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Keywords
Last Name
Institution

Steven Paul Balk, PH.D., M.D.

TitleProfessor of Medicine
InstitutionBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
DepartmentMedicine
AddressBeth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr
Medicine, HIM 1047
330 Brookline Ave
Boston MA 02215
Phone617/667-3918
Fax617/667-0610

 Research 
 research resources
This researcher has shared information about their research resources
in the eagle-i Network. To update or add resource records, contact
eagle-i@hms.harvard.edu.
Real-Time PCR Core (BIDMC) - Core services (2), Instruments (1), Protocols (3) and Software (2)
DNA Sequencing Core (BIDMC) - Core services (1), Instruments (3), Protocols (1) and Software (1)

 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin DW, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, Kantoff P, Marck B, Tamae D, Matsumoto AM, True LD, Vessella R, Penning T, Hunter Merrill R, Gulati R, Montgomery B. Targeted androgen pathway suppression in localized prostate cancer: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jan 20; 32(3):229-37.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Tamae D, Byrns M, Marck B, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS, Lange P, Lin D, Taplin ME, Balk S, Ellis W, True L, Vessella R, Montgomery B, Blair IA, Penning TM. Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Nov; 138:281-9.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Chen S, Jiang X, Gewinner CA, Asara JM, Simon NI, Cai C, Cantley LC, Balk SP. Tyrosine Kinase BMX Phosphorylates Phosphotyrosine-Primed Motif Mediating the Activation of Multiple Receptor Tyrosine Kinases. Sci Signal. 2013; 6(277):ra40.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Cai C, Wang H, He HH, Chen S, He L, Ma F, Mucci L, Wang Q, Fiore C, Sowalsky AG, Loda M, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP, Yuan X. ERG induces androgen receptor-mediated regulation of SOX9 in prostate cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Mar 1; 123(3):1109-22.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Wang H, He L, Ma F, Regan MM, Balk SP, Richardson AL, Yuan X. SOX9 Regulates Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell Factor 4 (TCF4) Expression and Wnt/ß-catenin Activation in Breast Cancer. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 1; 288(9):6478-87.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Xu K, Wu ZJ, Groner AC, He HH, Cai C, Lis RT, Wu X, Stack EC, Loda M, Liu T, Xu H, Cato L, Thornton JE, Gregory RI, Morrissey C, Vessella RL, Montironi R, Magi-Galluzzi C, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Liu XS, Brown M. EZH2 oncogenic activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells is Polycomb-independent. Science. 2012 Dec 14; 338(6113):1465-9.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Sowalsky AG, Ye H, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Clonal progression of prostate cancers from Gleason grade 3 to grade 4. Cancer Res. 2013 Feb 1; 73(3):1050-5.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Shen HC, Shanmugasundaram K, Simon NI, Cai C, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP, Rigby AC. In silico discovery of androgen receptor antagonists with activity in castration resistant prostate cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Nov; 26(11):1836-46.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Lynch L, Nowak M, Varghese B, Clark J, Hogan AE, Toxavidis V, Balk SP, O'Shea D, O'Farrelly C, Exley MA. Adipose tissue invariant NKT cells protect against diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder through regulatory cytokine production. Immunity. 2012 Sep 21; 37(3):574-87.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Wang H, Xu Y, Fang Z, Chen S, Balk SP, Yuan X. Doxycycline regulated induction of AKT in murine prostate drives proliferation independently of p27 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor downregulation. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41330.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Chen S, Gulla S, Cai C, Balk SP. Androgen receptor serine 81 phosphorylation mediates chromatin binding and transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Mar 9; 287(11):8571-83.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Fang Z, Zhang T, Dizeyi N, Chen S, Wang H, Swanson KD, Cai C, Balk SP, Yuan X. Androgen Receptor Enhances p27 Degradation in Prostate Cancer Cells through Rapid and Selective TORC2 Activation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 13; 287(3):2090-8.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Sun T, Yang M, Chen S, Balk S, Pomerantz M, Hsieh CL, Brown M, Lee GS, Kantoff PW. The altered expression of MiR-221/-222 and MiR-23b/-27b is associated with the development of human castration resistant prostate cancer. Prostate. 2012 Jul 1; 72(10):1093-103.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Cai C, He HH, Chen S, Coleman I, Wang H, Fang Z, Chen S, Nelson PS, Liu XS, Brown M, Balk SP. Androgen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer is directly suppressed by the androgen receptor through recruitment of lysine-specific demethylase 1. Cancer Cell. 2011 Oct 18; 20(4):457-71.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Cai C, Balk SP. Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis in prostate cancer pathogenesis and response to therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011 Oct; 18(5):R175-82.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Cai C, Chen S, Ng P, Bubley GJ, Nelson PS, Mostaghel EA, Marck B, Matsumoto AM, Simon NI, Wang H, Chen S, Balk SP. Intratumoral de novo steroid synthesis activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer and is upregulated by treatment with CYP17A1 inhibitors. Cancer Res. 2011 Oct 15; 71(20):6503-13.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Yang M, Xie W, Mostaghel E, Nakabayashi M, Werner L, Sun T, Pomerantz M, Freedman M, Ross R, Regan M, Sharifi N, Figg WD, Balk S, Brown M, Taplin ME, Oh WK, Lee GS, Kantoff PW. SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 may determine time to progression for patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jun 20; 29(18):2565-73.