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Keywords
Last Name
Institution

Xandra Owens Breakefield, PH.D.

TitleProfessor of Neurology
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentNeurology
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
Neurogenetics Unit, CNY 6216
55 Fruit St
Boston MA 02114
Phone617/726-5728
Fax617/724-1537

 Mentoring 
 completed student projects
BEAMing PCR Diagnostics of Tumor Exosomes
Summer, 07/06/09 - 09/01/10

 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Lai CP, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO. Noninvasive in vivo monitoring of extracellular vesicles. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1098:249-58.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Armata IA, Balaj L, Kuster JK, Zhang X, Tsai S, Armatas AA, Multhaupt-Buell TJ, Soberman R, Breakefield XO, Ichinose H, Sharma N. Dopa-Responsive Dystonia: Functional Analysis of Single Nucleotide Substitutions within the 5' Untranslated GCH1 Region. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76975.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Atai NA, Balaj L, van Veen H, Breakefield XO, Jarzyna PA, Van Noorden CJ, Skog J, Maguire CA. Heparin blocks transfer of extracellular vesicles between donor and recipient cells. J Neurooncol. 2013 Dec; 115(3):343-51.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Chen WW, Balaj L, Liau LM, Samuels ML, Kotsopoulos SK, Maguire CA, Loguidice L, Soto H, Garrett M, Zhu LD, Sivaraman S, Chen C, Wong ET, Carter BS, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Skog J. BEAMing and Droplet Digital PCR Analysis of Mutant IDH1 mRNA in Glioma Patient Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Extracellular Vesicles. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2013; 2:e109.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Prabhakar S, Goto J, Zuang X, Sena-Esteves M, Bronson R, Brockmann J, Gianni D, Wojtkiewicz GR, Chen JW, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Kwiatkowski DJ, Breakefield XO. Stochastic model of tsc1 lesions in mouse brain. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64224.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Tremblay JP, Xiao X, Aartsma-Rus A, Barbas C, Blau HM, Bogdanove AJ, Boycott K, Braun S, Breakefield XO, Bueren JA, Buschmann M, Byrne BJ, Calos M, Cathomen T, Chamberlain J, Chuah M, Cornetta K, Davies KE, Dickson JG, Duchateau P, Flotte TR, Gaudet D, Gersbach CA, Gilbert R, Glorioso J, Herzog RW, High KA, Huang W, Huard J, Joung JK, Liu D, Liu D, Lochmüller H, Lustig L, Martens J, Massie B, Mavilio F, Mendell JR, Nathwani A, Ponder K, Porteus M, Puymirat J, Samulski J, Takeda S, Thrasher A, Vandendriessche T, Wei Y, Wilson JM, Wilton SD, Wolfe JH, Gao G. Translating the genomics revolution: the need for an international gene therapy consortium for monogenic diseases. Mol Ther. 2013 Feb; 21(2):266-8.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Prabhakar S, Taherian M, Gianni D, Conlon TJ, Fulci G, Brockmann J, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Brenner GJ. Regression of schwannomas induced by adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of caspase-1. Hum Gene Ther. 2013 Feb; 24(2):152-62.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Kalra H, Simpson RJ, Ji H, Aikawa E, Altevogt P, Askenase P, Bond VC, Borràs FE, Breakefield X, Budnik V, Buzas E, Camussi G, Clayton A, Cocucci E, Falcon-Perez JM, Gabrielsson S, Gho YS, Gupta D, Harsha HC, Hendrix A, Hill AF, Inal JM, Jenster G, Krämer-Albers EM, Lim SK, Llorente A, Lötvall J, Marcilla A, Mincheva-Nilsson L, Nazarenko I, Nieuwland R, Nolte-'t Hoen EN, Pandey A, Patel T, Piper MG, Pluchino S, Prasad TS, Rajendran L, Raposo G, Record M, Reid GE, Sánchez-Madrid F, Schiffelers RM, Siljander P, Stensballe A, Stoorvogel W, Taylor D, Thery C, Valadi H, van Balkom BW, Vázquez J, Vidal M, Wauben MH, Yáñez-Mó M, Zoeller M, Mathivanan S. Vesiclepedia: a compendium for extracellular vesicles with continuous community annotation. PLoS Biol. 2012 Dec; 10(12):e1001450.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Shao H, Chung J, Balaj L, Charest A, Bigner DD, Carter BS, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R, Lee H. Protein typing of circulating microvesicles allows real-time monitoring of glioblastoma therapy. Nat Med. 2012 Dec 6; 18(12):1835-40.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Pike LS, Tannous BA, Deliolanis NC, Hsich G, Morse D, Tung CH, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Imaging gene delivery in a mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Gene Ther. 2012 Nov; 19(11):1121.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Mizrak A, Bolukbasi MF, Ozdener GB, Brenner GJ, Madlener S, Erkan EP, Ströbel T, Breakefield XO, Saydam O. Genetically Engineered Microvesicles Carrying Suicide mRNA/Protein Inhibit Schwannoma Tumor Growth. Mol Ther. 2013 Jan; 21(1):101-8.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Wurdinger T, Gatson NN, Balaj L, Kaur B, Breakefield XO, Pegtel DM. Extracellular vesicles and their convergence with viral pathways. Adv Virol. 2012; 2012:767694.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Breakefield XO. Refocus the recombinant DNA advisory committee. Nat Med. 2012 Jul; 18(7):1007.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Lai CP, Breakefield XO. Role of exosomes/microvesicles in the nervous system and use in emerging therapies. Front Physiol. 2012; 3:228.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Atai NA, Ryan SD, Kothary R, Breakefield XO, Nery FC. Untethering the nuclear envelope and cytoskeleton: biologically distinct dystonias arising from a common cellular dysfunction. Int J Cell Biol. 2012; 2012:634214.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Lötvall J, Rajendran L, Gho YS, Thery C, Wauben M, Raposo G, Sjöstrand M, Taylor D, Telemo E, Breakefield XO. The launch of Journal of Extracellular Vesicles (JEV), the official journal of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles - about microvesicles, exosomes, ectosomes and other extracellular vesicles. J Extracell Vesicles. 2012; 1.
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  17. Maguire CA, Balaj L, Sivaraman S, Crommentuijn MH, Ericsson M, Mincheva-Nilsson L, Baranov V, Gianni D, Tannous BA, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Skog J. Microvesicle-associated AAV vector as a novel gene delivery system. Mol Ther. 2012 May; 20(5):960-71.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Bolukbasi MF, Mizrak A, Ozdener GB, Madlener S, Ströbel T, Erkan EP, Fan JB, Breakefield XO, Saydam O. miR-1289 and "Zipcode"-like Sequence Enrich mRNAs in Microvesicles. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2012; 1:e10.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Noerholm M, Balaj L, Limperg T, Salehi A, Zhu LD, Hochberg FH, Breakefield XO, Carter BS, Skog J. RNA expression patterns in serum microvesicles from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and controls. BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:22.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Wakabayashi-Ito N, Doherty OM, Moriyama H, Breakefield XO, Gusella JF, O'Donnell JM, Ito N. Dtorsin, the Drosophila ortholog of the early-onset dystonia TOR1A (DYT1), plays a novel role in dopamine metabolism. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26183.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Pike LS, Tannous BA, Deliolanis NC, Hsich G, Morse D, Tung CH, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Imaging gene delivery in a mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Gene Ther. 2011 Dec; 18(12):1173-8.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Breakefield XO, Frederickson RM, Simpson RJ. Gesicles: Microvesicle "cookies" for transient information transfer between cells. Mol Ther. 2011 Sep; 19(9):1574-6.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Nery FC, Armata IA, Farley JE, Cho JA, Yaqub U, Chen P, da Hora CC, Wang Q, Tagaya M, Klein C, Tannous B, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA, Lencer WI, Ye Y, Breakefield XO. TorsinA participates in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Nat Commun. 2011; 2:393.
    View in: PubMed
  24. van der Vos KE, Balaj L, Skog J, Breakefield XO. Brain tumor microvesicles: insights into intercellular communication in the nervous system. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Aug; 31(6):949-59.
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  25. Bowers WJ, Breakefield XO, Sena-Esteves M. Genetic therapy for the nervous system. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Apr 15; 20(R1):R28-41.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Deliolanis NC, Wurdinger T, Pike L, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R, Ntziachristos V. In vivo tomographic imaging of red-shifted fluorescent proteins. Biomed Opt Express. 2011; 2(4):887-900.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Erkan EP, Breakefield XO, Saydam O. miRNA signature of schwannomas: possible role(s) of "tumor suppressor" miRNAs in benign tumors. Oncotarget. 2011 Mar; 2(3):265-70.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Balaj L, Lessard R, Dai L, Cho YJ, Pomeroy SL, Breakefield XO, Skog J. Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences. Nat Commun. 2011; 2:180.
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  29. Smits M, Mir SE, Nilsson RJ, van der Stoop PM, Niers JM, Marquez VE, Cloos J, Breakefield XO, Krichevsky AM, Noske DP, Tannous BA, Würdinger T. Down-regulation of miR-101 in endothelial cells promotes blood vessel formation through reduced repression of EZH2. PLoS One. 2011; 6(1):e16282.
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  30. Saydam O, Senol O, Würdinger T, Mizrak A, Ozdener GB, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Yi M, Stephens RM, Krichevsky AM, Saydam N, Brenner GJ, Breakefield XO. miRNA-7 attenuation in Schwannoma tumors stimulates growth by upregulating three oncogenic signaling pathways. Cancer Res. 2011 Feb 1; 71(3):852-61.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Bragg DC, Armata IA, Nery FC, Breakefield XO, Sharma N. Molecular pathways in dystonia. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 May; 42(2):136-47.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Saydam O, Ozdener GB, Senol O, Mizrak A, Prabhakar S, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Breakefield XO, Brenner GJ. A novel imaging-compatible sciatic nerve schwannoma model. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Jan 30; 195(1):75-7.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Breakefield XO, Sena-Esteves M. Healing genes in the nervous system. Neuron. 2010 Oct 21; 68(2):178-81.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Chen P, Burdette AJ, Porter JC, Ricketts JC, Fox SA, Nery FC, Hewett JW, Berkowitz LA, Breakefield XO, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA. The early-onset torsion dystonia-associated protein, torsinA, is a homeostatic regulator of endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Sep 15; 19(18):3502-15.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Grandi P, Fernandez J, Szentirmai O, Carter R, Gianni D, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO. Targeting HSV-1 virions for specific binding to epidermal growth factor receptor-vIII-bearing tumor cells. Cancer Gene Ther. 2010 Sep; 17(9):655-63.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Cao S, Hewett JW, Yokoi F, Lu J, Buckley AC, Burdette AJ, Chen P, Nery FC, Li Y, Breakefield XO, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA. Chemical enhancement of torsinA function in cell and animal models of torsion dystonia. Dis Model Mech. 2010 May-Jun; 3(5-6):386-96.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Chen C, Skog J, Hsu CH, Lessard RT, Balaj L, Wurdinger T, Carter BS, Breakefield XO, Toner M, Irimia D. Microfluidic isolation and transcriptome analysis of serum microvesicles. Lab Chip. 2010 Feb 21; 10(4):505-11.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Prabhakar S, Brenner GJ, Sung B, Messerli SM, Mao J, Sena-Esteves M, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Tannous B, Breakefield XO. Imaging and therapy of experimental schwannomas using HSV amplicon vector-encoding apoptotic protein under Schwann cell promoter. Cancer Gene Ther. 2010 Apr; 17(4):266-74.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Saydam O, Shen Y, Würdinger T, Senol O, Boke E, James MF, Tannous BA, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Yi M, Stephens RM, Fraefel C, Gusella JF, Krichevsky AM, Breakefield XO. Downregulated microRNA-200a in meningiomas promotes tumor growth by reducing E-cadherin and activating the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Nov; 29(21):5923-40.
