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Christian Tientcha Happi, Ph.D.

TitleVisiting Scientist
InstitutionHarvard School of Public Health
DepartmentMalaria/Wirth
AddressHarvard, FAS Org. and Evol. Biology
Museum of Natural History
26 Oxford St
Cambridge MA 02138
Phone617/432-1621
Other Positions
TitleVisiting Scholar in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
InstitutionFaculty of Arts & Sciences
DepartmentOEB Instruction + Org Res


 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Okuboyejo TM, Sijuade AO, Michael OS, Adewoye EO, Folarin O. Therapeutic Efficacy of Artesunate-Amodiaquine Combinations and the Plasma and Saliva Concentrations of Desethylamodiaquine in Children With Acute Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Am J Ther. 2013 Jan; 20(1):48-56.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Gire SK, Stremlau M, Andersen KG, Schaffner SF, Bjornson Z, Rubins K, Hensley L, McCormick JB, Lander ES, Garry RF, Happi C, Sabeti PC. Epidemiology. Emerging disease or diagnosis? Science. 2012 Nov 9; 338(6108):750-2.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Asogun DA, Adomeh DI, Ehimuan J, Odia I, Hass M, Gabriel M, Olschl√§ger S, Becker-Ziaja B, Folarin O, Phelan E, Ehiane PE, Ifeh VE, Uyigue EA, Oladapo YT, Muoebonam EB, Osunde O, Dongo A, Okokhere PO, Okogbenin SA, Momoh M, Alikah SO, Akhuemokhan OC, Imomeh P, Odike MA, Gire S, Andersen K, Sabeti PC, Happi CT, Akpede GO, G√ľnther S. Molecular diagnostics for lassa fever at Irrua specialist teaching hospital, Nigeria: lessons learnt from two years of laboratory operation. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Sep; 6(9):e1839.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Sijuade A, Sowunmi A, Oduola A. Pharmacokinetic disposition of sulfadoxine in children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in South West Nigeria. Am J Ther. 2012 Sep; 19(5):338-45.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT, Folarin OO, Adewoye EO. A simple dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on age or body weight range for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children: comparison of therapeutic efficacy with standard dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Am J Ther. 2012 Jul; 19(4):e122-31.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Bustamante C, Folarin OA, Gbotosho GO, Batista CN, Mesquita EA, Brindeiro RM, Tanuri A, Struchiner CJ, Sowunmi A, Oduola A, Wirth DF, Zalis MG, Happi CT. In vitro-reduced susceptibility to artemether in P. falciparum and its association with polymorphisms on transporter genes. J Infect Dis. 2012 Aug 1; 206(3):324-32.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Andersen KG, Shylakhter I, Tabrizi S, Grossman SR, Happi CT, Sabeti PC. Genome-wide scans provide evidence for positive selection of genes implicated in Lassa fever. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Mar 19; 367(1590):868-77.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Lawal O, Sijuade A, Sowunmi A, Oduola A. A high performance liquid chromatographic assay of mefloquine in saliva after a single oral dose in healthy adult Africans. Malar J. 2012; 11:59.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Bustamante C, da Silva LH, Mesquita E, Sowunmi A, Zalis MG, Oduola AM, Happi CT. Different patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in P. falciparum isolates from Nigeria and Brazil: the potential role of antimalarial drug selection pressure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Feb; 86(2):211-3.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT. Risk Factors for Gametocyte Carriage in Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Children before and after Artemisinin-Based Combination Treatments. Chemotherapy. 2011; 57(6):497-504.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Sowunmi A, Akinrinola IA, Gbotosho GO, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT. A simple dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on arm span- or age range for childhood falciparum malaria: a preliminary evaluation. J Trop Pediatr. 2012 Aug; 58(4):263-8.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT. Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum hyperparasitaemia in malarious children. BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11:268.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Folarin OA, Bustamante C, Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Zalis MG, Oduola AM, Happi CT. In vitro amodiaquine resistance and its association with mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Nigeria. Acta Trop. 2011 Dec; 120(3):224-30.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Happi CT, Okuboyejo TM. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage, sex ratios and asexual parasite rates in Nigerian children before and after a treatment protocol policy change instituting the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011 Sep; 106(6):685-90.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Woranola O, Abiodun OO, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM. Interaction between ciprofloxacin and chloroquine in mice infected with chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei: interaction between ciprofloxacin and chloroqune. Parasitol Res. 2012 Feb; 110(2):895-9.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT, Michael OS, Folarin OA, Adewoye EO. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage, emergence, clearance and population sex ratios in anaemic and non-anaemic malarious children. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011 Aug; 106(5):562-9.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Happi CT, Okuboyejo TM. Therapeutic efficacies of artemisinin-based combination therapies in Nigerian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria during five years of adoption as first-line treatments. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jun; 84(6):936-43.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT. Oral artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated hyperparasitaemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. J Trop Pediatr. 2012 Apr; 58(2):151-3.