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Exley MA, Lynch L, Varghese B, Nowak M, Alatrakchi N, Balk SP. Developing understanding of the roles of CD1d-restricted T cell subsets in cancer: reversing tumor-induced defects. Clin Immunol. 2011 Aug; 140(2):184-95.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Exley MA, Wilson B, Balk SP. Isolation and functional use of human NKT cells. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2010 Aug; Chapter 14:Unit 14.11.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Nowak M, Arredouani MS, Tun-Kyi A, Schmidt-Wolf I, Sanda MG, Balk SP, Exley MA. Defective NKT cell activation by CD1d+ TRAMP prostate tumor cells is corrected by interleukin-12 with a-galactosylceramide. PLoS One. 2010; 5(6):e11311.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Porcelli S, Brenner MB, Greenstein JL, Terhorst C, Balk SP, Bleicher PA. Recognition of Cluster of Differentiation 1 Antigens by Human CD4-CD8- CytolyticT Lymphocyte. Nature. 1989. 341: 447-450. 1989. J Immunol. 2010 Apr 1; 184(7):3306-9.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Jiang X, Chen S, Asara JM, Balk SP. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activation in phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient prostate cancer cells is independent of receptor tyrosine kinases and mediated by the p110beta and p110delta catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem. 2010 May 14; 285(20):14980-9.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Nowak M, Lynch L, Yue S, Ohta A, Sitkovsky M, Balk SP, Exley MA. The A2aR adenosine receptor controls cytokine production in iNKT cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Mar; 40(3):682-7.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Yue SC, Nowak M, Shaulov-Kask A, Wang R, Yue D, Balk SP, Exley MA. Direct CD1d-mediated stimulation of APC IL-12 production and protective immune response to virus infection in vivo. J Immunol. 2010 Jan 1; 184(1):268-76.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Taplin ME, Regan MM, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ, Duggan SE, Werner L, Beer TM, Ryan CW, Mathew P, Tu SM, Denmeade SR, Oh WK, Sartor O, Mantzoros CS, Rittmaster R, Kantoff PW, Balk SP. Phase II study of androgen synthesis inhibition with ketoconazole, hydrocortisone, and dutasteride in asymptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15; 15(22):7099-105.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Sartor O, Nakabayashi M, Taplin ME, Ross RW, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Oh WK. Activity of dutasteride plus ketoconazole in castration-refractory prostate cancer after progression on ketoconazole alone. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Oct; 7(3):E90-2.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Lu B, Maqsodi B, Yang W, McMaster GK, Perner S, Regan M, Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Rubin M, Sanda MG. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer specimens by a novel assay using branched DNA. Urology. 2009 Nov; 74(5):1156-61.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Wang Q, Li W, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Xu K, Yu J, Chen Z, Beroukhim R, Wang H, Lupien M, Wu T, Regan MM, Meyer CA, Carroll JS, Manrai AK, Jänne OA, Balk SP, Mehra R, Han B, Chinnaiyan AM, Rubin MA, True L, Fiorentino M, Fiore C, Loda M, Kantoff PW, Liu XS, Brown M. Androgen receptor regulates a distinct transcription program in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cell. 2009 Jul 23; 138(2):245-56.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Chen S, Kesler CT, Paschal BM, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and activity are regulated by an association with protein phosphatase 1. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18; 284(38):25576-84.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Cai C, Wang H, Xu Y, Chen S, Balk SP. Reactivation of androgen receptor-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 1; 69(15):6027-32.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Cai C, Portnoy DC, Wang H, Jiang X, Chen S, Balk SP. Androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells is suppressed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2. Cancer Res. 2009 Jun 15; 69(12):5202-9.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Shen HC, Balk SP. Development of androgen receptor antagonists with promising activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Cell. 2009 Jun 2; 15(6):461-3.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee GS, Kantoff P. The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 15; 69(8):3356-63.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Yuan X, Balk SP. Mechanisms mediating androgen receptor reactivation after castration. Urol Oncol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 27(1):36-41.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Song W, van der Vliet HJ, Tai YT, Prabhala R, Wang R, Podar K, Catley L, Shammas MA, Anderson KC, Balk SP, Exley MA, Munshi NC. Generation of antitumor invariant natural killer T cell lines in multiple myeloma and promotion of their functions via lenalidomide: a strategy for immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 1; 14(21):6955-62.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Kaur R, Yuan X, Lu ML, Balk SP. Increased PAK6 expression in prostate cancer and identification of PAK6 associated proteins. Prostate. 2008 Oct 1; 68(14):1510-6.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Hodgson MC, Shen HC, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Structural basis for nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment by antagonist-liganded androgen receptor. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Oct; 7(10):3187-94.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Hur W, Velentza A, Kim S, Flatauer L, Jiang X, Valente D, Mason DE, Suzuki M, Larson B, Zhang J, Zagorska A, Didonato M, Nagle A, Warmuth M, Balk SP, Peters EC, Gray NS. Clinical stage EGFR inhibitors irreversibly alkylate Bmx kinase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Nov 15; 18(22):5916-9.
    View in: PubMed
  39. van der Vliet HJ, Wang R, Yue SC, Koon HB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Circulating myeloid dendritic cells of advanced cancer patients result in reduced activation and a biased cytokine profile in invariant NKT cells. J Immunol. 2008 Jun 1; 180(11):7287-93.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Exley MA, Hou R, Shaulov A, Tonti E, Dellabona P, Casorati G, Akbari O, Akman HO, Greenfield EA, Gumperz JE, Boyson JE, Balk SP, Wilson SB. Selective activation, expansion, and monitoring of human iNKT cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for the TCR alpha-chain CDR3 loop. Eur J Immunol. 2008 Jun; 38(6):1756-66.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Bao BY, Chuang BF, Wang Q, Sartor O, Balk SP, Brown M, Kantoff PW, Lee GS. Androgen receptor mediates the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B15 and B17 genes. Prostate. 2008 Jun 1; 68(8):839-48.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Taplin ME, Manola J, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Bubley GJ, Smith M, Barb D, Mantzoros C, Gelmann EP, Balk SP. A phase II study of mifepristone (RU-486) in castration-resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU Int. 2008 May; 101(9):1084-9.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Bhatt RS, Landis DM, Zimmer M, Torregrossa J, Chen S, Sukhatme VP, Iliopoulos O, Balk S, Bubley GJ. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha: effect on radiation sensitivity and differential regulation by an mTOR inhibitor. BJU Int. 2008 Aug; 102(3):358-63.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Wang H, Leav I, Ibaragi S, Wegner M, Hu GF, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in human fetal prostate epithelium and enhances prostate cancer invasion. Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 15; 68(6):1625-30.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Shaulov A, Yue S, Wang R, Joyce RM, Balk SP, Kim HT, Avigan DE, Uhl L, Sackstein R, Exley MA. Peripheral blood progenitor cell product contains Th1-biased noninvariant CD1d-reactive natural killer T cells: implications for posttransplant survival. Exp Hematol. 2008 Apr; 36(4):464-72.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Balk SP, Knudsen KE. AR, the cell cycle, and prostate cancer. Nucl Recept Signal. 2008; 6:e001.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Barb D, Neuwirth A, Mantzoros CS, Balk SP. Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007 Dec; 14(4):995-1005.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Jiang X, Borgesi RA, McKnight NC, Kaur R, Carpenter CL, Balk SP. Activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx/Etk mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 9; 282(45):32689-98.
    View in: PubMed
  49. van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Exploiting regulatory T-cell populations for the immunotherapy of cancer. J Immunother. 2007 Sep; 30(6):591-5.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors. Cancer Res. 2007 Sep 1; 67(17):8388-95.
    View in: PubMed
  51. van der Vliet HJ, van der Vliet HJ, Koon HB, Yue SC, Uzunparmak B, Seery V, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY, Atkins MB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Effects of the administration of high-dose interleukin-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma and renal cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1; 13(7):2100-8.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Masiello D, Mohi MG, McKnight NC, Smith B, Neel BG, Balk SP, Bubley GJ. Combining an mTOR antagonist and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Feb; 6(2):195-201.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Probert CS, Saubermann LJ, Balk S, Blumberg RS. Repertoire of the alpha beta T-cell receptor in the intestine. Immunol Rev. 2007 Feb; 215:215-25.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Wang H, McKnight NC, Zhang T, Lu ML, Balk SP, Yuan X. SOX9 is expressed in normal prostate basal cells and regulates androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15; 67(2):528-36.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Reddy GK, Balk SP. Clinical utility of microarray-derived genetic signatures in predicting outcomes in prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2006 Dec; 5(3):187-9.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Chen S, Xu Y, Yuan X, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Androgen receptor phosphorylation and stabilization in prostate cancer by cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 24; 103(43):15969-74.
    View in: PubMed
  57. van der Vliet HJ, Balk SP, Exley MA. Natural killer T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15; 12(20 Pt 1):5921-3.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Cai C, Chen SY, Zheng Z, Omwancha J, Lin MF, Balk SP, Shemshedini L. Androgen regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclasealpha1 mediates prostate cancer cell proliferation. Oncogene. 2007 Mar 8; 26(11):1606-15.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Xu Y, Chen SY, Ross KN, Balk SP. Androgens induce prostate cancer cell proliferation through mammalian target of rapamycin activation and post-transcriptional increases in cyclin D proteins. Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 1; 66(15):7783-92.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Yuan X, Li T, Wang H, Zhang T, Barua M, Borgesi RA, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP. Androgen receptor remains critical for cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent CWR22 prostate cancer cells. Am J Pathol. 2006 Aug; 169(2):682-96.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Ilyinskii PO, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d mediates T-cell-dependent resistance to secondary infection with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in vitro and immune response to EMCV infection in vivo. J Virol. 2006 Jul; 80(14):7146-58.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG, Balk SP. Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1; 66(5):2815-25.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Chen SY, Wulf G, Zhou XZ, Rubin MA, Lu KP, Balk SP. Activation of beta-catenin signaling in prostate cancer by peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1-mediated abrogation of the androgen receptor-beta-catenin interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Feb; 26(3):929-39.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Sonoda KH, Sakamoto T, Qiao H, Hisatomi T, Oshima T, Tsutsumi-Miyahara C, Exley M, Balk SP, Taniguchi M, Ishibashi T. The analysis of systemic tolerance elicited by antigen inoculation into the vitreous cavity: vitreous cavity-associated immune deviation. Immunology. 2005 Nov; 116(3):390-9.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Yue SC, Shaulov A, Wang R, Balk SP, Exley MA. CD1d ligation on human monocytes directly signals rapid NF-kappaB activation and production of bioactive IL-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 16; 102(33):11811-6.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Fu XS, Choi E, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Identification of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) polymorphism as a mutation in prostate cancer that prevents normoxia-induced degradation. Prostate. 2005 May 15; 63(3):215-21.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Nieuwenhuis EE, Gillessen S, Scheper RJ, Exley MA, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Blumberg RS, Wilson SB. CD1d and CD1d-restricted iNKT-cells play a pivotal role in contact hypersensitivity. Exp Dermatol. 2005 Apr; 14(4):250-8.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Vlahopoulos S, Zimmer WE, Jenster G, Belaguli NS, Balk SP, Brinkmann AO, Lanz RB, Zoumpourlis VC, Schwartz RJ. Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 4; 280(9):7786-92.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Hodgson MC, Astapova I, Cheng S, Lee LJ, Verhoeven MC, Choi E, Balk SP, Hollenberg AN. The androgen receptor recruits nuclear receptor CoRepressor (N-CoR) in the presence of mifepristone via its N and C termini revealing a novel molecular mechanism for androgen receptor antagonists. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 25; 280(8):6511-9.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Kaur R, Liu X, Gjoerup O, Zhang A, Yuan X, Balk SP, Schneider MC, Lu ML. Activation of p21-activated kinase 6 by MAP kinase kinase 6 and p38 MAP kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 4; 280(5):3323-30.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Ko YJ, Balk SP. Targeting steroid hormone receptor pathways in the treatment of hormone dependent cancers. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2004 Oct; 5(5):459-70.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Ko YJ, Devi GR, London CA, Kayas A, Reddy MT, Iversen PL, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Androgen receptor down-regulation in prostate cancer with phosphorodiamidate morpholino antisense oligomers. J Urol. 2004 Sep; 172(3):1140-4.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Masiello D, Chen SY, Xu Y, Verhoeven MC, Choi E, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Recruitment of beta-catenin by wild-type or mutant androgen receptors correlates with ligand-stimulated growth of prostate cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Oct; 18(10):2388-401.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Taplin ME, Balk SP. Androgen receptor: a key molecule in the progression of prostate cancer to hormone independence. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Feb 15; 91(3):483-90.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Fu M, Rao M, Wang C, Sakamaki T, Wang J, Di Vizio D, Zhang X, Albanese C, Balk S, Chang C, Fan S, Rosen E, Palvimo JJ, Jänne OA, Muratoglu S, Avantaggiati ML, Pestell RG. Acetylation of androgen receptor enhances coactivator binding and promotes prostate cancer cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Dec; 23(23):8563-75.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Tahir SM, Carter QL, Garcia J, Wang C, Patten K, Stills HF, Alt FW, Snapper SB, Balk SP. Innate immune response to encephalomyocarditis virus infection mediated by CD1d. Immunology. 2003 Dec; 110(4):519-26.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Spentzos D, Mantzoros C, Regan MM, Morrissey ME, Duggan S, Flickner-Garvey S, McCormick H, DeWolf W, Balk S, Bubley GJ. Minimal effect of a low-fat/high soy diet for asymptomatic, hormonally naive prostate cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15; 9(9):3282-7.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Gillessen S, Naumov YN, Nieuwenhuis EE, Exley MA, Lee FS, Mach N, Luster AD, Blumberg RS, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Dranoff G, Wilson SB. CD1d-restricted T cells regulate dendritic cell function and antitumor immunity in a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent fashion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22; 100(15):8874-9.
    View in: PubMed
  79. Amir AL, Barua M, McKnight NC, Cheng S, Yuan X, Balk SP. A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 15; 278(33):30828-34.
    View in: PubMed
  80. Exley MA, Balk SP, Wilson SB. Isolation and functional use of human NK T cells. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2003 Feb; Chapter 14:Unit 14.11.
    View in: PubMed
  81. Balk SP, Ko YJ, Bubley GJ. Biology of prostate-specific antigen. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jan 15; 21(2):383-91.
    View in: PubMed
  82. Cheng S, Balk SP. Steroid hormone receptor signaling in cancer. Cancer Treat Res. 2003; 115:293-318.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Bubley GJ, Balk SP, Regan MM, Duggan S, Morrissey ME, Dewolf WC, Salgami E, Mantzoros C. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 binding proteins after radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2002 Nov; 168(5):2249-52.
    View in: PubMed
  84. Boyson JE, Rybalov B, Koopman LA, Exley M, Balk SP, Racke FK, Schatz F, Masch R, Wilson SB, Strominger JL. CD1d and invariant NKT cells at the human maternal-fetal interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15; 99(21):13741-6.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Carroll PR, Kantoff PW, Balk SP, Brown MA, D'amico AV, George DJ, Grossfeld GD, Johnson CS, Kelly WK, Klotz L, Lee WR, Lubeck DP, Mcleod DG, Oh WK, Pollack A, Sartor O, Smith MR, Hart C. Overview consensus statement. Newer approaches to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. Urology. 2002 Sep; 60(3 Suppl 1):1-6.
    View in: PubMed
  86. Balk SP. Androgen receptor as a target in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Urology. 2002 Sep; 60(3 Suppl 1):132-8; discussion 138-9.
    View in: PubMed
  87. Cheng S, Brzostek S, Lee SR, Hollenberg AN, Balk SP. Inhibition of the dihydrotestosterone-activated androgen receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Jul; 16(7):1492-501.
    View in: PubMed
  88. Masiello D, Cheng S, Bubley GJ, Lu ML, Balk SP. Bicalutamide functions as an androgen receptor antagonist by assembly of a transcriptionally inactive receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 19; 277(29):26321-6.
    View in: PubMed
  89. Exley MA, He Q, Cheng O, Wang RJ, Cheney CP, Balk SP, Koziel MJ. Cutting edge: Compartmentalization of Th1-like noninvariant CD1d-reactive T cells in hepatitis C virus-infected liver. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 15; 168(4):1519-23.
    View in: PubMed
  90. Lee SR, Ramos SM, Ko A, Masiello D, Swanson KD, Lu ML, Balk SP. AR and ER interaction with a p21-activated kinase (PAK6). Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Jan; 16(1):85-99.
    View in: PubMed
  91. Exley MA, Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Joyce R, Avigan D, Sackstein R, Balk SP. A major fraction of human bone marrow lymphocytes are Th2-like CD1d-reactive T cells that can suppress mixed lymphocyte responses. J Immunol. 2001 Nov 15; 167(10):5531-4.
    View in: PubMed
  92. Yuan X, Lu ML, Li T, Balk SP. SRY interacts with and negatively regulates androgen receptor transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7; 276(49):46647-54.
    View in: PubMed
  93. Tahir SM, Cheng O, Shaulov A, Koezuka Y, Bubley GJ, Wilson SB, Balk SP, Exley MA. Loss of IFN-gamma production by invariant NK T cells in advanced cancer. J Immunol. 2001 Oct 1; 167(7):4046-50.
    View in: PubMed
  94. Stanbrough M, Leav I, Kwan PW, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice expressing an androgen receptor transgene in prostate epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 11; 98(19):10823-8.
    View in: PubMed
  95. Stremmel C, Exley M, Balk S, Hohenberger W, Kuchroo VK. Characterization of the phenotype and function of CD8(+), alpha / beta(+) NKT cells from tumor-bearing mice that show a natural killer cell activity and lyse multiple tumor targets. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Sep; 31(9):2818-28.
    View in: PubMed
  96. Reutens AT, Fu M, Wang C, Albanese C, McPhaul MJ, Sun Z, Balk SP, Jänne OA, Palvimo JJ, Pestell RG. Cyclin D1 binds the androgen receptor and regulates hormone-dependent signaling in a p300/CBP-associated factor (P/CAF)-dependent manner. Mol Endocrinol. 2001 May; 15(5):797-811.
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  97. Exley MA, Bigley NJ, Cheng O, Tahir SM, Smiley ST, Carter QL, Stills HF, Grusby MJ, Koezuka Y, Taniguchi M, Balk SP. CD1d-reactive T-cell activation leads to amelioration of disease caused by diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus. J Leukoc Biol. 2001 May; 69(5):713-8.
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  98. Ko YJ, Small EJ, Kabbinavar F, Chachoua A, Taneja S, Reese D, DePaoli A, Hannah A, Balk SP, Bubley GJ. A multi-institutional phase ii study of SU101, a platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr; 7(4):800-5.
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  99. Wang B, Chun T, Rulifson IC, Exley M, Balk SP, Wang CR. Human CD1d functions as a transplantation antigen and a restriction element in mice. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 15; 166(6):3829-36.
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  100. Dao T, Exley M, Mehal WZ, Tahir SM, Snapper S, Taniguchi M, Balk SP, Crispe IN. Involvement of CD1 in peripheral deletion of T lymphocytes is independent of NK T cells. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 1; 166(5):3090-7.
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  101. Probert CS, Chott A, Saubermann LJ, Stevens AC, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Prevalence of an ulcerative colitis-associated CD8+ T cell receptor beta-chain CDR3-region motif and its association with disease activity. J Clin Immunol. 2001 Mar; 21(2):126-34.
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  102. Sonoda KH, Faunce DE, Taniguchi M, Exley M, Balk S, Stein-Streilein J. NK T cell-derived IL-10 is essential for the differentiation of antigen-specific T regulatory cells in systemic tolerance. J Immunol. 2001 Jan 1; 166(1):42-50.
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  103. Signoretti S, Montironi R, Manola J, Altimari A, Tam C, Bubley G, Balk S, Thomas G, Kaplan I, Hlatky L, Hahnfeldt P, Kantoff P, Loda M. Her-2-neu expression and progression toward androgen independence in human prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 6; 92(23):1918-25.
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  104. Saubermann LJ, Beck P, De Jong YP, Pitman RS, Ryan MS, Kim HS, Exley M, Snapper S, Balk SP, Hagen SJ, Kanauchi O, Motoki K, Sakai T, Terhorst C, Koezuka Y, Podolsky DK, Blumberg RS. Activation of natural killer T cells by alpha-galactosylceramide in the presence of CD1d provides protection against colitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jul; 119(1):119-28.
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  105. Exley M, Garcia J, Wilson SB, Spada F, Gerdes D, Tahir SM, Patton KT, Blumberg RS, Porcelli S, Chott A, Balk SP. CD1d structure and regulation on human thymocytes, peripheral blood T cells, B cells and monocytes. Immunology. 2000 May; 100(1):37-47.
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  106. Zeng D, Gazit G, Dejbakhsh-Jones S, Balk SP, Snapper S, Taniguchi M, Strober S. Heterogeneity of NK1.1+ T cells in the bone marrow: divergence from the thymus. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15; 163(10):5338-45.
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  107. Sonoda KH, Exley M, Snapper S, Balk SP, Stein-Streilein J. CD1-reactive natural killer T cells are required for development of systemic tolerance through an immune-privileged site. J Exp Med. 1999 Nov 1; 190(9):1215-26.
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  108. Chott A, Sun Z, Morganstern D, Pan J, Li T, Susani M, Mosberger I, Upton MP, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Tyrosine kinases expressed in vivo by human prostate cancer bone marrow metastases and loss of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. Am J Pathol. 1999 Oct; 155(4):1271-9.
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  109. Sun Z, Pan J, Hope WX, Cohen SN, Balk SP. Tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein represses androgen receptor transactivation and interacts with p300. Cancer. 1999 Aug 15; 86(4):689-96.
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  110. Blumberg RS, Lencer WI, Zhu X, Kim HS, Claypool S, Balk SP, Saubermann LJ, Colgan SP. Antigen presentation by intestinal epithelial cells. Immunol Lett. 1999 Jun 15; 69(1):7-11.
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  111. Taplin ME, Bubley GJ, Ko YJ, Small EJ, Upton M, Rajeshkumar B, Balk SP. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Cancer Res. 1999 Jun 1; 59(11):2511-5.
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  112. Kim HS, Garcia J, Exley M, Johnson KW, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Biochemical characterization of CD1d expression in the absence of beta2-microglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 2; 274(14):9289-95.
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  113. Somnay-Wadgaonkar K, Nusrat A, Kim HS, Canchis WP, Balk SP, Colgan SP, Blumberg RS. Immunolocalization of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells and identification of a beta2-microglobulin-associated form. Int Immunol. 1999 Mar; 11(3):383-92.
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  114. Saubermann LJ, Probert CS, Christ AD, Chott A, Turner JR, Stevens AC, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Evidence of T cell receptor beta-chain patterns in inflammatory and noninflammatory bowel disease states. Am J Physiol. 1999 Mar; 276(3 Pt 1):G613-21.
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  115. Rodionov DG, Nordeng TW, Pedersen K, Balk SP, Bakke O. A critical tyrosine residue in the cytoplasmic tail is important for CD1d internalization but not for its basolateral sorting in MDCK cells. J Immunol. 1999 Feb 1; 162(3):1488-95.
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  116. Exley M, Porcelli S, Furman M, Garcia J, Balk S. CD161 (NKR-P1A) costimulation of CD1d-dependent activation of human T cells expressing invariant V alpha 24 J alpha Q T cell receptor alpha chains. J Exp Med. 1998 Sep 7; 188(5):867-76.
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  117. Joyce S, Woods AS, Yewdell JW, Bennink JR, De Silva AD, Boesteanu A, Balk SP, Cotter RJ, Brutkiewicz RR. Natural ligand of mouse CD1d1: cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Science. 1998 Mar 6; 279(5356):1541-4.
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  118. Wilson SB, Kent SC, Patton KT, Orban T, Jackson RA, Exley M, Porcelli S, Schatz DA, Atkinson MA, Balk SP, Strominger JL, Hafler DA. Extreme Th1 bias of invariant Valpha24JalphaQ T cells in type 1 diabetes. Nature. 1998 Jan 8; 391(6663):177-81.
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  119. Joyce R, Fenton MA, Rode P, Constantine M, Gaynes L, Kolvenbag G, DeWolf W, Balk S, Taplin ME, Bubley GJ. High dose bicalutamide for androgen independent prostate cancer: effect of prior hormonal therapy. J Urol. 1998 Jan; 159(1):149-53.
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  120. Probert CS, Aitken EW, Saubermann LJ, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. T-cell receptor usage in the intestine. Chem Immunol. 1998; 71:27-39.
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  121. Sun Z, Pan J, Bubley G, Balk SP. Frequent abnormalities of TSG101 transcripts in human prostate cancer. Oncogene. 1997 Dec 18; 15(25):3121-5.
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  122. Sun Z, Pan J, Balk SP. Androgen receptor-associated protein complex binds upstream of the androgen-responsive elements in the promoters of human prostate-specific antigen and kallikrein 2 genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Aug 15; 25(16):3318-25.
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  123. Koningsberger JC, Chott A, Logtenberg T, Wiegman LJ, Blumberg RS, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Balk SP. TCR expression in human fetal intestine and identification of an early T cell receptor beta-chain transcript. J Immunol. 1997 Aug 15; 159(4):1775-82.
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  124. Chott A, Gerdes D, Spooner A, Mosberger I, Kummer JA, Ebert EC, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in normal human intestine do not express proteins associated with cytolytic function. Am J Pathol. 1997 Aug; 151(2):435-42.
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  125. Christ AD, Colgan SP, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Human intestinal epithelial cell lines produce factor(s) that inhibit CD3-mediated T-lymphocyte proliferation. Immunol Lett. 1997 Aug; 58(3):159-65.
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  126. Blumberg RS, Colgan SP, Balk SP. CD1d: outside-in antigen presentation in the intestinal epithelium? Clin Exp Immunol. 1997 Aug; 109(2):223-5.
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  127. Fenton MA, Shuster TD, Fertig AM, Taplin ME, Kolvenbag G, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Functional characterization of mutant androgen receptors from androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 1997 Aug; 3(8):1383-8.
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  128. Exley M, Garcia J, Balk SP, Porcelli S. Requirements for CD1d recognition by human invariant Valpha24+ CD4-CD8- T cells. J Exp Med. 1997 Jul 7; 186(1):109-20.
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  129. Teitell M, Holcombe HR, Brossay L, Hagenbaugh A, Jackson MJ, Pond L, Balk SP, Terhorst C, Peterson PA, Kronenberg M. Nonclassical behavior of the mouse CD1 class I-like molecule. J Immunol. 1997 Mar 1; 158(5):2143-9.
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  130. Probert CS, Christ AD, Saubermann LJ, Turner JR, Chott A, Carr-Locke D, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Analysis of human common bile duct-associated T cells: evidence for oligoclonality, T cell clonal persistence, and epithelial cell recognition. J Immunol. 1997 Feb 15; 158(4):1941-8.
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  131. Probert CS, Chott A, Turner JR, Saubermann LJ, Stevens AC, Bodinaku K, Elson CO, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Persistent clonal expansions of peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. J Immunol. 1996 Oct 1; 157(7):3183-91.
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  132. Colgan SP, Morales VM, Madara JL, Polischuk JE, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. IFN-gamma modulates CD1d surface expression on intestinal epithelia. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jul; 271(1 Pt 1):C276-83.
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  133. Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Lessons from the androgen receptor. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1996 Jun; 10(3):713-25.
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  134. Porcelli S, Gerdes D, Fertig AM, Balk SP. Human T cells expressing an invariant V alpha 24-J alpha Q TCR alpha are CD4- and heterogeneous with respect to TCR beta expression. Hum Immunol. 1996 Jun-Jul; 48(1-2):63-7.
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  135. Chott A, Probert CS, Gross GG, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. A common TCR beta-chain expressed by CD8+ intestinal mucosa T cells in ulcerative colitis. J Immunol. 1996 Apr 15; 156(8):3024-35.
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  136. Chott A, Vonderheid EC, Olbricht S, Miao NN, Balk SP, Kadin ME. The dominant T cell clone is present in multiple regressing skin lesions and associated T cell lymphomas of patients with lymphomatoid papulosis. J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Apr; 106(4):696-700.
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  137. Taplin ME, Frantz ME, Canning C, Ritz J, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression. Immunology. 1996 Mar; 87(3):402-7.
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  138. Landau SB, Probert CS, Stevens CA, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Over-utilization of the J delta 3 gene-segment in Crohn's disease. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1996; 48(1):33-44.
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  139. Blumberg RS, Gerdes D, Chott A, Porcelli SA, Balk SP. Structure and function of the CD1 family of MHC-like cell surface proteins. Immunol Rev. 1995 Oct; 147:5-29.
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  140. Balk SP, Polischuk JE, Probert C, Stevens C, Ebert E, She J, Terhorst C, Blumberg RS. Composition of TCR-CD3 complex in human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: lack of Fc epsilon RI gamma chain. Int Immunol. 1995 Aug; 7(8):1237-41.
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  141. Taplin ME, Bubley GJ, Shuster TD, Frantz ME, Spooner AE, Ogata GK, Keer HN, Balk SP. Mutation of the androgen-receptor gene in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 1995 May 25; 332(21):1393-8.
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  142. Balk S. MHC evolution. Nature. 1995 Apr 6; 374(6522):505-6.
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  143. Gross GG, Schwartz VL, Stevens C, Ebert EC, Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Distribution of dominant T cell receptor beta chains in human intestinal mucosa. J Exp Med. 1994 Oct 1; 180(4):1337-44.
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  144. Balk SP, Burke S, Polischuk JE, Frantz ME, Yang L, Porcelli S, Colgan SP, Blumberg RS. Beta 2-microglobulin-independent MHC class Ib molecule expressed by human intestinal epithelium. Science. 1994 Jul 8; 265(5169):259-62.
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  145. Burke S, Landau S, Green R, Tseng CC, Nattakom T, Canchis W, Yang L, Kaiserlian D, Gespach C, Balk S, et al. Rat cluster of differentiation 1 molecule: expression on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. Gastroenterology. 1994 May; 106(5):1143-9.
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  146. Blumberg RS, Balk SP. Intraepithelial lymphocytes and their recognition of non-classical MHC molecules. Int Rev Immunol. 1994; 11(1):15-30.
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  147. Brooks EG, Balk SP, Aupeix K, Colonna M, