin NL, Walker BD, Hahn BH, Korber BT. Polyvalent vaccines for optimal coverage of potential T-cell epitopes in global HIV-1 variants. Nat Med. 2007 Jan; 13(1):100-6.
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  217. Kiepiela P, Ngumbela K, Thobakgale C, Ramduth D, Honeyborne I, Moodley E, Reddy S, de Pierres C, Mncube Z, Mkhwanazi N, Bishop K, van der Stok M, Nair K, Khan N, Crawford H, Payne R, Leslie A, Prado J, Prendergast A, Frater J, McCarthy N, Brander C, Learn GH, Nickle D, Rousseau C, Coovadia H, Mullins JI, Heckerman D, Walker BD, Goulder P. CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load. Nat Med. 2007 Jan; 13(1):46-53.
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  218. Kim AY, Schulze zur Wiesch J, Kuntzen T, Timm J, Kaufmann DE, Duncan JE, Jones AM, Wurcel AG, Davis BT, Gandhi RT, Robbins GK, Allen TM, Chung RT, Lauer GM, Walker BD. Impaired hepatitis C virus-specific T cell responses and recurrent hepatitis C virus in HIV coinfection. PLoS Med. 2006 Dec; 3(12):e492.
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  219. Kim, A., J. Schulze zur Wiesch, T. Kuntzen, J. Timm, D.E. Kaufmann, J. Duncan, A.M. Jones, A. Wurcel, B.T. Davis, R.T. Gandhi, G.T. Robbins, T. Allen, R. Chung, G.M. Lauer, and B.D. Walker. Impaired HCV-specific T cell responses and recurrent HCV in HIV coinfection. 2006; PLoS Med in press..
  220. Photini Kiepiela, Kholiswa Ngumbela, Christina Thobakgale, Dhanwanthie Ramduth, Isobella Honeyborne, Eshia Moodley, Shabashini Reddy, Chantal de Pierres, Zenele Mncube, Nompumelelo Mkhwanazi, Karen Bishop, Mary van der Stok, Kriebashnie Nair, Nasreen Khan, Christian Brander, Gerald H. Learn, David Nickle, Christine Rousseau, Hoosen Coovadia, James I Mullins, David Heckerman, Bruce D Walker, Philip Goulder. Discordant Efficacy of HIV-Specific Cd8+ T Cell Responses Is Determined by Protein-Specificity. 2006; Nature (in press)..
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  222. Day CL, Kiepiela P, Leslie AJ, van der Stok M, Nair K, Ismail N, Honeyborne I, Crawford H, Coovadia HM, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Klenerman P. Proliferative capacity of epitope-specific CD8 T-cell responses is inversely related to viral load in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2007 Jan; 81(1):434-8.
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  223. Leslie A, Price DA, Mkhize P, Bishop K, Rathod A, Day C, Crawford H, Honeyborne I, Asher TE, Luzzi G, Edwards A, Rousseau CM, Rosseau CM, Mullins JI, Tudor-Williams G, Novelli V, Brander C, Douek DC, Kiepiela P, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Differential selection pressure exerted on HIV by CTL targeting identical epitopes but restricted by distinct HLA alleles from the same HLA supertype. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1; 177(7):4699-708.
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  224. Altfeld M, Kalife ET, Qi Y, Streeck H, Lichterfeld M, Johnston MN, Burgett N, Swartz ME, Yang A, Alter G, Yu XG, Meier A, Rockstroh JK, Allen TM, Jessen H, Rosenberg ES, Carrington M, Walker BD. HLA Alleles Associated with Delayed Progression to AIDS Contribute Strongly to the Initial CD8(+) T Cell Response against HIV-1. PLoS Med. 2006 Oct; 3(10):e403.
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  225. Zaunders JJ, Ip S, Munier ML, Kaufmann DE, Suzuki K, Brereton C, Sasson SC, Seddiki N, Koelsch K, Landay A, Grey P, Finlayson R, Kaldor J, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Fazekas de St Groth B, Cooper DA, Kelleher AD. Infection of CD127+ (interleukin-7 receptor+) CD4+ cells and overexpression of CTLA-4 are linked to loss of antigen-specific CD4 T cells during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2006 Oct; 80(20):10162-72.
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  227. Streeck H, Jessen H, Alter G, Teigen N, Waring MT, Jessen A, Stahmer I, van Lunzen J, Lichterfeld M, Gao X, Allen TM, Carrington M, Walker BD, Rockstroh JK, Altfeld M. Immunological and virological impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 15; 194(6):734-9.
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  228. Wang S, Zhuang Y, Zhai S, Zhao S, Kang W, Li X, Yu XG, Walker BD, Altfeld MA, Sun Y. Association between HIV Type 1-specific T cell responses and CD4+ T cell counts or CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratios in HIV Type 1 subtype B infection in China. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Aug; 22(8):780-7.
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  229. Wherry EJ, Day CL, Draenert R, Miller JD, Kiepiela P, Woodberry T, Brander C, Addo M, Klenerman P, Ahmed R, Walker BD. HIV-specific CD8 T cells express low levels of IL-7Ralpha: implications for HIV-specific T cell memory. Virology. 2006 Sep 30; 353(2):366-73.
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  230. Kaufmann SH, Walker BD. Host-pathogen interactions. Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Aug; 18(4):371-3.
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  231. Lichterfeld M, Williams KL, Mui SK, Shah SS, Mothe BR, Sette A, Kim A, Johnston MN, Burgett N, Frahm N, Cohen D, Brander C, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Yu XG. T cell receptor cross-recognition of an HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitope presented by closely related alleles from the HLA-A3 superfamily. Int Immunol. 2006 Jul; 18(7):1179-88.
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  232. Brander C, Frahm N, Walker BD. The challenges of host and viral diversity in HIV vaccine design. Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Aug; 18(4):430-7.
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  233. Martinez-Hackert E, Anikeeva N, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Hendrickson WA, Sykulev Y. Structural basis for degenerate recognition of natural HIV peptide variants by cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 21; 281(29):20205-12.
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  234. Rousseau CM, Birditt BA, McKay AR, Stoddard JN, Lee TC, McLaughlin S, Moore SW, Shindo N, Learn GH, Korber BT, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Kiepiela P, Walker BD, Mullins JI. Large-scale amplification, cloning and sequencing of near full-length HIV-1 subtype C genomes. J Virol Methods. 2006 Sep; 136(1-2):118-25.
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  235. McGovern BH, Wurcel A, Kim AY, Schulze zur Wiesch J, Bica I, Zaman MT, Timm J, Walker BD, Lauer GM. Acute hepatitis C virus infection in incarcerated injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jun 15; 42(12):1663-70.
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  236. Honeyborne I, Rathod A, Buchli R, Ramduth D, Moodley E, Rathnavalu P, Chetty S, Day C, Brander C, Hildebrand W, Walker BD, Kiepiela P, Goulder PJ. Motif inference reveals optimal CTL epitopes presented by HLA class I alleles highly prevalent in southern Africa. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 15; 176(8):4699-705.
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  237. Bihl F, Frahm N, Di Giammarino L, Sidney J, John M, Yusim K, Woodberry T, Sango K, Hewitt HS, Henry L, Linde CH, Chisholm JV, Zaman TM, Pae E, Mallal S, Walker BD, Sette A, Korber BT, Heckerman D, Brander C. Impact of HLA-B alleles, epitope binding affinity, functional avidity, and viral coinfection on the immunodominance of virus-specific CTL responses. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 1; 176(7):4094-101.
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  238. Martinez-Picado J, Prado JG, Fry EE, Pfafferott K, Leslie A, Chetty S, Thobakgale C, Honeyborne I, Crawford H, Matthews P, Pillay T, Rousseau C, Mullins JI, Brander C, Walker BD, Stuart DI, Kiepiela P, Goulder P. Fitness cost of escape mutations in p24 Gag in association with control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2006 Apr; 80(7):3617-23.
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  239. Draenert R, Allen TM, Liu Y, Wrin T, Chappey C, Verrill CL, Sirera G, Eldridge RL, Lahaie MP, Ruiz L, Clotet B, Petropoulos CJ, Walker BD, Martinez-Picado J. Constraints on HIV-1 evolution and immunodominance revealed in monozygotic adult twins infected with the same virus. J Exp Med. 2006 Mar 20; 203(3):529-39.
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  240. Zuñiga R, Lucchetti A, Galvan P, Sanchez S, Sanchez C, Hernandez A, Sanchez H, Frahm N, Linde CH, Hewitt HS, Hildebrand W, Altfeld M, Allen TM, Walker BD, Korber BT, Leitner T, Sanchez J, Brander C. Relative dominance of Gag p24-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is associated with human immunodeficiency virus control. J Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(6):3122-5.
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  241. Kassutto S, Maghsoudi K, Johnston MN, Robbins GK, Burgett NC, Sax PE, Cohen D, Pae E, Davis B, Zachary K, Basgoz N, D'agata EM, DeGruttola V, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Longitudinal analysis of clinical markers following antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute or early HIV type 1 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 1; 42(7):1024-31.
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  242. Komatsu H, Lauer G, Pybus OG, Ouchi K, Wong D, Ward S, Walker B, Klenerman P. Do antiviral CD8+ T cells select hepatitis C virus escape mutants? Analysis in diverse epitopes targeted by human intrahepatic CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Viral Hepat. 2006 Feb; 13(2):121-30.