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Folarin O, Okuboyejo T, Michael O, Fatunmbi B. Use of area under the curve to evaluate the effects of antimalarial drugs on malaria-associated anemia after treatment. Am J Ther. 2011 May; 18(3):190-7.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT, Folarin OA, Michael OS, Adewoye EO. Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine coformulated or copackaged on malaria-associated anemia in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southwest Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 May; 84(5):813-9.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Van Tyne D, Park DJ, Schaffner SF, Neafsey DE, Angelino E, Cortese JF, Barnes KG, Rosen DM, Lukens AK, Daniels RF, Milner DA, Johnson CA, Shlyakhter I, Grossman SR, Becker JS, Yamins D, Karlsson EK, Ndiaye D, Sarr O, Mboup S, Happi C, Furlotte NA, Eskin E, Kang HM, Hartl DL, Birren BW, Wiegand RC, Lander ES, Wirth DF, Volkman SK, Sabeti PC. Identification and functional validation of the novel antimalarial resistance locus PF10_0355 in Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS Genet. 2011 Apr; 7(4):e1001383.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Michael OS, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Okuboyejo T, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM, Happi CT. Early variations in plasmodium falciparum dynamics in Nigerian children after treatment with two artemisinin-based combinations: implications on delayed parasite clearance. Malar J. 2010; 9:335.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Folarin O, Keyamo O, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM. Rapid detection of lactate dehydrogenase and genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in saliva of children with acute uncomplicated malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Sep; 83(3):496-501.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Abiodun OO, Gbotosho GO, Ajaiyeoba EO, Happi CT, Hofer S, Wittlin S, Sowunmi A, Brun R, Oduola AM. Comparison of SYBR Green I-, PicoGreen-, and [3H]-hypoxanthine-based assays for in vitro antimalarial screening of plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine. Parasitol Res. 2010 Mar; 106(4):933-9.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Sowunmi A, Adewoye EO, Gbotsho GO, Happi CT, Sijuade A, Folarin OA, Okuboyejo TM, Michael OS. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children. Malar J. 2010; 9:53.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Ganiyu A, Ogundahunsi OA, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM. Potential contribution of prescription practices to the emergence and spread of chloroquine resistance in south-west Nigeria: caution in the use of artemisinin combination therapy. Malar J. 2009; 8:313.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Sowunmi A, Nkogho OO, Okuboyejo TM, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Adewoye EO. Effects of mefloquine and artesunate mefloquine on the emergence, clearance and sex ratio of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in malarious children. Malar J. 2009; 8:297.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi C, Okuboyejo T, Folarin O, Balogun S, Michael O. Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artesunate-mefloquine and mefloquine alone on malaria-associated anemia in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Dec; 81(6):979-86.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Fateye BA. Factors contributing to anaemia after uncomplicated Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria in children. Acta Trop. 2010 Feb; 113(2):155-61.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Sijuade AO, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM. A simple cost-effective high performance liquid chromatographic assay of sulphadoxine in whole blood spotted on filter paper for field studies. Malar J. 2009; 8:238.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Folarin OA, Balogun ST. Population structure of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte sex ratios in malarious children in an endemic area. Parasitol Int. 2009 Dec; 58(4):438-43.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Sowunmi A, Hudson T, O'Neil M, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Selection of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 alleles in asexual stages and gametocytes by artemether-lumefantrine in Nigerian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Mar; 53(3):888-95.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Sowunmi A, Balogun ST, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT. Some features of primary and recrudescent amodiaquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections in Nigerian children. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 Dec; 103(8):754-9.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Sowunmi A, Balogun ST, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte sex ratios in symptomatic children treated with antimalarial drugs. Acta Trop. 2009 Feb; 109(2):108-17.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Sowunmi A, Balogun ST, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT. Effects of amodiaquine, artesunate, and artesunate-amodiaquine on Plasmodium falciparum malaria-associated anaemia in children. Acta Trop. 2009 Jan; 109(1):55-60.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Ajayi IO, Browne EN, Bateganya F, Yar D, Happi C, Falade CO, Gbotosho GO, Yusuf B, Boateng S, Mugittu K, Cousens S, Nanyunja M, Pagnoni F. Effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy used in the context of home management of malaria: a report from three study sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J. 2008; 7:190.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Sowunmi A, Balogun ST, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte sex ratios in children with acute, symptomatic, uncomplicated infections treated with amodiaquine. Malar J. 2008; 7:169.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Fehintola FA, Adedeji AA, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Balogun ST, Folarin OA, Sijuade AO, Sowunmi A. Effects of artesunate-cotrimoxazole and amodiaquine-artesunate against asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nigerian children. J Infect Chemother. 2008 Jun; 14(3):188-94.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Sowunmi A, Balogun T, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Adedeji AA, Bolaji OM, Fehintola FA, Folarin OA. Activities of artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-sulfalene-pyrimethamine against sexual-stage parasites in falciparum malaria in children. Chemotherapy. 2008; 54(3):201-8.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Ajayi IO, Falade CO, Olley BO, Yusuf B, Gbotosho S, Iyiola T, Olaniyan O, Happi C, Munguti K, Pagnoni F. A qualitative study of the feasibility and community perception on the effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine use in the context of home management of malaria in south-west Nigeria. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008; 8:119.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Adedeji AA, Tambo E, Bolaji OM, Happi CT, Fateye BA. Herpes simplex labialis in children with acute falciparum malaria. Acta Trop. 2008 Apr; 106(1):68-71.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Sijuade A, Ogundahunsi OA, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM. Comparative study of interactions between chloroquine and chlorpheniramine or promethazine in healthy volunteers: a potential combination-therapy phenomenon for resuscitating chloroquine for malaria treatment in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008 Jan; 102(1):3-9.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Plowe CV, Roper C, Barnwell JW, Happi CT, Joshi HH, Mbacham W, Meshnick SR, Mugittu K, Naidoo I, Price RN, Shafer RW, Sibley CH, Sutherland CJ, Zimmerman PA, Rosenthal PJ. World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN) III: molecular markers for drug resistant malaria. Malar J. 2007; 6:121.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Adedeji AA, Fehintola FA, Folarin OA, Tambo E, Fateye BA. Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-sulfalene-pyrimethamine on gametocyte carriage in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwestern Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Aug; 77(2):235-41.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Adedeji AA, Bolaji OM, Fehintola FA, Fateye BA, Oduola AM. Enhancement of the antimalarial efficacy of amodiaquine by chlorpheniramine in vivo. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007 Jun; 102(3):417-9.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Sowunmi A, Balogun T, Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Adedeji AA, Fehintola FA. Activities of amodiaquine, artesunate, and artesunate-amodiaquine against asexual- and sexual-stage parasites in falciparum malaria in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 May; 51(5):1694-9.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Adedeji AA, Fateye BA, Sabitu MF, Happi CT, Fehintola FA. Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area. Parasitol Res. 2007 Jul; 101(2):343-9.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Falade CO, Fadero FF, Happi CT, Dada-Adegbola HO, Gbotosho GO, Ayede I, Falade AG, Oduola AM, Salako LA. Dihydroartemisinin suppository in moderately severe malaria: comparative efficacy of dihydroartemisinin suppository versus intramuscular artemeter followed by oral sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the management of moderately severe malaria in Nigerian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jan; 76(1):1-6.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Milner D, Sarr O, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Confirmation of emergence of mutations associated with atovaquone-proguanil resistance in unexposed Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Africa. Malar J. 2006; 5:82.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Gbotosho GO, Ogundahunsi OA, Happi CT, Kyle DE, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM, Salako LA. The effects of alpha1-acid glycoprotein on the reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006 Oct; 100(7):571-8.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho GO, Adedeji AA, Tambo E, Fateye BA, Happi CT, Amoo AO. The effects of artemether-lumefantrine vs amodiaquine-sulfalene-pyrimethamine on the hepatomegaly associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. Parasitol Res. 2007 Feb; 100(3):511-7.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Sowunmi A, Bolaji OM, Fateye BA, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Linkage disequilibrium between two distinct loci in chromosomes 5 and 7 of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Southwest Nigeria. Parasitol Res. 2006 Dec; 100(1):141-8.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Bolaji OM, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Association between mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 genes and in vivo amodiaquine resistance in P. falciparum malaria-infected children in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul; 75(1):155-61.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Ajaiyeoba EO, Abiodun OO, Falade MO, Ogbole NO, Ashidi JS, Happi CT, Akinboye DO. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of 20 plants used in Nigerian antimalarial ethnomedicine. Phytomedicine. 2006 Mar; 13(4):295-8.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Akinboye DO, Yusuf BO, Ebong OO, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum dhfr and dhps genes and age related in vivo sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in malaria-infected patients from Nigeria. Acta Trop. 2005 Sep; 95(3):183-93.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Falade CO, Akinboye DO, Oladepo O, Oduola AM. Malaria diagnosis: false negative parasight-F tests in falciparum malaria patients in Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2004 Mar; 33(1):15-8.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Falade CO, Akinboye DO, Gerena L, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Molecular analysis of Plasmodium falciparum recrudescent malaria infections in children treated with chloroquine in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jan; 70(1):20-6.
    View in: PubMed
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