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  40. Nilsson J, Skog J, Nordstrand A, Baranov V, Mincheva-Nilsson L, Breakefield XO, Widmark A. Prostate cancer-derived urine exosomes: a novel approach to biomarkers for prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009 May 19; 100(10):1603-7.
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  41. Tannous BA, Christensen AP, Pike L, Wurdinger T, Perry KF, Saydam O, Jacobs AH, García-Añoveros J, Weissleder R, Sena-Esteves M, Corey DP, Breakefield XO. Mutant sodium channel for tumor therapy. Mol Ther. 2009 May; 17(5):810-9.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Skog J, Würdinger T, van Rijn S, Meijer DH, Gainche L, Sena-Esteves M, Curry WT, Carter BS, Krichevsky AM, Breakefield XO. Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers. Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Dec; 10(12):1470-6.
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  43. Würdinger T, Tannous BA, Saydam O, Skog J, Grau S, Soutschek J, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO, Krichevsky AM. miR-296 regulates growth factor receptor overexpression in angiogenic endothelial cells. Cancer Cell. 2008 Nov 4; 14(5):382-93.
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  44. Nery FC, Zeng J, Niland BP, Hewett J, Farley J, Irimia D, Li Y, Wiche G, Sonnenberg A, Breakefield XO. TorsinA binds the KASH domain of nesprins and participates in linkage between nuclear envelope and cytoskeleton. J Cell Sci. 2008 Oct 15; 121(Pt 20):3476-86.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Maguire CA, Meijer DH, LeRoy SG, Tierney LA, Broekman ML, Costa FF, Breakefield XO, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Sena-Esteves M. Preventing growth of brain tumors by creating a zone of resistance. Mol Ther. 2008 Oct; 16(10):1695-702.
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  46. Shah K, Hingtgen S, Kasmieh R, Figueiredo JL, Garcia-Garcia E, Martinez-Serrano A, Breakefield X, Weissleder R. Bimodal viral vectors and in vivo imaging reveal the fate of human neural stem cells in experimental glioma model. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 23; 28(17):4406-13.
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  47. Schubert M, Breakefield X, Federoff H, Frederickson RM, Lowenstein PR. Gene delivery to the nervous system. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr; 16(4):640-6.
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  48. de Oliveira AP, Glauser DL, Laimbacher AS, Strasser R, Schraner EM, Wild P, Ziegler U, Breakefield XO, Ackermann M, Fraefel C. Live visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 compartment dynamics. J Virol. 2008 May; 82(10):4974-90.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Breakefield XO, Blood AJ, Li Y, Hallett M, Hanson PI, Standaert DG. The pathophysiological basis of dystonias. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008 Mar; 9(3):222-34.
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  50. Hewett JW, Nery FC, Niland B, Ge P, Tan P, Hadwiger P, Tannous BA, Sah DW, Breakefield XO. siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2008 May 15; 17(10):1436-45.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Wurdinger T, Badr C, Pike L, de Kleine R, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO, Tannous BA. A secreted luciferase for ex vivo monitoring of in vivo processes. Nat Methods. 2008 Feb; 5(2):171-3.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Cortés ML, Oehmig A, Saydam O, Sanford JD, Perry KF, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO. Targeted integration of functional human ATM cDNA into genome mediated by HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vector. Mol Ther. 2008 Jan; 16(1):81-8.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Badr CE, Hewett JW, Breakefield XO, Tannous BA. A highly sensitive assay for monitoring the secretory pathway and ER stress. PLoS One. 2007; 2(6):e571.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Jeong KH, Bakowska JC, Song IO, Fu N, Breakefield XO, Kaiser UB. Improvement in reproductive parameters in hypogonadal female mice by regulated gene replacement therapy in the central nervous system. Gene Ther. 2007 Jul; 14(14):1092-101.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Balcioglu A, Kim MO, Sharma N, Cha JH, Breakefield XO, Standaert DG. Dopamine release is impaired in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. J Neurochem. 2007 Aug; 102(3):783-8.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Oehmig A, Cortés ML, Perry KF, Sena-Esteves M, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO. Integration of active human beta-galactosidase gene (100 kb) into genome using HSV/AAV amplicon vector. Gene Ther. 2007 Jul; 14(14):1078-91.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Hewett JW, Tannous B, Niland BP, Nery FC, Zeng J, Li Y, Breakefield XO. Mutant torsinA interferes with protein processing through the secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Apr 24; 104(17):7271-6.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Prabhakar S, Messerli SM, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Liu TC, Rabkin S, Martuza R, Breakefield XO. Treatment of implantable NF2 schwannoma tumor models with oncolytic herpes simplex virus G47Delta. Cancer Gene Ther. 2007 May; 14(5):460-7.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Bahn E, Siegert S, Pfander T, Kramer ML, Schulz-Schaeffer WJ, Hewett JW, Breakefield XO, Hedreen JC, Rostásy KM. TorsinB expression in the developing human brain. Brain Res. 2006 Oct 20; 1116(1):112-9.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Cortés ML, Oehmig A, Perry KF, Sanford JD, Breakefield XO. Expression of human ATM cDNA in Atm-deficient mouse brain mediated by HSV-1 amplicon vector. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 1; 141(3):1247-56.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Shah K, Breakefield XO. HSV amplicon vectors for cancer therapy. Curr Gene Ther. 2006 Jun; 6(3):361-70.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Tannous BA, Grimm J, Perry KF, Chen JW, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO. Metabolic biotinylation of cell surface receptors for in vivo imaging. Nat Methods. 2006 May; 3(5):391-6.
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  63. Kock N, Naismith TV, Boston HE, Ozelius LJ, Corey DP, Breakefield XO, Hanson PI. Effects of genetic variations in the dystonia protein torsinA: identification of polymorphism at residue 216 as protein modifier. Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Apr 15; 15(8):1355-64.
    View in: PubMed
  64. McKee TD, Grandi P, Mok W, Alexandrakis G, Insin N, Zimmer JP, Bawendi MG, Boucher Y, Breakefield XO, Jain RK. Degradation of fibrillar collagen in a human melanoma xenograft improves the efficacy of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus vector. Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1; 66(5):2509-13.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Vasudevan A, Breakefield XO, Bhide PG. Developmental patterns of torsinA and torsinB expression. Brain Res. 2006 Feb 16; 1073-1074:139-45.
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  66. Messerli SM, Prabhakar S, Tang Y, Mahmood U, Giovannini M, Weissleder R, Bronson R, Martuza R, Rabkin S, Breakefield XO. Treatment of schwannomas with an oncolytic recombinant herpes simplex virus in murine models of neurofibromatosis type 2. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Jan; 17(1):20-30.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Hewett JW, Zeng J, Niland BP, Bragg DC, Breakefield XO. Dystonia-causing mutant torsinA inhibits cell adhesion and neurite extension through interference with cytoskeletal dynamics. Neurobiol Dis. 2006 Apr; 22(1):98-111.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Kock N, Allchorne AJ, Sena-Esteves M, Woolf CJ, Breakefield XO. RNAi blocks DYT1 mutant torsinA inclusions in neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Mar 13; 395(3):201-5.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Brown AB, Mahmood U, Cortes ML, Tang Y, Dai G, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Prabhakar S, Leishear K, Onda H, Kwiatkowski D, Weissleder R, Breakefield X. Magnetic resonance imaging and characterization of spontaneous lesions in a transgenic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis as a model for endothelial cell-based transgene delivery. Hum Gene Ther. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1367-76.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Shah K, Tung CH, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R. In vivo imaging of S-TRAIL-mediated tumor regression and apoptosis. Mol Ther. 2005 Jun; 11(6):926-31.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Sharma N, Baxter MG, Petravicz J, Bragg DC, Schienda A, Standaert DG, Breakefield XO. Impaired motor learning in mice expressing torsinA with the DYT1 dystonia mutation. J Neurosci. 2005 Jun 1; 25(22):5351-5.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Siegert S, Bahn E, Kramer ML, Schulz-Schaeffer WJ, Hewett JW, Breakefield XO, Hedreen JC, Rostasy KM. TorsinA expression is detectable in human infants as young as 4 weeks old. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005 Jun 9; 157(1):19-26.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Tannous BA, Kim DE, Fernandez JL, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO. Codon-optimized Gaussia luciferase cDNA for mammalian gene expression in culture and in vivo. Mol Ther. 2005 Mar; 11(3):435-43.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Shah K, Bureau E, Kim DE, Yang K, Tang Y, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO. Glioma therapy and real-time imaging of neural precursor cell migration and tumor regression. Ann Neurol. 2005 Jan; 57(1):34-41.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Oehmig A, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO, Ackermann M. Herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicons and their hybrid virus partners, EBV, AAV, and retrovirus. Curr Gene Ther. 2004 Dec; 4(4):385-408.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Bragg DC, Kaufman CA, Kock N, Breakefield XO. Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation prevents inclusion formation by the dystonia-related mutant form of torsinA. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004 Dec; 27(4):417-26.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Oehmig A, Fraefel C, Breakefield XO. Update on herpesvirus amplicon vectors. Mol Ther. 2004 Oct; 10(4):630-43.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Shah K, Jacobs A, Breakefield XO, Weissleder R. Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer. Gene Ther. 2004 Aug; 11(15):1175-87.
    View in: PubMed
  79. Kamm C, Leung J, Joseph S, Dobyns WB, Brashear A, Breakefield XO, Ozelius LJ. Refined linkage to the RDP/DYT12 locus on 19q13.2 and evaluation of GRIK5 as a candidate gene. Mov Disord. 2004 Jul; 19(7):845-7.
    View in: PubMed
  80. Grandi P, Spear M, Breakefield XO, Wang S. Targeting HSV amplicon vectors. Methods. 2004 Jun; 33(2):179-86.
    View in: PubMed
  81. Hewett JW, Kamm C, Boston H, Beauchamp R, Naismith T, Ozelius L, Hanson PI, Breakefield XO, Ramesh V. TorsinB--perinuclear location and association with torsinA. J Neurochem. 2004 Jun; 89(5):1186-94.
    View in: PubMed
  82. Naismith TV, Heuser JE, Breakefield XO, Hanson PI. TorsinA in the nuclear envelope. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 18; 101(20):7612-7.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Shah K, Tung CH, Yang K, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO. Inducible release of TRAIL fusion proteins from a proapoptotic form for tumor therapy. Cancer Res. 2004 May 1; 64(9):3236-42.
    View in: PubMed
  84. Lafreniere RG, MacDonald ML, Dube MP, MacFarlane J, O'Driscoll M, Brais B, Meilleur S, Brinkman RR, Dadivas O, Pape T, Platon C, Radomski C, Risler J, Thompson J, Guerra-Escobio AM, Davar G, Breakefield XO, Pimstone SN, Green R, Pryse-Phillips W, Goldberg YP, Younghusband HB, Hayden MR, Sherrington R, Rouleau GA, Samuels ME. Identification of a novel gene (HSN2) causing hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 74(5):1064-73.
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  85. Bagley J, Cortes ML, Breakefield XO, Iacomini J. Bone marrow transplantation restores immune system function and prevents lymphoma in Atm-deficient mice. Blood. 2004 Jul 15; 104(2):572-8.
    View in: PubMed
  86. Grandi P, Wang S, Schuback D, Krasnykh V, Spear M, Curiel DT, Manservigi R, Breakefield XO. HSV-1 virions engineered for specific binding to cell surface receptors. Mol Ther. 2004 Mar; 9(3):419-27.
    View in: PubMed
  87. Shah K, Hsich G, Breakefield XO. Neural precursor cells and their role in neuro-oncology. Dev Neurosci. 2004 Mar-Aug; 26(2-4):118-30.
    View in: PubMed
  88. Messerli SM, Prabhakar S, Tang Y, Shah K, Cortes ML, Murthy V, Weissleder R, Breakefield XO, Tung CH. A novel method for imaging apoptosis using a caspase-1 near-infrared fluorescent probe. Neoplasia. 2004 Mar-Apr; 6(2):95-105.
    View in: PubMed
  89. Kamm C, Boston H, Hewett J, Wilbur J, Corey DP, Hanson PI, Ramesh V, Breakefield XO. The early onset dystonia protein torsinA interacts with kinesin light chain 1. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 7; 279(19):19882-92.
    View in: PubMed
  90. Kabakci K, Hedrich K, Leung JC, Mitterer M, Vieregge P, Lencer R, Hagenah J, Garrels J, Witt K, Klostermann F, Svetel M, Friedman J, Kostic V, Bressman SB, Breakefield XO, Ozelius LJ, Pramstaller PP, Klein C. Mutations in DYT1: extension of the phenotypic and mutational spectrum. Neurology. 2004 Feb 10; 62(3):395-400.
    View in: PubMed
  91. Augood SJ, Hollingsworth Z, Albers DS, Yang L, Leung J, Breakefield XO, Standaert DG. Dopamine transmission in DYT1 dystonia. Adv Neurol. 2004; 94:53-60.
    View in: PubMed
  92. Bragg DC, Slater DJ, Breakefield XO. TorsinA and early-onset torsion dystonia. Adv Neurol. 2004; 94:87-93.
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  283. Chen ZY, Hendriks RW, Jobling MA, Powell JF, Breakefield XO, Sims KB, Craig IW. Isolation and characterization of a candidate gene for Norrie disease. Nat Genet. 1992 Jun; 1(3):204-8.
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  284. Chen ZY, Sims KB, Coleman M, Donnai D, Monaco A, Breakefield XO, Davies KE, Craig IW. Characterization of a YAC containing part or all of the Norrie disease locus. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Jun; 1(3):161-4.
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  285. Andersen JK, Herrup K, Breakefield XO. Creation of transgenic mice that overexpress monoamine oxidase-B neuronally. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 May 11; 648:241-3.
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  286. Sims KB, Lebo RV, Benson G, Shalish C, Schuback D, Chen ZY, Bruns G, Craig IW, Golbus MS, Breakefield XO. The Norrie disease gene maps to a 150 kb region on chromosome Xp11.3. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 May; 1(2):83-9.
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  287. Ozelius L, Schuback DE, Stefansson K, Slaugenhaupt S, Gusella JF, Breakefield XO. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism for the hexabrachion gene (HXB) on chromosome 9q32-34. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 May; 1(2):141.
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  288. Huang Q, Vonsattel JP, Schaffer PA, Martuza RL, Breakefield XO, DiFiglia M. Introduction of a foreign gene (Escherichia coli lacZ) into rat neostriatal neurons using herpes simplex virus mutants: a light and electron microscopic study. Exp Neurol. 1992 Mar; 115(3):303-16.
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  289. Haines JL, Yan WL, Boustany RM, Jewell A, Julier C, Breakefield XO, Gusella JF. Linkage analysis in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Am J Med Genet. 1992 Feb 15; 42(4):542-5.
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  290. Konradi C, Ozelius L, Breakefield XO. Highly polymorphic (GT)n repeat sequence in intron II of the human MAOB gene. Genomics. 1992 Jan; 12(1):176-7.
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  291. Schuback DE, Ozelius L, Breakefield XO. BanI RFLP at AK1 locus (9q34). Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Oct 25; 19(20):5798.
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  292. Konradi C, Ozelius L, Yan W, Gusella JF, Breakefield XO. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D16S285) on human chromosome 16. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Oct 11; 19(19):5449.
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  293. Chen ZY, Hotamisligil GS, Huang JK, Wen L, Ezzeddine D, Aydin-Muderrisoglu N, Powell JF, Huang RH, Breakefield XO, Craig I, et al. Structure of the human gene for monoamine oxidase type A. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Aug 25; 19(16):4537-41.
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  294. Hotamisligil GS, Breakefield XO. Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Aug; 49(2):383-92.
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  295. Kwiatkowski DJ, Ozelius L, Kramer PL, Perman S, Schuback DE, Gusella JF, Fahn S, Breakefield XO. Torsion dystonia genes in two populations confined to a small region on chromosome 9q32-34. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Aug; 49(2):366-71.
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  296. Ezzeddine ZD, Martuza RL, Platika D, Short MP, Malick A, Choi B, Breakefield XO. Selective killing of glioma cells in culture and in vivo by retrovirus transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. New Biol. 1991 Jun; 3(6):608-14.
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  297. Cunningham LA, Short MP, Vielkind U, Breakefield XO, Bohn MC. Survival and differentiation within the adult mouse striatum of grafted rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) genetically modified to express recombinant beta-NGF. Exp Neurol. 1991 May; 112(2):174-82.
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  298. Breakefield XO, DeLuca NA. Herpes simplex virus for gene delivery to neurons. New Biol. 1991 Mar; 3(3):203-18.
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  299. Kwiatkowski DJ, Nygaard TG, Schuback DE, Perman S, Trugman JM, Bressman SB, Burke RE, Brin MF, Ozelius L, Breakefield XO, et al. Identification of a highly polymorphic microsatellite VNTR within the argininosuccinate synthetase locus: exclusion of the dystonia gene on 9q32-34 as the cause of dopa-responsive dystonia in a large kindred. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Jan; 48(1):121-8.
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  300. Murphy DL, Sims KB, Karoum F, Garrick NA, de la Chapelle A, Sankila EM, Norio R, Breakefield XO. Plasma amine oxidase activities in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1991; 83(1-2):1-12.
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  301. Schumacher JM, Short MP, Hyman BT, Breakefield XO, Isacson O. Intracerebral implantation of nerve growth factor-producing fibroblasts protects striatum against neurotoxic levels of excitatory amino acids. Neuroscience. 1991; 45(3):561-70.
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  302. Short MP, Choi BC, Lee JK, Malick A, Breakefield XO, Martuza RL. Gene delivery to glioma cells in rat brain by grafting of a retrovirus packaging cell line. J Neurosci Res. 1990 Nov; 27(3):427-39.
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  303. Chiocca EA, Choi BB, Cai WZ, DeLuca NA, Schaffer PA, DiFiglia M, Breakefield XO, Martuza RL. Transfer and expression of the lacZ gene in rat brain neurons mediated by herpes simplex virus mutants. New Biol. 1990 Aug; 2(8):739-46.
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  304. Schuback DE, Ozelius L, Hu G, Craft CM, Raese J, Breakefield XO, Hsu YP. RFLP for human DBH (dopamine beta-hydroxylase). Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Jan 25; 18(2):387.
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  305. Murphy DL, Sims KB, Karoum F, de la Chapelle A, Norio R, Sankila EM, Breakefield XO. Marked amine and amine metabolite changes in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase. J Neurochem. 1990 Jan; 54(1):242-7.
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  306. Weyler W, Hsu YP, Breakefield XO. Biochemistry and genetics of monoamine oxidase. Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 47(3):391-417.
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  307. Short MP, Rosenberg MB, Ezzedine ZD, Gage FH, Friedmann T, Breakefield XO. Autocrine differentiation of PC12 cells mediated by retroviral vectors. Dev Neurosci. 1990; 12(1):34-45.
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  308. Seizinger BR, Breakefield XO. The role of 'tumor suppressor' genes in neural tumors. Trends Neurosci. 1990 Jan; 13(1):3-6.
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  309. Ozelius L, Gusella JF, Breakefield XO. MspI RFLP for human MAOA gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Dec 25; 17(24):10516.
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  310. Diergaarde PJ, Wieringa B, Bleeker-Wagemakers EM, Sims KB, Breakefield XO, Ropers HH. Physical fine-mapping of a deletion spanning the Norrie gene. Hum Genet. 1989 Dec; 84(1):22-6.
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  311. Breakefield XO. Combining CNS transplantation and gene transfer. Neurobiol Aging. 1989 Sep-Oct; 10(5):647-8; discussion 648-50.
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  312. Levy ER, Powell JF, Buckle VJ, Hsu YP, Breakefield XO, Craig IW. Localization of human monoamine oxidase-A gene to Xp11.23-11.4 by in situ hybridization: implications for Norrie disease. Genomics. 1989 Aug; 5(2):368-70.
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  313. Hsu YP, Powell JF, Sims KB, Breakefield XO. Molecular genetics of the monoamine oxidases. J Neurochem. 1989 Jul; 53(1):12-8.
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  314. Kwiatkowski DJ, Ozelius L, Schuback D, Gusella J, Breakefield XO. The gelsolin (GSN) cDNA clone, from 9q32-34, identifies BclI and StuI RFLPs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jun 12; 17(11):4425.
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  315. Shimohama S, Rosenberg MB, Fagan AM, Wolff JA, Short MP, Breakefield XO, Friedmann T, Gage FH. Grafting genetically modified cells into the rat brain: characteristics of E. coli beta-galactosidase as a reporter gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1989 Jun; 5(4):271-8.
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  316. Powell JF, Hsu YP, Weyler W, Chen SA, Salach J, Andrikopoulos K, Mallet J, Breakefield XO. The primary structure of bovine monoamine oxidase type A. Comparison with peptide sequences of bovine monoamine oxidase type B and other flavoenzymes. Biochem J. 1989 Apr 15; 259(2):407-13.
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  317. Grossman MH, Creveling CR, Breakefield XO. Isolation of the mRNA encoding rat liver catechol-O-methyltransferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Feb 15; 158(3):776-82.
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  318. Rosenberg MB, Friedmann T, Robertson RC, Tuszynski M, Wolff JA, Breakefield XO, Gage FH. Grafting genetically modified cells to the damaged brain: restorative effects of NGF expression. Science. 1988 Dec 16; 242(4885):1575-8.
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  319. Hsu YP, Weyler W, Chen S, Sims KB, Rinehart WB, Utterback MC, Powell JF, Breakefield XO. Structural features of human monoamine oxidase A elucidated from cDNA and peptide sequences. J Neurochem. 1988 Oct; 51(4):1321-4.
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  320. Geller AI, Breakefield XO. A defective HSV-1 vector expresses Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase in cultured peripheral neurons. Science. 1988 Sep 23; 241(4873):1667-9.
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  321. Wolf D, Richter-Landsberg C, Short MP, Cepko C, Breakefield XO. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of beta-nerve growth factor into mouse pituitary line AtT-20. Mol Biol Med. 1988 Feb; 5(1):43-59.
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  322. Kramer PL, Ozelius L, Brin MF, Fahn S, Kidd KK, Gusella J, Breakefield XO. Molecular genetics of an autosomal dominant form of torsion dystonia. Adv Neurol. 1988; 50:57-66.
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  323. Pintar JE, Breakefield XO, Patterson PH. Differences in monoamine oxidase activity between cultured noradrenergic and cholinergic sympathetic neurons. Dev Biol. 1987 Mar; 120(1):305-8.
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  324. Rosenberg MB, Breakefield XO, Hawrot E. Targeting of liposomes to cells bearing nerve growth factor receptors mediated by biotinylated nerve growth factor. J Neurochem. 1987 Mar; 48(3):865-75.
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  325. Kramer PL, Ozelius L, Gusella JF, Fahn S, Kidd KK, Breakefield XO. Exclusion of autosomal dominant dystonia gene from large regions of chromosomes 11p, 13q, and 21q by multi-point linkage analysis. Genet Epidemiol. 1987; 4(5):377-86.
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  326. Breakefield XO, Cambi F. Molecular genetic insights into neurologic diseases. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1987; 10:535-94.
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  327. Seizinger BR, Martuza RL, Rouleau G, Breakefield XO, Gusella JF. Models for inherited susceptibility to cancer in the nervous system: a molecular-genetic approach to neurofibromatosis. Dev Neurosci. 1987; 9(3):144-53.
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  328. Breakefield XO, Geller AI. Gene transfer into the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 1987; 1(4):339-71.
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  329. Breakefield XO, Ozelius L, Bothwell MA, Chao MV, Axelrod F, Kramer PL, Kidd KK, Lanahan AA, Johnson DE, Ross AH, et al. DNA polymorphisms for the nerve growth factor receptor gene exclude its role in familial dysautonomia. Mol Biol Med. 1986 Dec; 3(6):483-94.
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  330. Brockes JP, Breakefield XO, Martuza RL. Glial growth factor-like activity in Schwann cell tumors. Ann Neurol. 1986 Sep; 20(3):317-22.
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  331. Ozelius L, Mandel JL, Gusella JF, Breakefield XO. A new RFLP for D18S3(B74) an anonymous genomic clone localized to 18p113. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Aug 26; 14(16):6782.
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  332. Edelstein SB, Breakefield XO. Monoamine oxidases A and B are differentially regulated by glucocorticoids and "aging" in human skin fibroblasts. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1986 Jun; 6(2):121-50.
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  333. Breakefield XO, Bressman SB, Kramer PL, Ozelius L, Moskowitz C, Tanzi R, Brin MF, Hobbs W, Kaufman D, Tobin A, et al. Linkage analysis in a family with dominantly inherited torsion dystonia: exclusion of the pro-opiomelanocortin and glutamic acid decarboxylase genes and other chromosomal regions using DNA polymorphisms. J Neurogenet. 1986 May; 3(3):159-75.
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  334. Rosenberg MB, Hawrot E, Breakefield XO. Receptor binding activities of biotinylated derivatives of beta-nerve growth factor. J Neurochem. 1986 Feb; 46(2):641-8.
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  335. Grossman MH, Creveling CR, Rybczynski R, Braverman M, Isersky C, Breakefield XO. Soluble and particulate forms of rat catechol-O-methyltransferase distinguished by gel electrophoresis and immune fixation. J Neurochem. 1985 Feb; 44(2):421-32.
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  336. Rosenberg MB, Hansen C, Breakefield XO. Molecular genetic approaches to neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Prog Neurobiol. 1985; 24(2):95-140.
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  337. Breakefield XO, Orloff G, Castiglione C, Coussens L, Axelrod FB, Ullrich A. Structural gene for beta-nerve growth factor not defective in familial dysautonomia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jul; 81(13):4213-6.
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  338. Rosenberg MB, Grossman MH, Breakefield XO. Artifactual presence of beta-nerve growth factor in adult mouse brain. Brain Res. 1984 Mar 12; 295(1):35-40.
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  339. Pintar JE, Levitt P, Salach JI, Weyler W, Rosenberg MB, Breakefield XO. Specificity of antisera prepared against pure bovine MAO-B. Brain Res. 1983 Oct 3; 276(1):127-39.
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  340. Cawthon RM, Breakefield XO. Differences in the structures of monoamine oxidases A and B in rat clonal cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983 Feb 1; 32(3):441-8.
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  341. Levitt P, Pintar JE, Breakefield XO. Immunocytochemical demonstration of monoamine oxidase B in brain astrocytes and serotonergic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct; 79(20):6385-9.
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  342. Pintar JE, Breakefield XO. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity as a determinant in human neurophysiology. Behav Genet. 1982 Feb; 12(1):53-68.
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  343. Bonnefil V, Castiglione CM, Cawthon RM, Breakefield XO. Effect of riboflavin on monoamine oxidase activity in cultured neuroblastoma cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1981 Dec; 1(4):351-9.
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  344. Cawthon RM, Pintar JE, Haseltine FP, Breakefield XO. Differences in the structure of A and B forms of human monoamine oxidase. J Neurochem. 1981 Aug; 37(2):363-72.
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  345. Edelstein SB, Breakefield XO. Dexamethasone selectively increases monoamine oxidase type A in human skin fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981 Feb 12; 98(3):836-43.
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  346. Pintar JE, Barbosa J, Francke U, Castiglione CM, Hawkins M, Breakefield XO. Gene for monoamine oxidase type A assigned to the human X chromosome. J Neurosci. 1981 Feb; 1(2):166-75.
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  347. Riker DK, Roth RH, Breakefield XO. High-affinity [3H]choline accumulation in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J Neurochem. 1981 Feb; 36(2):746-52.
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  348. Hawkins M, Wallace DC, Eisenstadt JM, Breakefield XO. Expression of monoamine oxidase A and B activities in mouse cybrids and hybrids. Life Sci. 1981 Jan 26; 28(4):425-32.
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  349. Breakefield XO, Braverman M, Riker DK, Giller EL. Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in cultured human skin fibroblasts from controls and patients with dystonia musculorum deformans. J Neurosci Res. 1981; 6(3):349-60.
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  350. Ryan JM, Ostrow DG, Breakefield XO, Gershon ES, Upchurch L. A comparison of the proliferative and replicative life span kinetics of cell cultures derived from monozygotic twins. In Vitro. 1981 Jan; 17(1):20-7.
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  351. Breakefield XO, Giller EL, Nurnberger JI, Castiglione CM, Buchsbaum MS, Gershon ES. Monoamine oxidase type A in fibroblasts from patients with bipolar depressive illness. Psychiatry Res. 1980 Jul; 2(3):307-14.
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  352. Castro Costa MR, Edelstein SB, Castiglione CM, Chao H, Breakefield XO. Properties of monoamine oxidase in control and Lesch-Nyhan fibroblasts. Biochem Genet. 1980 Jun; 18(5-6):577-90.
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  353. Giller EL, Young JG, Breakefield XO, Carbonari C, Braverman M, Cohen DJ. Monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activities in cultured fibroblasts and blood cells from children with autism and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 1980 May; 2(2):187-97.
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  354. Costa MR, Breakefield XO. Electrophoretic analysis of 3H-pargyline-labeled monoamine oxidases A and B from human and rat cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1980 Mar; 17(2):199-205.
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  355. Schwartz JP, Breakefield XO. Altered nerve growth factor in fibroblasts from patients with familial dysautonomia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Feb; 77(2):1154-8.
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  356. Breakefield XO, Edelstein SB. Inherited levels of A and B types of monoamine oxidase activity. Schizophr Bull. 1980; 6(2):282-8.
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  357. Breakefield XO, Giller EL. Human skin fibroblasts in neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1980 Jan; 16(1):63-5.
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  358. Cawthon RM, Breakefield XO. Differences in A and B forms of monoamine oxidase revealed by limited proteolysis and peptide mapping. Nature. 1979 Oct 25; 281(5733):692-4.
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  359. Walter U, Costa MR, Breakefield XO, Greengard P. Presence of free cyclic AMP receptor protein and regulation of its level by cyclic AMP in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jul; 76(7):3251-5.
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  360. Costa MR, Breakefield XO. Electrophoretic characterization of monoamine oxidase by [3H]pargyline binding in rat hepatoma cells with A and B activity. Mol Pharmacol. 1979 Jul; 16(1):242-9.
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  361. Castro Costa MR, Breakefield XO. Distinct forms of monoamine oxidase expressed in hepatoma and HeLa cells in culture. Biochem Pharmacol. 1979; 28(4):525-8.
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  362. Study RE, Breakefield XO, Bartfai T, Greengard P. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels regulate guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Dec; 75(12):6295-9.
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  363. Bartfai T, Breakefield XO, Greengard P. Regulation of synthesis of guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in neuroblastoma cells. Biochem J. 1978 Oct 15; 176(1):119-27.
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  364. Crooks PA, Breakefield XO, Sulens CH, Castiglione CM, Coward JK. Extensive conjugation of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) metabolites in cultured human skin fibroblasts and rat hepatoma cells. Biochem J. 1978 Oct 15; 176(1):187-96.
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  365. Lloyd T, Weisz J, Breakefield XO. The catechol estrogen, 2-hydroxyestradiol, inhibits catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in neuroblastoma cells. J Neurochem. 1978 Jul; 31(1):245-50.
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  366. Hawkins M, Breakefield XO. Monoamine oxidase A and B in cultured cells. J Neurochem. 1978 Jun; 30(6):1391-7.
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  367. Breakefield XO, Castiglione CM, Halaban R, Pawelek J, Shiman R. Phenylalanine hydroxylase in melanoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 1978 Mar; 94(3):307-14.
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  368. Archer EG, Breakefield XO, Sharata MN. Transport of tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and glycine in neuroblastoma clones. J Neurochem. 1977 Jan; 28(1):127-35.
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  369. Roth JA, Breakefield XO, Castiglione CM. Monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activities in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Life Sci. 1976 Dec 1; 19(11):1705-10.
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  370. Breakefield XO, Giller EL. Neurotransmitter metabolism in cell culture. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976 Nov 1; 25(21):2337-42.
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  371. Breakefield XO, Castiglione CM, Edelstein SB. Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Science. 1976 Jun 4; 192(4243):1018-20.
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  372. Rotman A, Daly JW, Creveling CR, Breakefield XO. Uptake and binding of dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine in murine neuroblastoma and fibroblast cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976 Feb 15; 25(4):383-8.
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  373. Breakefield XO. Neurotransmitter metabolism in murine neuroblastoma cells. Life Sci. 1976 Feb 1; 18(3):267-78.
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  374. Breakefield XO. Reserpine sensitivity of catecholamine metabolism in murine neuroblastoma clone N1E-115. J Neurochem. 1975 Dec; 25(6):877-82.
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  375. Lloyd T, Breakefield XO. Tyrosine-dependent increase of tyrosine hydroxylase in neuroblastoma cells. Nature. 1974 Dec 20; 252(5485):719-20.
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  376. Breakefield XO, Nirenberg MW. Selection for neuroblastoma cells that synthesize certain transmitters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Jun; 71(6):2530-3.
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  377. Breakefield XO, Landman OE. Temperature-sensitive divisionless mutant of Bacillus subtilis defective in the initiation of septation. J Bacteriol. 1973 Feb; 113(2):985-98.
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