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  243. Frahm N, Kiepiela P, Adams S, Linde CH, Hewitt HS, Sango K, Feeney ME, Addo MM, Lichterfeld M, Lahaie MP, Pae E, Wurcel AG, Roach T, St John MA, Altfeld M, Marincola FM, Moore C, Mallal S, Carrington M, Heckerman D, Allen TM, Mullins JI, Korber BT, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brander C. Control of human immunodeficiency virus replication by cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting subdominant epitopes. Nat Immunol. 2006 Feb; 7(2):173-8.
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  244. Meyer-Olson D, Brady KW, Bartman MT, O'Sullivan KM, Simons BC, Conrad JA, Duncan CB, Lorey S, Siddique A, Draenert R, Addo M, Altfeld M, Rosenberg E, Allen TM, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Fluctuations of functionally distinct CD8+ T-cell clonotypes demonstrate flexibility of the HIV-specific TCR repertoire. Blood. 2006 Mar 15; 107(6):2373-83.
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  245. Allen TM, Altfeld M, Geer SC, Kalife ET, Moore C, O'sullivan KM, Desouza I, Feeney ME, Eldridge RL, Maier EL, Kaufmann DE, Lahaie MP, Reyor L, Tanzi G, Johnston MN, Brander C, Draenert R, Rockstroh JK, Jessen H, Rosenberg ES, Mallal SA, Walker BD. Selective escape from CD8+ T-cell responses represents a major driving force of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequence diversity and reveals constraints on HIV-1 evolution. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(21):13239-49.
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  246. Kavanagh DG, Kaufmann DE, Sunderji S, Frahm N, Le Gall S, Boczkowski D, Rosenberg ES, Stone DR, Johnston MN, Wagner BS, Zaman MT, Brander C, Gilboa E, Walker BD, Bhardwaj N. Expansion of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by dendritic cells transfected with mRNA encoding cytoplasm- or lysosome-targeted Nef. Blood. 2006 Mar 1; 107(5):1963-9.
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  247. Norris PJ, Stone JD, Anikeeva N, Heitman JW, Wilson IC, Hirschkorn DF, Clark MJ, Moffett HF, Cameron TO, Sykulev Y, Stern LJ, Walker BD. Antagonism of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells by C-terminal truncation of a minimum epitope. Mol Immunol. 2006 Mar; 43(9):1349-57.
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  248. Allen TM, Yu XG, Kalife ET, Reyor LL, Lichterfeld M, John M, Cheng M, Allgaier RL, Mui S, Frahm N, Alter G, Brown NV, Johnston MN, Rosenberg ES, Mallal SA, Brander C, Walker BD, Altfeld M. De novo generation of escape variant-specific CD8+ T-cell responses following cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2005 Oct; 79(20):12952-60.
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  249. Lauer GM, Lucas M, Timm J, Ouchi K, Kim AY, Day CL, Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Paranhos-Baccala G, Sheridan I, Casson DR, Reiser M, Gandhi RT, Li B, Allen TM, Chung RT, Klenerman P, Walker BD. Full-breadth analysis of CD8+ T-cell responses in acute hepatitis C virus infection and early therapy. J Virol. 2005 Oct; 79(20):12979-88.
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  250. Ramduth D, Chetty P, Mngquandaniso NC, Nene N, Harlow JD, Honeyborne I, Ntumba N, Gappoo S, Henry C, Jeena P, Addo MM, Altfeld M, Brander C, Day C, Coovadia H, Kiepiela P, Goulder P, Walker B. Differential immunogenicity of HIV-1 clade C proteins in eliciting CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses. J Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1; 192(9):1588-96.
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  251. Woodberry T, Suscovich TJ, Henry LM, Davis JK, Frahm N, Walker BD, Scadden DT, Wang F, Brander C. Differential targeting and shifts in the immunodominance of Epstein-Barr virus--specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses during acute and persistent infection. J Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1; 192(9):1513-24.
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  252. Yu XG, Lichterfeld M, Perkins B, Kalife E, Mui S, Chen J, Cheng M, Kang W, Alter G, Brander C, Walker BD, Altfeld M. High degree of inter-clade cross-reactivity of HIV-1-specific T cell responses at the single peptide level. AIDS. 2005 Sep 23; 19(14):1449-56.
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  253. Brockman MA, Tanzi GO, Walker BD, Allen TM. Use of a novel GFP reporter cell line to examine replication capacity of CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 by flow cytometry. J Virol Methods. 2006 Feb; 131(2):134-42.
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  254. Schulze zur Wiesch J, Lauer GM, Day CL, Kim AY, Ouchi K, Duncan JE, Wurcel AG, Timm J, Jones AM, Mothe B, Allen TM, McGovern B, Lewis-Ximenez L, Sidney J, Sette A, Chung RT, Walker BD. Broad repertoire of the CD4+ Th cell response in spontaneously controlled hepatitis C virus infection includes dominant and highly promiscuous epitopes. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 15; 175(6):3603-13.
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  255. Frahm N, Adams S, Kiepiela P, Linde CH, Hewitt HS, Lichterfeld M, Sango K, Brown NV, Pae E, Wurcel AG, Altfeld M, Feeney ME, Allen TM, Roach T, St John MA, Daar ES, Rosenberg E, Korber B, Marincola F, Walker BD, Goulder PJ, Brander C. HLA-B63 presents HLA-B57/B58-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes and is associated with low human immunodeficiency virus load. J Virol. 2005 Aug; 79(16):10218-25.
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  256. Rodriguez WR, Christodoulides N, Floriano PN, Graham S, Mohanty S, Dixon M, Hsiang M, Peter T, Zavahir S, Thior I, Romanovicz D, Bernard B, Goodey AP, Walker BD, McDevitt JT. A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings. PLoS Med. 2005 Jul; 2(7):e182.
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  257. Woodberry T, Suscovich TJ, Henry LM, Martin JN, Dollard S, O'Connor PG, Davis JK, Osmond D, Lee TH, Kedes DH, Khatri A, Lee J, Walker BD, Scadden DT, Brander C. Impact of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) burden and HIV coinfection on the detection of T cell responses to KSHV ORF73 and ORF65 proteins. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 15; 192(4):622-9.
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  258. Koibuchi T, Allen TM, Lichterfeld M, Mui SK, O'Sullivan KM, Trocha A, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Limited sequence evolution within persistently targeted CD8 epitopes in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2005 Jul; 79(13):8171-81.
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  259. Feeney ME, Tang Y, Pfafferott K, Roosevelt KA, Draenert R, Trocha A, Yu XG, Verrill C, Allen T, Moore C, Mallal S, Burchett S, McIntosh K, Pelton SI, St John MA, Hazra R, Klenerman P, Altfeld M, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. HIV-1 viral escape in infancy followed by emergence of a variant-specific CTL response. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 15; 174(12):7524-30.
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  260. Sumida SM, Truitt DM, Lemckert AA, Vogels R, Custers JH, Addo MM, Lockman S, Peter T, Peyerl FW, Kishko MG, Jackson SS, Gorgone DA, Lifton MA, Essex M, Walker BD, Goudsmit J, Havenga MJ, Barouch DH. Neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors are directed primarily against the adenovirus hexon protein. J Immunol. 2005 Jun 1; 174(11):7179-85.
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  261. Zaunders JJ, Munier ML, Kaufmann DE, Ip S, Grey P, Smith D, Ramacciotti T, Quan D, Finlayson R, Kaldor J, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Cooper DA, Kelleher AD. Early proliferation of CCR5(+) CD38(+++) antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 effector cells during primary HIV-1 infection. Blood. 2005 Sep 1; 106(5):1660-7.
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  262. Altfeld M, Allen TM, Kalife ET, Frahm N, Addo MM, Mothe BR, Rathod A, Reyor LL, Harlow J, Yu XG, Perkins B, Robinson LK, Sidney J, Alter G, Lichterfeld M, Sette A, Rosenberg ES, Goulder PJ, Brander C, Walker BD. The majority of currently circulating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B viruses fail to prime cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against an otherwise immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope: implications for vaccine design. J Virol. 2005 Apr; 79(8):5000-5.
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  263. Leslie A, Kavanagh D, Honeyborne I, Pfafferott K, Edwards C, Pillay T, Hilton L, Thobakgale C, Ramduth D, Draenert R, Le Gall S, Luzzi G, Edwards A, Brander C, Sewell AK, Moore S, Mullins J, Moore C, Mallal S, Bhardwaj N, Yusim K, Phillips R, Klenerman P, Korber B, Kiepiela P, Walker B, Goulder P. Transmission and accumulation of CTL escape variants drive negative associations between HIV polymorphisms and HLA. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 21; 201(6):891-902.
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  264. Walker BD, Krahn AD, Klein GJ, Skanes AC, Yee R, Wang J, Hegele RA. Effect of change in posture and exercise on repolarization in patients with long QT syndrome with HERG channel mutations. Can J Cardiol. 2005 Jan; 21(1):33-8.
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  266. Kiepiela P, Leslie AJ, Honeyborne I, Ramduth D, Thobakgale C, Chetty S, Rathnavalu P, Moore C, Pfafferott KJ, Hilton L, Zimbwa P, Moore S, Allen T, Brander C, Addo MM, Altfeld M, James I, Mallal S, Bunce M, Barber LD, Szinger J, Day C, Klenerman P, Mullins J, Korber B, Coovadia HM, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Dominant influence of HLA-B in mediating the potential co-evolution of HIV and HLA. Nature. 2004 Dec 9; 432(7018):769-75.
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  267. Lebedeva T, Anikeeva N, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Gaidarov I, Keen JH, Sykulev Y. Major histocompatibility complex class I-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 association on the surface of target cells: implications for antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology. 2004 Dec; 113(4):460-71.
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  268. Kaufmann DE, Lichterfeld M, Altfeld M, Addo MM, Johnston MN, Lee PK, Wagner BS, Kalife ET, Strick D, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD. Limited durability of viral control following treated acute HIV infection. PLoS Med. 2004 Nov; 1(2):e36.
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  269. Kim AY, Lauer GM, Ouchi K, Addo MM, Lucas M, Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Timm J, Boczanowski M, Duncan JE, Wurcel AG, Casson D, Chung RT, Draenert R, Klenerman P, Walker BD. The magnitude and breadth of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells depend on absolute CD4+ T-cell count in individuals coinfected with HIV-1. Blood. 2005 Feb 1; 105(3):1170-8.
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  270. Lichterfeld M, Kaufmann DE, Yu XG, Mui SK, Addo MM, Johnston MN, Cohen D, Robbins GK, Pae E, Alter G, Wurcel A, Stone D, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Loss of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation after acute HIV-1 infection and restoration by vaccine-induced HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med. 2004 Sep 20; 200(6):701-12.
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  271. Lauer GM, Barnes E, Lucas M, Timm J, Ouchi K, Kim AY, Day CL, Robbins GK, Casson DR, Reiser M, Dusheiko G, Allen TM, Chung RT, Walker BD, Klenerman P. High resolution analysis of cellular immune responses in resolved and persistent hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2004 Sep; 127(3):924-36.
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  272. Zavala-Ruiz Z, Strug I, Walker BD, Norris PJ, Stern LJ. A hairpin turn in a class II MHC-bound peptide orients residues outside the binding groove for T cell recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7; 101(36):13279-84.
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  273. Hess C, Means TK, Autissier P, Woodberry T, Altfeld M, Addo MM, Frahm N, Brander C, Walker BD, Luster AD. IL-8 responsiveness defines a subset of CD8 T cells poised to kill. Blood. 2004 Dec 1; 104(12):3463-71.
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  274. Feeney ME, Tang Y, Roosevelt KA, Leslie AJ, McIntosh K, Karthas N, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Immune escape precedes breakthrough human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia and broadening of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in an HLA-B27-positive long-term-nonprogressing child. J Virol. 2004 Aug; 78(16):8927-30.
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  275. SenGupta D, Norris PJ, Suscovich TJ, Hassan-Zahraee M, Moffett HF, Trocha A, Draenert R, Goulder PJ, Binder RJ, Levey DL, Walker BD, Srivastava PK, Brander C. Heat shock protein-mediated cross-presentation of exogenous HIV antigen on HLA class I and class II. J Immunol. 2004 Aug 1; 173(3):1987-93.
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  276. Lichterfeld M, Yu XG, Cohen D, Addo MM, Malenfant J, Perkins B, Pae E, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Rosenberg ES, Korber B, Walker BD, Altfeld M. HIV-1 Nef is preferentially recognized by CD8 T cells in primary HIV-1 infection despite a relatively high degree of genetic diversity. AIDS. 2004 Jul 2; 18(10):1383-92.
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  277. Allen TM, Altfeld M, Yu XG, O'Sullivan KM, Lichterfeld M, Le Gall S, John M, Mothe BR, Lee PK, Kalife ET, Cohen DE, Freedberg KA, Strick DA, Johnston MN, Sette A, Rosenberg ES, Mallal SA, Goulder PJ, Brander C, Walker BD. Selection, transmission, and reversion of an antigen-processing cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2004 Jul; 78(13):7069-78.
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  278. Suscovich TJ, Paulose-Murphy M, Harlow JD, Chen Y, Thomas SY, Mellott TJ, Walker BD, Scadden DT, Zeichner S, Brander C. Defective immune function of primary effusion lymphoma cells is associated with distinct KSHV gene expression profiles. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004 Jun; 45(6):1223-38.
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  279. Rodriguez WR, Addo MM, Rathod A, Fitzpatrick CA, Yu XG, Perkins B, Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M, Walker BD. CD8+ T lymphocyte responses target functionally important regions of Protease and Integrase in HIV-1 infected subjects. J Transl Med. 2004 May 21; 2(1):15.
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  280. Brainard DM, Tharp WG, Granado E, Miller N, Trocha AK, Ren XH, Conrad B, Terwilliger EF, Wyatt R, Walker BD, Poznansky MC. Migration of antigen-specific T cells away from CXCR4-binding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. J Virol. 2004 May; 78(10):5184-93.
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  281. Yu XG, Addo MM, Perkins BA, Wej F, Rathod A, Geer SC, Parta M, Cohen D, Stone DR, Russell CJ, Tanzi G, Mei S, Wurcel AG, Frahm N, Lichterfeld M, Heath L, Mullins JI, Marincola F, Goulder PJ, Brander C, Allen T, Cao Y, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Differences in the expressed HLA class I alleles effect the differential clustering of HIV type 1-specific T cell responses in infected Chinese and caucasians. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 May; 20(5):557-64.
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  282. Kaufmann DE, Bailey PM, Sidney J, Wagner B, Norris PJ, Johnston MN, Cosimi LA, Addo MM, Lichterfeld M, Altfeld M, Frahm N, Brander C, Sette A, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Comprehensive analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4 responses reveals marked immunodominance of gag and nef and the presence of broadly recognized peptides. J Virol. 2004 May; 78(9):4463-77.
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  283. Draenert R, Brander C, Yu XG, Altfeld M, Verrill CL, Feeney ME, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Impact of intrapeptide epitope location on CD8 T cell recognition: implications for design of overlapping peptide panels. AIDS. 2004 Apr 9; 18(6):871-6.
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  284. Draenert R, Le Gall S, Pfafferott KJ, Leslie AJ, Chetty P, Brander C, Holmes EC, Chang SC, Feeney ME, Addo MM, Ruiz L, Ramduth D, Jeena P, Altfeld M, Thomas S, Tang Y, Verrill CL, Dixon C, Prado JG, Kiepiela P, Martinez-Picado J, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Immune selection for altered antigen processing leads to cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape in chronic HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 2004 Apr 5; 199(7):905-15.
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  285. Lichterfeld M, Yu XG, Waring MT, Mui SK, Johnston MN, Cohen D, Addo MM, Zaunders J, Alter G, Pae E, Strick D, Allen TM, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Altfeld M. HIV-1-specific cytotoxicity is preferentially mediated by a subset of CD8(+) T cells producing both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Blood. 2004 Jul 15; 104(2):487-94.
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  286. Smith DE, Walker BD, Cooper DA, Rosenberg ES, Kaldor JM. Is antiretroviral treatment of primary HIV infection clinically justified on the basis of current evidence? AIDS. 2004 Mar 26; 18(5):709-18.
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  287. Hess C, Altfeld M, Thomas SY, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Allen TM, Draenert R, Eldrige RL, van Lunzen J, Stellbrink HJ, Walker BD, Luster AD. HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cells with an effector phenotype and control of viral replication. Lancet. 2004 Mar 13; 363(9412):863-6.
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  288. Deeks SG, Walker BD. The immune response to AIDS virus infection: good, bad, or both? J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar; 113(6):808-10.
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  289. Norris PJ, Moffett HF, Brander C, Allen TM, O'Sullivan KM, Cosimi LA, Kaufmann DE, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Fine specificity and cross-clade reactivity of HIV type 1 Gag-specific CD4+ T cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Mar; 20(3):315-25.
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  290. Frahm N, Korber BT, Adams CM, Szinger JJ, Draenert R, Addo MM, Feeney ME, Yusim K, Sango K, Brown NV, SenGupta D, Piechocka-Trocha A, Simonis T, Marincola FM, Wurcel AG, Stone DR, Russell CJ, Adolf P, Cohen D, Roach T, StJohn A, Khatri A, Davis K, Mullins J, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Brander C. Consistent cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte targeting of immunodominant regions in human immunodeficiency virus across multiple ethnicities. J Virol. 2004 Mar; 78(5):2187-200.
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  291. Leslie AJ, Pfafferott KJ, Chetty P, Draenert R, Addo MM, Feeney M, Tang Y, Holmes EC, Allen T, Prado JG, Altfeld M, Brander C, Dixon C, Ramduth D, Jeena P, Thomas SA, St John A, Roach TA, Kupfer B, Luzzi G, Edwards A, Taylor G, Lyall H, Tudor-Williams G, Novelli V, Martinez-Picado J, Kiepiela P, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. HIV evolution: CTL escape mutation and reversion after transmission. Nat Med. 2004 Mar; 10(3):282-9.
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  292. Lucas M, Vargas-Cuero AL, Lauer GM, Barnes E, Willberg CB, Semmo N, Walker BD, Phillips R, Klenerman P. Pervasive influence of hepatitis C virus on the phenotype of antiviral CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 1; 172(3):1744-53.
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  293. Draenert R, Verrill CL, Tang Y, Allen TM, Wurcel AG, Boczanowski M, Lechner A, Kim AY, Suscovich T, Brown NV, Addo MM, Walker BD. Persistent recognition of autologous virus by high-avidity CD8 T cells in chronic, progressive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2004 Jan; 78(2):630-41.
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  294. Feeney ME, Draenert R, Roosevelt KA, Pelton SI, McIntosh K, Burchett SK, Mao C, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Reconstitution of virus-specific CD4 proliferative responses in pediatric HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2003 Dec 15; 171(12):6968-75.
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  295. Day CL, Walker BD. Progress in defining CD4 helper cell responses in chronic viral infections. J Exp Med. 2003 Dec 15; 198(12):1773-7.
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  296. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Hecht FM, Lee PK, Vogel M, Yu XG, Draenert R, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Feeney ME, Kahn JO, Sekaly RP, Levy JA, Rockstroh JK, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2003 Dec 5; 17(18):2581-91.
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  297. Gandhi RT, Wurcel A, Rosenberg ES, Johnston MN, Hellmann N, Bates M, Hirsch MS, Walker BD. Progressive reversion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance mutations in vivo after transmission of a multiply drug-resistant virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 15; 37(12):1693-8.
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  298. Brander C, Walker BD. Gradual adaptation of HIV to human host populations: good or bad news? Nat Med. 2003 Nov; 9(11):1359-62.
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  299. Yang OO, Sarkis PT, Trocha A, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Impacts of avidity and specificity on the antiviral efficiency of HIV-1-specific CTL. J Immunol. 2003 Oct 1; 171(7):3718-24.
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  300. Delgado JC, Leung JY, Baena A, Clavijo OP, Vittinghoff E, Buchbinder S, Wolinsky S, Addo M, Walker BD, Yunis EJ, Goldfeld AE. The -1030/-862-linked TNF promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with the inability to control HIV-1 viremia. Immunogenetics. 2003 Oct; 55(7):497-501.
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  301. Day CL, Seth NP, Lucas M, Appel H, Gauthier L, Lauer GM, Robbins GK, Szczepiorkowski ZM, Casson DR, Chung RT, Bell S, Harcourt G, Walker BD, Klenerman P, Wucherpfennig KW. Ex vivo analysis of human memory CD4 T cells specific for hepatitis C virus using MHC class II tetramers. J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep; 112(6):831-42.
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  302. Feeney ME, Roosevelt KA, Tang Y, Pfafferott KJ, McIntosh K, Burchett SK, Mao C, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Comprehensive screening reveals strong and broadly directed human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8 responses in perinatally infected children. J Virol. 2003 Jul; 77(13):7492-501.
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  303. Letvin NL, Walker BD. Immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy in AIDS virus infections. Nat Med. 2003 Jul; 9(7):861-6.
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  304. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Shankarappa R, Lee PK, Allen TM, Yu XG, Rathod A, Harlow J, O'Sullivan K, Johnston MN, Goulder PJ, Mullins JI, Rosenberg ES, Brander C, Korber B, Walker BD. Enhanced detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific T-cell responses to highly variable regions by using peptides based on autologous virus sequences. J Virol. 2003 Jul; 77(13):7330-40.
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  305. Somsouk M, Lauer GM, Casson D, Terella A, Day CL, Walker BD, Chung RT. Spontaneous resolution of chronic hepatitis C virus disease after withdrawal of immunosuppression. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jun; 124(7):1946-9.
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  306. Autran B, Debré P, Walker B, Katlama C. Therapeutic vaccines against HIV need international partnerships. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Jun; 3(6):503-8.
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  307. Robbins GK, Addo MM, Troung H, Rathod A, Habeeb K, Davis B, Heller H, Basgoz N, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Augmentation of HIV-1-specific T helper cell responses in chronic HIV-1 infection by therapeutic immunization. AIDS. 2003 May 23; 17(8):1121-6.
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  308. Yang OO, Sarkis PT, Ali A, Harlow JD, Brander C, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Determinant of HIV-1 mutational escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2003 May 19; 197(10):1365-75.
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  309. Tremblay CL, Hicks JL, Sutton L, Giguel F, Flynn T, Johnston M, Sax PE, Walker BD, Hirsch MS, Rosenberg ES, D'Aquila RT. Antiretroviral resistance associated with supervised treatment interruptions in treated acute HIV infection. AIDS. 2003 May 2; 17(7):1086-9.
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  310. Draenert R, Altfeld M, Brander C, Basgoz N, Corcoran C, Wurcel AG, Stone DR, Kalams SA, Trocha A, Addo MM, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Comparison of overlapping peptide sets for detection of antiviral CD8 and CD4 T cell responses. J Immunol Methods. 2003 Apr 1; 275(1-2):19-29.
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  311. Montefiori DC, Altfeld M, Lee PK, Bilska M, Zhou J, Johnston MN, Gao F, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Viremia control despite escape from a rapid and potent autologous neutralizing antibody response after therapy cessation in an HIV-1-infected individual. J Immunol. 2003 Apr 1; 170(7):3906-14.
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  312. Cao H, Kaleebu P, Hom D, Flores J, Agrawal D, Jones N, Serwanga J, Okello M, Walker C, Sheppard H, El-Habib R, Klein M, Mbidde E, Mugyenyi P, Walker B, Ellner J, Mugerwa R. Immunogenicity of a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-canarypox vaccine in HIV-seronegative Ugandan volunteers: results of the HIV Network for Prevention Trials 007 Vaccine Study. J Infect Dis. 2003 Mar 15; 187(6):887-95.
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  313. Severino ME, Sarkis PT, Walker BD, Yang OO. Chimeric immune receptor T cells bypass class I requirements and recognize multiple cell types relevant in HIV-1 infection. Virology. 2003 Feb 15; 306(2):371-5.
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  314. Addo MM, Yu XG, Rathod A, Cohen D, Eldridge RL, Strick D, Johnston MN, Corcoran C, Wurcel AG, Fitzpatrick CA, Feeney ME, Rodriguez WR, Basgoz N, Draenert R, Stone DR, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M, Walker BD. Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load. J Virol. 2003 Feb; 77(3):2081-92.
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  315. Bobbitt KR, Addo MM, Altfeld M, Filzen T, Onafuwa AA, Walker BD, Collins KL. Rev activity determines sensitivity of HIV-1-infected primary T cells to CTL killing. Immunity. 2003 Feb; 18(2):289-99.
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  316. Bhardwaj N, Walker BD. Immunotherapy for AIDS virus infections: cautious optimism for cell-based vaccine. Nat Med. 2003 Jan; 9(1):13-4.
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  317. Day CL, Lauer GM, Robbins GK, McGovern B, Wurcel AG, Gandhi RT, Chung RT, Walker BD. Broad specificity of virus-specific CD4+ T-helper-cell responses in resolved hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(24):12584-95.
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  318. Autran B, Fridman H, Lotze M, Walker B, guest editors. Proceedings of the Therapeutic Vaccines Against HIV and Cancers Meeting. 2002.
  319. Altfeld M, Allen TM, Yu XG, Johnston MN, Agrawal D, Korber BT, Montefiori DC, O'Connor DH, Davis BT, Lee PK, Maier EL, Harlow J, Goulder PJ, Brander C, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD. HIV-1 superinfection despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses containing replication of the primary virus. Nature. 2002 Nov 28; 420(6914):434-9.
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  320. Geiben-Lynn R, Kursar M, Brown NV, Addo MM, Shau H, Lieberman J, Luster AD, Walker BD. HIV-1 antiviral activity of recombinant natural killer cell enhancing factors, NKEF-A and NKEF-B, members of the peroxiredoxin family. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 17; 278(3):1569-74.
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  321. Goulder PJ, Walker BD. HIV-1 superinfection--a word of caution. N Engl J Med. 2002 Sep 5; 347(10):756-8.
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  322. Yu XG, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Rodriguez WR, Lee PK, Fitzpatrick CA, Johnston MN, Strick D, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Consistent patterns in the development and immunodominance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T-cell responses following acute HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2002 Sep; 76(17):8690-701.
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  323. Addo MM, Yu XG, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses directed against regulatory and accessory proteins in HIV-1 infection. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 Sep; 21(9):671-8.
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  324. Allen TM, Kelleher AD, Zaunders J, Walker BD. STI and beyond: the prospects of boosting anti-HIV immune responses. Trends Immunol. 2002 Sep; 23(9):456-60.
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  325. Geiben-Lynn R, Brown N, Walker BD, Luster AD. Purification of a modified form of bovine antithrombin III as an HIV-1 CD8+ T-cell antiviral factor. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 1; 277(44):42352-7.
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  326. Gandhi RT, Walker BD. Promises and pitfalls in the reconstitution of immunity in patients who have HIV-1 infection. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Aug; 14(4):487-94.
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  327. Brander C, Raje N, O'Connor PG, Davies F, Davis J, Chauhan D, Hideshima T, Martin J, Osmond D, Kedes DH, Walker BD, Scadden DT, Anderson KC. Absence of biologically important Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products and virus-specific cellular immune responses in multiple myeloma. Blood. 2002 Jul 15; 100(2):698-700.
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  328. Lauer GM, Ouchi K, Chung RT, Nguyen TN, Day CL, Purkis DR, Reiser M, Kim AY, Lucas M, Klenerman P, Walker BD. Comprehensive analysis of CD8(+)-T-cell responses against hepatitis C virus reveals multiple unpredicted specificities. J Virol. 2002 Jun; 76(12):6104-13.
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  329. Kuchar DL, Walker BD, Thorburn CW. Ventricular tachycardia following ingestion of a commonly used antihistamine. Med J Aust. 2002 May 6; 176(9):429-30.
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  330. Addo MM, Altfeld M, Rathod A, Yu M, Yu XG, Goulder PJ, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD. HIV-1 Vpu represents a minor target for cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HIV-1-infection. AIDS. 2002 May 3; 16(7):1071-3.
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  331. Yang OO, Garcia-Zepeda EA, Walker BD, Luster AD. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 (CC chemokine ligand 8) inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 via CC chemokine receptor 5. J Infect Dis. 2002 Apr 15; 185(8):1174-8.
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  332. Lauer GM, Nguyen TN, Day CL, Robbins GK, Flynn T, McGowan K, Rosenberg ES, Lucas M, Klenerman P, Chung RT, Walker BD. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-hepatitis C virus coinfection: intraindividual comparison of cellular immune responses against two persistent viruses. J Virol. 2002 Mar; 76(6):2817-26.
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  333. Altfeld M, van Lunzen J, Frahm N, Yu XG, Schneider C, Eldridge RL, Feeney ME, Meyer-Olson D, Stellbrink HJ, Walker BD. Expansion of pre-existing, lymph node-localized CD8+ T cells during supervised treatment interruptions in chronic HIV-1 infection. J Clin Invest. 2002 Mar; 109(6):837-43.
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  334. Yu XG, Shang H, Addo MM, Eldridge RL, Phillips MN, Feeney ME, Strick D, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Altfeld M. Important contribution of p15 Gag-specific responses to the total Gag-specific CTL responses. AIDS. 2002 Feb 15; 16(3):321-8.
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  335. Yang OO, Nguyen PT, Kalams SA, Dorfman T, Göttlinger HG, Stewart S, Chen IS, Threlkeld S, Walker BD. Nef-mediated resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2002 Feb; 76(4):1626-31.
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  336. Barnes E, Lauer G, Walker B, Klenerman P. T cell failure in hepatitis C virus infection. Viral Immunol. 2002; 15(2):285-93.
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  337. Gandhi RT, Walker BD. Immunologic control of HIV-1. Annu Rev Med. 2002; 53:149-72.
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  338. Goulder PJ, Pasquier C, Holmes EC, Liang B, Tang Y, Izopet J, Saune K, Rosenberg ES, Burchett SK, McIntosh K, Barnardo M, Bunce M, Walker BD, Brander C, Phillips RE. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection and CTL escape through HLA-A2-SLYNTVATL epitope sequence variation. Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1; 79(1-2):109-16.
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  339. Montefiori DC, Hill TS, Vo HT, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Neutralizing antibodies associated with viremia control in a subset of individuals after treatment of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2001 Nov; 75(21):10200-7.
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  340. Norris PJ, Sumaroka M, Brander C, Moffett HF, Boswell SL, Nguyen T, Sykulev Y, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Multiple effector functions mediated by human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell clones. J Virol. 2001 Oct; 75(20):9771-9.
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  341. Geiben-Lynn R, Kursar M, Brown NV, Kerr EL, Luster AD, Walker BD. Noncytolytic inhibition of X4 virus by bulk CD8(+) cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons and HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is not mediated by beta-chemokines. J Virol. 2001 Sep; 75(17):8306-16.
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  342. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Eldridge RL, Yu XG, Thomas S, Khatri A, Strick D, Phillips MN, Cohen GB, Islam SA, Kalams SA, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD. Vpr is preferentially targeted by CTL during HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2001 Sep 1; 167(5):2743-52.
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  343. Altfeld M, Walker BD. Less is more? STI in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. Nat Med. 2001 Aug; 7(8):881-4.
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  344. Walensky RP, Rosenberg ES, Ferraro MJ, Losina E, Walker BD, Freedberg KA. Investigation of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients who test positive for heterophile antibody. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 15; 33(4):570-2.
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  345. Goulder PJ, Brander C, Tang Y, Tremblay C, Colbert RA, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Nguyen T, Allen R, Trocha A, Altfeld M, He S, Bunce M, Funkhouser R, Pelton SI, Burchett SK, McIntosh K, Korber BT, Walker BD. Evolution and transmission of stable CTL escape mutations in HIV infection. Nature. 2001 Jul 19; 412(6844):334-8.
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  346. Lauer GM, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 5; 345(1):41-52.
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  347. Day CL, Shea AK, Altfeld MA, Olson DP, Buchbinder SP, Hecht FM, Rosenberg ES, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Relative dominance of epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons with shared HLA alleles. J Virol. 2001 Jul; 75(14):6279-91.
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  348. Brander C, O'Connor P, Suscovich T, Jones NG, Lee Y, Kedes D, Ganem D, Martin J, Osmond D, Southwood S, Sette A, Walker BD, Scadden DT. Definition of an optimal cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the latently expressed Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus kaposin protein. J Infect Dis. 2001 Jul 15; 184(2):119-26.
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  349. Brander C, Matter-Reissmann UB, Jones NG, Walker BD, Sachs DH, Seebach JD. Inhibition of human NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by exposure to ammonium chloride. J Immunol Methods. 2001 Jun 1; 252(1-2):1-14.
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  350. Walker BD, Korber BT. Immune control of HIV: the obstacles of HLA and viral diversity. Nat Immunol. 2001 Jun; 2(6):473-5.
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  351. Cohen DE, Walker BD. Human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis and prospects for immune control in patients with established infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jun 15; 32(12):1756-68.
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  352. Flores-Villanueva PO, Yunis EJ, Delgado JC, Vittinghoff E, Buchbinder S, Leung JY, Uglialoro AM, Clavijo OP, Rosenberg ES, Kalams SA, Braun JD, Boswell SL, Walker BD, Goldfeld AE. Control of HIV-1 viremia and protection from AIDS are associated with HLA-Bw4 homozygosity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 24; 98(9):5140-5.
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  353. Addo MM, Altfeld M, Rosenberg ES, Eldridge RL, Philips MN, Habeeb K, Khatri A, Brander C, Robbins GK, Mazzara GP, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. The HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Rev are frequently targeted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes derived from HIV-1-infected individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13; 98(4):1781-6.
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  354. Goulder PJ, Addo MM, Altfeld MA, Rosenberg ES, Tang Y, Govender U, Mngqundaniso N, Annamalai K, Vogel TU, Hammond M, Bunce M, Coovadia HM, Walker BD. Rapid definition of five novel HLA-A*3002-restricted human immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes by elispot and intracellular cytokine staining assays. J Virol. 2001 Feb; 75(3):1339-47.
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  355. Wong DK, Dudley DD, Dohrenwend PB, Lauer GM, Chung RT, Thomas DL, Walker BD. Detection of diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of infected persons by screening for responses to all translated proteins of HCV. J Virol. 2001 Feb; 75(3):1229-35.
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  356. Altfeld MA, Livingston B, Reshamwala N, Nguyen PT, Addo MM, Shea A, Newman M, Fikes J, Sidney J, Wentworth P, Chesnut R, Eldridge RL, Rosenberg ES, Robbins GK, Brander C, Sax PE, Boswell S, Flynn T, Buchbinder S, Goulder PJ, Walker BD, Sette A, Kalams SA. Identification of novel HLA-A2-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes predicted by the HLA-A2 supertype peptide-binding motif. J Virol. 2001 Feb; 75(3):1301-11.
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  357. Letvin NL, Walker BD. HIV versus the immune system: another apparent victory for the virus. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb; 107(3):273-5.
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  358. Altfeld M, Rosenberg ES, Shankarappa R, Mukherjee JS, Hecht FM, Eldridge RL, Addo MM, Poon SH, Phillips MN, Robbins GK, Sax PE, Boswell S, Kahn JO, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Levy JA, Mullins JI, Walker BD. Cellular immune responses and viral diversity in individuals treated during acute and early HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 2001 Jan 15; 193(2):169-80.
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  359. Goulder PJ, Altfeld MA, Rosenberg ES, Nguyen T, Tang Y, Eldridge RL, Addo MM, He S, Mukherjee JS, Phillips MN, Bunce M, Kalams SA, Sekaly RP, Walker BD, Brander C. Substantial differences in specificity of HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells in acute and chronic HIV infection. J Exp Med. 2001 Jan 15; 193(2):181-94.
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  360. Pantaleo G, Walker BD, editors. Retroviral Immunology: Immune Response and Restoration. 2001.
  361. Goulder PJ, Tang Y, Brander C, Betts MR, Altfeld M, Annamalai K, Trocha A, He S, Rosenberg ES, Ogg G, O'Callaghan CA, Kalams SA, McKinney RE, Mayer K, Koup RA, Pelton SI, Burchett SK, McIntosh K, Walker BD. Functionally inert HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not play a major role in chronically infected adults and children. J Exp Med. 2000 Dec 18; 192(12):1819-32.
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  362. Ostrowski MA, Justement SJ, Ehler L, Mizell SB, Lui S, Mican J, Walker BD, Thomas EK, Seder R, Fauci AS. The role of CD4+ T cell help and CD40 ligand in the in vitro expansion of HIV-1-specific memory cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 1; 165(11):6133-41.
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  363. Tremblay CL, Giguel F, Merrill DP, Wong JT, Rosenberg E, Kalams S, Walker BD, D'Aquila RT, Hirsch MS. Marked differences in quantity of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 detected in persons with controlled plasma viremia by a simple enhanced culture method. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Nov; 38(11):4246-8.
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  364. Schooley RT, Spino C, Kuritzkes D, Walker BD, Valentine FA, Hirsch MS, Cooney E, Friedland G, Kundu S, Merigan TC, McElrath MJ, Collier A, Plaeger S, Mitsuyasu R, Kahn J, Haslett P, Uherova P, deGruttola V, Chiu S, Zhang B, Jones G, Bell D, Ketter N, Twadell T, Chernoff D, Rosandich M. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214. J Infect Dis. 2000 Nov; 182(5):1357-64.
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  365. Cao H, Mani I, Vincent R, Mugerwa R, Mugyenyi P, Kanki P, Ellner J, Walker BD. Cellular immunity to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clades: relevance to HIV-1 vaccine trials in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2000 Nov; 182(5):1350-6.
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  366. Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Containing HIV after infection. Nat Med. 2000 Oct; 6(10):1094-5.
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  367. Le Gall S, Buseyne F, Trocha A, Walker BD, Heard JM, Schwartz O. Distinct trafficking pathways mediate Nef-induced and clathrin-dependent major histocompatibility complex class I down-regulation. J Virol. 2000 Oct; 74(19):9256-66.
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  368. Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M, Poon SH, Phillips MN, Wilkes BM, Eldridge RL, Robbins GK, D'Aquila RT, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Immune control of HIV-1 after early treatment of acute infection. Nature. 2000 Sep 28; 407(6803):523-6.
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  369. Martinez-Picado J, DePasquale MP, Kartsonis N, Hanna GJ, Wong J, Finzi D, Rosenberg E, Gunthard HF, Sutton L, Savara A, Petropoulos CJ, Hellmann N, Walker BD, Richman DD, Siliciano R, D'Aquila RT. Antiretroviral resistance during successful therapy of HIV type 1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Sep 26; 97(20):10948-53.
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  370. Walker BD, Goulder PJ. AIDS. Escape from the immune system. Nature. 2000 Sep 21; 407(6802):313-4.
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  371. Altfeld MA, Trocha A, Eldridge RL, Rosenberg ES, Phillips MN, Addo MM, Sekaly RP, Kalams SA, Burchett SA, McIntosh K, Walker BD, Goulder PJ. Identification of dominant optimal HLA-B60- and HLA-B61-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes: rapid characterization of CTL responses by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. J Virol. 2000 Sep; 74(18):8541-9.
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  372. Brander C, Suscovich T, Lee Y, Nguyen PT, O'Connor P, Seebach J, Jones NG, van Gorder M, Walker BD, Scadden DT. Impaired CTL recognition of cells latently infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 15; 165(4):2077-83.
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  373. Goulder PJ, Lechner F, Klenerman P, McIntosh K, Walker BD. Characterization of a novel respiratory syncytial virus-specific human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope. J Virol. 2000 Aug; 74(16):7694-7.
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  374. Brander C, Walker BD. Modulation of host immune responses by clinically relevant human DNA and RNA viruses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2000 Aug; 3(4):379-86.
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  375. Severino ME, Sipsas NV, Nguyen PT, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Johnson RP, Yang OO. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2000 Jul; 74(14):6695-9.
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  376. Cao H, Walker BD. Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Clin Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug; 18(4):401-10.
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  377. Goulder PJ, Brander C, Annamalai K, Mngqundaniso N, Govender U, Tang Y, He S, Hartman KE, O'Callaghan CA, Ogg GS, Altfeld MA, Rosenberg ES, Cao H, Kalams SA, Hammond M, Bunce M, Pelton SI, Burchett SA, McIntosh K, Coovadia HM, Walker BD. Differential narrow focusing of immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in infected African and caucasoid adults and children. J Virol. 2000 Jun; 74(12):5679-90.
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  378. Goulder PJ, Tang Y, Pelton SI, Walker BD. HLA-B57-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in a single infected subject toward two optimal epitopes, one of which is entirely contained within the other. J Virol. 2000 Jun; 74(11):5291-9.
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  379. Lechner F, Wong DK, Dunbar PR, Chapman R, Chung RT, Dohrenwend P, Robbins G, Phillips R, Klenerman P, Walker BD. Analysis of successful immune responses in persons infected with hepatitis C virus. J Exp Med. 2000 May 1; 191(9):1499-512.
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  380. Alexander L, Weiskopf E, Greenough TC, Gaddis NC, Auerbach MR, Malim MH, O'Brien SJ, Walker BD, Sullivan JL, Desrosiers RC. Unusual polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 associated with nonprogressive infection. J Virol. 2000 May; 74(9):4361-76.
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  381. Walker BD. Can immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus be preserved, enhanced, or restored? AIDS Clin Rev. 2000-2001; 101-14.
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  382. Brander C, Yang OO, Jones NG, Lee Y, Goulder P, Johnson RP, Trocha A, Colbert D, Hay C, Buchbinder S, Bergmann CC, Zweerink HJ, Wolinsky S, Blattner WA, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Efficient processing of the immunodominant, HLA-A*0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope despite multiple variations in the epitope flanking sequences. J Virol. 1999 Dec; 73(12):10191-8.
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  383. Goulder PJ, Walker BD. The great escape - AIDS viruses and immune control. Nat Med. 1999 Nov; 5(11):1233-5.
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  384. Mani I, Cao H, Hom D, Johnson JL, Mugerwa RD, Travers KU, Caliendo AM, Walker BD, Kanki PJ. Plasma RNA viral load as measured by the branched DNA and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays of HIV-1 subtypes A and D in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999 Oct 1; 22(2):208-9.
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  385. Little SJ, Daar ES, D'Aquila RT, Keiser PH, Connick E, Whitcomb JM, Hellmann NS, Petropoulos CJ, Sutton L, Pitt JA, Rosenberg ES, Koup RA, Walker BD, Richman DD. Reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility among patients with primary HIV infection. JAMA. 1999 Sep 22-29; 282(12):1142-9.
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  386. Kalams SA, Buchbinder SP, Rosenberg ES, Billingsley JM, Colbert DS, Jones NG, Shea AK, Trocha AK, Walker BD. Association between virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):6715-20.
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  387. Brander C, Walker BD. T lymphocyte responses in HIV-1 infection: implications for vaccine development. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Aug; 11(4):451-9.
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  388. Kalams SA, Goulder PJ, Shea AK, Jones NG, Trocha AK, Ogg GS, Walker BD. Levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte effector and memory responses decline after suppression of viremia with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):6721-8.
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  389. Hay CM, Ruhl DJ, Basgoz NO, Wilson CC, Billingsley JM, DePasquale MP, D'Aquila RT, Wolinsky SM, Crawford JM, Montefiori DC, Walker BD. Lack of viral escape and defective in vivo activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in rapidly progressive infection. J Virol. 1999 Jul; 73(7):5509-19.
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  390. Yang OO, Swanberg SL, Lu Z, Dziejman M, McCoy J, Luster AD, Walker BD, Herrmann SH. Enhanced inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by Met-stromal-derived factor 1beta correlates with down-modulation of CXCR4. J Virol. 1999 Jun; 73(6):4582-9.
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  391. Finzi D, Blankson J, Siliciano JD, Margolick JB, Chadwick K, Pierson T, Smith K, Lisziewicz J, Lori F, Flexner C, Quinn TC, Chaisson RE, Rosenberg E, Walker B, Gange S, Gallant J, Siliciano RF. Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy. Nat Med. 1999 May; 5(5):512-7.
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  392. Wilson CC, Brown RC, Korber BT, Wilkes BM, Ruhl DJ, Sakamoto D, Kunstman K, Luzuriaga K, Hanson IC, Widmayer SM, Wiznia A, Clapp S, Ammann AJ, Koup RA, Wolinsky SM, Walker BD. Frequent detection of escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 transmission: the ariel project for the prevention of transmission of HIV from mother to infant. J Virol. 1999 May; 73(5):3975-85.
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  393. Brander C, Goulder PJ, Luzuriaga K, Yang OO, Hartman KE, Jones NG, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Persistent HIV-1-specific CTL clonal expansion despite high viral burden post in utero HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 1999 Apr 15; 162(8):4796-800.
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  394. Rosenberg ES, Caliendo AM, Walker BD. Acute HIV infection among patients tested for mononucleosis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 25; 340(12):969.
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  395. Wagner R, Leschonsky B, Harrer E, Paulus C, Weber C, Walker BD, Buchbinder S, Wolf H, Kalden JR, Harrer T. Molecular and functional analysis of a conserved CTL epitope in HIV-1 p24 recognized from a long-term nonprogressor: constraints on immune escape associated with targeting a sequence essential for viral replication. J Immunol. 1999 Mar 15; 162(6):3727-34.
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  396. Rodrigo AG, Shpaer EG, Delwart EL, Iversen AK, Gallo MV, Brojatsch J, Hirsch MS, Walker BD, Mullins JI. Coalescent estimates of HIV-1 generation time in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2; 96(5):2187-91.
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  397. Rosenberg ES, LaRosa L, Flynn T, Robbins G, Walker BD. Characterization of HIV-1-specific T-helper cells in acute and chronic infection. Immunol Lett. 1999 Mar; 66(1-3):89-93.
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  398. Merrill DP, Martinez-Picado J, Tremblay C, Sax PE, Boswell SL, Wong JT, D'Aquila RT, Walker BD, Hirsch MS. Improved CD4 lymphocyte outgrowth in response to effective antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 1999 Feb; 179(2):345-51.
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  399. Lori F, Rosenberg E, Lieberman J, Foli A, Maserati R, Seminari E, Alberici F, Walker B, Lisziewicz J. Hydroxyurea and Didanosine long-term treatment prevents HIV breakthrough and normalizes immune parameters. AIDS Res Hum Retro. 1999; 15:1333-1338.
  400. Lisziewicz J, Rosenberg E, Lieberman J, Jessen H, Lopalso L, Siliciano R, Walker B, Lori F. Control of HIV despite the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. NEJM. 1999; 340:1683-4.
  401. Goulder PJ, Rowland-Jones SL, McMichael AJ, Walker BD. Anti-HIV cellular immunity: recent advances towards vaccine design. AIDS. 1999; 13 Suppl A:S121-36.
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  402. Walker BD. Immune reconstitution: is there a potential role for Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF). J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 1999; 8 Suppl 1:S1-2.
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  403. Kalams SA, Walker BD. The critical need for CD4 help in maintaining effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J Exp Med. 1998 Dec 21; 188(12):2199-204.
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  404. Jin X, Roberts CG, Nixon DF, Cao Y, Ho DD, Walker BD, Muldoon M, Korber BT, Koup RA. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and their relationship to vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. ARIEL Project Investigators. J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov; 178(5):1317-26.
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  405. Harrer T, Harrer E, Barbosa P, Kaufmann F, Wagner R, Brüggemann S, Kalden JR, Feinberg M, Johnson RP, Buchbinder S, Walker BD. Recognition of two overlapping CTL epitopes in HIV-1 p17 by CTL from a long-term nonprogressing HIV-1-infected individual. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 1; 161(9):4875-81.
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  406. Walker BD, Basgoz N. Treat HIV-1 infection like other infections--treat it. JAMA. 1998 Jul 1; 280(1):91-3.
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  407. Brander C, Hartman KE, Trocha AK, Jones NG, Johnson RP, Korber B, Wentworth P, Buchbinder SP, Wolinsky S, Walker BD, Kalams SA. Lack of strong immune selection pressure by the immunodominant, HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in chronic human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun 1; 101(11):2559-66.
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  408. Rosenberg ES, Walker BD. HIV type 1-specific helper T cells: a critical host defense. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jun; 14 Suppl 2:S143-7.
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  409. Walter JB, Garboczi DN, Fan QR, Zhou X, Walker BD, Eisen HN. A mutant human beta2-microglobulin can be used to generate diverse multimeric class I peptide complexes as specific probes for T cell receptors. J Immunol Methods. 1998 May 1; 214(1-2):41-50.
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  410. Wagner L, Yang OO, Garcia-Zepeda EA, Ge Y, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Pasternack MS, Luster AD. Beta-chemokines are released from HIV-1-specific cytolytic T-cell granules complexed to proteoglycans. Nature. 1998 Feb 26; 391(6670):908-11.
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  411. Wong DK, Dudley DD, Afdhal NH, Dienstag J, Rice CM, Wang L, Houghton M, Walker BD, Koziel MJ. Liver-derived CTL in hepatitis C virus infection: breadth and specificity of responses in a cohort of persons with chronic infection. J Immunol. 1998 Feb 1; 160(3):1479-88.
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  412. Connor RI, Korber BT, Graham BS, Hahn BH, Ho DD, Walker BD, Neumann AU, Vermund SH, Mestecky J, Jackson S, Fenamore E, Cao Y, Gao F, Kalams S, Kunstman KJ, McDonald D, McWilliams N, Trkola A, Moore JP, Wolinsky SM. Immunological and virological analyses of persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 while participating in trials of recombinant gp120 subunit vaccines. J Virol. 1998 Feb; 72(2):1552-76.
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  413. Collins KL, Chen BK, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Baltimore D. HIV-1 Nef protein protects infected primary cells against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature. 1998 Jan 22; 391(6665):397-401.
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  414. Walker BD, Rosenberg ES, Hay CM, Basgoz N, Yang OO. Immune control of HIV-1 replication. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998; 452:159-67.
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  415. Delwart EL, Mullins JI, Gupta P, Learn GH, Holodniy M, Katzenstein D, Walker BD, Singh MK. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 populations in blood and semen. J Virol. 1998 Jan; 72(1):617-23.
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  416. Rosenberg ES, Billingsley JM, Caliendo AM, Boswell SL, Sax PE, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia. Science. 1997 Nov 21; 278(5342):1447-50.
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  417. Cao H, Kanki P, Sankalé JL, Dieng-Sarr A, Mazzara GP, Kalams SA, Korber B, Mboup S, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cross-reactivity among different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clades: implications for vaccine development. J Virol. 1997 Nov; 71(11):8615-23.
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  418. Yang OO, Tran AC, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Roberts MR, Walker BD. Lysis of HIV-1-infected cells and inhibition of viral replication by universal receptor T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14; 94(21):11478-83.
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  419. Koziel MJ, Wong DK, Dudley D, Houghton M, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte and T helper cell responses in seronegative persons. J Infect Dis. 1997 Oct; 176(4):859-66.
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  420. Threlkeld SC, Wentworth PA, Kalams SA, Wilkes BM, Ruhl DJ, Keogh E, Sidney J, Southwood S, Walker BD, Sette A. Degenerate and promiscuous recognition by CTL of peptides presented by the MHC class I A3-like superfamily: implications for vaccine development. J Immunol. 1997 Aug 15; 159(4):1648-57.
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  421. Yang OO, Kalams SA, Trocha A, Cao H, Luster A, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by CD8+ cells: evidence for HLA class I-restricted triggering of cytolytic and noncytolytic mechanisms. J Virol. 1997 Apr; 71(4):3120-8.
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  422. Walter JB, Brander C, Mammen M, Garboczi DN, Kalams SA, Whitesides GM, Walker BD, Eisen HN. Stimulation of human cytotoxic T cells with HIV-1-derived peptides presented by recombinant HLA-A2 peptide complexes. Int Immunol. 1997 Mar; 9(3):451-9.
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  423. Sipsas NV, Kalams SA, Trocha A, He S, Blattner WA, Walker BD, Johnson RP. Identification of type-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to homologous viral proteins in laboratory workers accidentally infected with HIV-1. J Clin Invest. 1997 Feb 15; 99(4):752-62.
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  424. Wilson CC, Kalams SA, Wilkes BM, Ruhl DJ, Gao F, Hahn BH, Hanson IC, Luzuriaga K, Wolinsky S, Koup R, Buchbinder SP, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Overlapping epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 presented by HLA A, B, and C molecules: effects of viral variation on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. J Virol. 1997 Feb; 71(2):1256-64.
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  425. Jassoy C, Walker BD. HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the control of HIV-1 replication. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1997; 18(3):341-54.
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  426. Koziel MJ, Walker BD. Characteristics of the intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1997; 19(1):69-83.
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  427. Yang OO, Walker BD. CD8+ cells in human immunodeficiency virus type I pathogenesis: cytolytic and noncytolytic inhibition of viral replication. Adv Immunol. 1997; 66:273-311.
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  428. Yang OO, Kalams SA, Rosenzweig M, Trocha A, Jones N, Koziel M, Walker BD, Johnson RP. Efficient lysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol. 1996 Sep; 70(9):5799-806.
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  429. Harrer T, Harrer E, Kalams SA, Elbeik T, Staprans SI, Feinberg MB, Cao Y, Ho DD, Yilma T, Caliendo AM, Johnson RP, Buchbinder SP, Walker BD. Strong cytotoxic T cell and weak neutralizing antibody responses in a subset of persons with stable nonprogressing HIV type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 May 1; 12(7):585-92.
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  430. Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Dynan MJ, Hartman KE, Harrer T, Harrer E, Trocha AK, Blattner WA, Buchbinder SP, Walker BD. T cell receptor usage and fine specificity of human immunodeficiency virus 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones: analysis of quasispecies recognition reveals a dominant response directed against a minor in vivo variant. J Exp Med. 1996 Apr 1; 183(4):1669-79.
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  431. Harrer T, Harrer E, Kalams SA, Barbosa P, Trocha A, Johnson RP, Elbeik T, Feinberg MB, Buchbinder SP, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in asymptomatic long-term nonprogressing HIV-1 infection. Breadth and specificity of the response and relation to in vivo viral quasispecies in a person with prolonged infection and low viral load. J Immunol. 1996 Apr 1; 156(7):2616-23.
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  432. Harrer E, Harrer T, Barbosa P, Feinberg M, Johnson RP, Buchbinder S, Walker BD. Recognition of the highly conserved YMDD region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase by HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes from an asymptomatic long-term nonprogressor. J Infect Dis. 1996 Feb; 173(2):476-9.
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  433. Heinkelein M, Schneider-Schaulies J, Walker BD, Jassoy C. Inhibition of cytotoxicity and cytokine release of CD8+ HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by pentoxifylline. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Dec 1; 10(4):417-24.
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  434. Koziel MJ, Dudley D, Afdhal N, Grakoui A, Rice CM, Choo QL, Houghton M, Walker BD. HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus. Identification of multiple epitopes and characterization of patterns of cytokine release. J Clin Invest. 1995 Nov; 96(5):2311-21.
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  435. Iversen AK, Shpaer EG, Rodrigo AG, Hirsch MS, Walker BD, Sheppard HW, Merigan TC, Mullins JI. Persistence of attenuated rev genes in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected asymptomatic individual. J Virol. 1995 Sep; 69(9):5743-53.
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  436. Hammond SA, Johnson RP, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Takiguchi M, Safrit JT, Koup RA, Siliciano RF. An epitope-selective, transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP)-1/2-independent pathway and a more general TAP-1/2-dependent antigen-processing pathway allow recognition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein by CD8+ CTL. J Immunol. 1995 Jun 1; 154(11):6140-56.
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  437. Kalams SA, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and HIV-1 related neurologic disorders. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1995; 202:79-88.
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  438. Jassoy C, Walker BD. T lymphocytes and their cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: implications for associated neoplasias. Crit Rev Oncog. 1995; 6(3-6):275-89.
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  439. Wilson C, Wong JT, Girard DD, Merrill DP, Dynan M, An DD, Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Hirsch MS, D'Aquila RT, Walker BD. Ex vivo expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons in the presence of combination antiretroviral agents. J Infect Dis. 1995; 172:88-96.
  440. Price P, Johnson RP, Scadden DT, Jassoy C, Rosenthal T, Kalams S, Walker BD. Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes reactive with human immunodeficiency virus-1 produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and variable amounts of interleukins 2, 3, and 4 following stimulation with the cognate epitope. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1995 Jan; 74(1):100-6.
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  441. Jassoy C, Heinkelein M, Klinker H, Walker BD. HIV type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulate HLA class I and intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 expression and increase beta 2-microglobulin levels in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Dec; 10(12):1685-93.
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  442. Tsomides TJ, Aldovini A, Johnson RP, Walker BD, Young RA, Eisen HN. Naturally processed viral peptides recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes on cells chronically infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Exp Med. 1994 Oct 1; 180(4):1283-93.
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  443. Delwart EL, Sheppard HW, Walker BD, Goudsmit J, Mullins JI. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution in vivo tracked by DNA heteroduplex mobility assays. J Virol. 1994 Oct; 68(10):6672-83.
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  444. Kalams SA, Walker BD. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in HIV-1 infection. Clin Lab Med. 1994 Jun; 14(2):271-99.
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  445. Johnson RP, Hammond SA, Trocha A, Siliciano RF, Walker BD. Induction of a major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to a highly conserved region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 in seronegative humans immunized with a candidate HIV-1 vaccine. J Virol. 1994 May; 68(5):3145-53.
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  446. Kalams SA, Johnson RP, Trocha AK, Dynan MJ, Ngo HS, D'Aquila RT, Kurnick JT, Walker BD. Longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) gene usage by human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones reveals a limited TCR repertoire. J Exp Med. 1994 Apr 1; 179(4):1261-71.
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  447. Mestecky J, Walker MC, Mathieson BJ, Walker BD. Conference on advances in AIDS vaccine development--1993. Summary: Mucosal Immunity Workshop. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994; 10 Suppl 2:S165-70.
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  448. Johnson RP, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus infection: responses to structural proteins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1994; 189:35-63.
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  449. Walker BD. The rationale for immunotherapy in HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994; 7 Suppl 1:S6-13.
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  450. Johnson RP, Hammond SA, Trocha A, Siliciano RF, Walker BD. Epitope specificity of MHC restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by candidate HIV-1 vaccine. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994; 10 Suppl 2:S73-5.
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  451. Walker MC, Walker BD, Mestecky J, Mathieson BJ. Conference on advances in AIDS vaccine development--1993. Summary: cytotoxic T-cell Immunity Workshop. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994; 10 Suppl 2:S177-9.
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  452. Harrer E, Harrer T, Buchbinder S, Mann DL, Feinberg M, Yilma T, Johnson RP, Walker BD. HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in healthy, long-term nonprogressing seropositive persons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994; 10 Suppl 2:S77-8.
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  453. Koziel MJ, Dudley D, Afdhal N, Choo QL, Houghton M, Ralston R, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize epitopes in the core and envelope proteins of HCV. J Virol. 1993 Dec; 67(12):7522-32.
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  454. Harrer T, Jassoy C, Harrer E, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Induction of HIV-1 replication in a chronically infected T-cell line by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993 Aug; 6(8):865-71.
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  455. Jassoy C, Harrer T, Rosenthal T, Navia BA, Worth J, Johnson RP, Walker BD. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes release gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and TNF-beta when they encounter their target antigens. J Virol. 1993 May; 67(5):2844-52.
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  456. Zweerink HJ, Gammon MC, Utz U, Sauma SY, Harrer T, Hawkins JC, Johnson RP, Sirotina A, Hermes JD, Walker BD, et al. Presentation of endogenous peptides to MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in transport deletion mutant T2 cells. J Immunol. 1993 Mar 1; 150(5):1763-71.
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  457. Venet A, Walker BD. Cytotoxic T-cell epitopes in HIV/SIV infection. AIDS. 1993; 7 Suppl 1:S117-26.
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  458. Curiel TJ, Wong JT, Gorczyca PF, Schooley RT, Walker BD. CD4+ human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood cells of an HIV-1-infected individual. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1993 Jan; 9(1):61-8.
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  459. Johnson RP, Trocha A, Buchanan TM, Walker BD. Recognition of a highly conserved region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 by an HLA-Cw4-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone. J Virol. 1993 Jan; 67(1):438-45.
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  460. Koziel MJ, Dudley D, Wong JT, Dienstag J, Houghton M, Ralston R, Walker BD. Intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus in persons with chronic hepatitis. J Immunol. 1992 Nov 15; 149(10):3339-44.
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  461. Jassoy C, Johnson RP, Navia BA, Worth J, Walker BD. Detection of a vigorous HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in cerebrospinal fluid from infected persons with AIDS dementia complex. J Immunol. 1992 Nov 1; 149(9):3113-9.
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  462. Johnson RP, Trocha A, Buchanan TM, Walker BD. Identification of overlapping HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell epitopes in a conserved region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: definition of minimum epitopes and analysis of the effects of sequence variation. J Exp Med. 1992 Apr 1; 175(4):961-71.
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  463. Koziel MJ, Walker BD. Viruses, chemotherapy and immunity. Parasitology. 1992; 105 Suppl:S85-92.
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  464. Tsomides TJ, Walker BD, Eisen HN. An optimal viral peptide recognized by CD8+ T cells binds very tightly to the restricting class I major histocompatibility complex protein on intact cells but not to the purified class I protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 15; 88(24):11276-80.
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  465. Johnson RP, Trocha A, Yang L, Mazzara GP, Panicali DL, Buchanan TM, Walker BD. HIV-1 gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize multiple highly conserved epitopes. Fine specificity of the gag-specific response defined by using unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cloned effector cells. J Immunol. 1991 Sep 1; 147(5):1512-21.
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  466. Johnson RP, Walker BD. Identification of HIV-1 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes and implications for vaccine development. Biotechnol Ther. 1991; 2(1-2):137-46.
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  467. Pozansky MC, Walker BD, Haseltine WA, Sodroski J, Langhoff E. A rapid method for quantitating the frequency of peripheral blood cells containing HIV-1 DNA. JAIDS. 1991; 4:368-373.
  468. Goldfeld AE, Birch-Limberger K, Schooley RT, Walker BD. HIV-1 infection does not induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-beta gene transcription. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991; 4(1):41-7.
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  469. Poznansky MC, Walker B, Haseltine WA, Sodroski J, Langhoff E. A rapid method for quantitating the frequency of peripheral blood cells containing HIV-1 DNA. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991; 4(4):368-73.
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  470. Walker BD, Plata F. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes against HIV. AIDS. 1990 Mar; 4(3):177-84.
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  471. Aldovini A, Walker BD, editors. Techniques in HIV Research. 1990.
  472. Walker BD, Flexner C, Birch-Limberger K, Fisher L, Paradis TJ, Aldovini A, Young R, Moss B, Schooley RT. Long-term culture and fine specificity of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones reactive with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec; 86(23):9514-8.
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  473. Hu H, Fine J, Epstein P, Kelsey K, Reynolds P, Walker B. Tear gas--harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon? JAMA. 1989 Aug 4; 262(5):660-3.
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  474. Johnson VA, Barlow MA, Chou TC, Fisher RA, Walker BD, Hirsch MS, Schooley RT. Synergistic inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro by recombinant soluble CD4 and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. J Infect Dis. 1989 May; 159(5):837-44.
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  475. Johnson VA, Walker BD, Barlow MA, Paradis TJ, Chou TC, Hirsch MS. Synergistic inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2 replication in vitro by castanospermine and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jan; 33(1):53-7.
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  476. Walker BD, Flexner C, Paradis TJ, Fuller TC, Hirsch MS, Schooley RT, Moss B. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is a target for cytotoxic T lymphocytes in infected individuals. Science. 1988 Apr 1; 240(4848):64-6.
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  477. Hussey RE, Richardson NE, Kowalski M, Brown NR, Chang HC, Siliciano RF, Dorfman T, Walker B, Sodroski J, Reinherz EL. A soluble CD4 protein selectively inhibits HIV replication and syncytium formation. Nature. 1988 Jan 7; 331(6151):78-81.
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  478. Fisher RA, Bertonis JM, Meier W, Johnson VA, Costopoulos DS, Liu T, Tizard R, Walker BD, Hirsch MS, Schooley RT, et al. HIV infection is blocked in vitro by recombinant soluble CD4. Nature. 1988 Jan 7; 331(6151):76-8.
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  479. Walker BD, Kowalski M, Goh WC, Kozarsky K, Krieger M, Rosen C, Rohrschneider L, Haseltine WA, Sodroski J. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus syncytium formation and virus replication by castanospermine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov; 84(22):8120-4.
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  480. Walker BD, Chakrabarti S, Moss B, Paradis TJ, Flynn T, Durno AG, Blumberg RS, Kaplan JC, Hirsch MS, Schooley RT. HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in seropositive individuals. Nature. 1987 Jul 23-29; 328(6128):345-8.
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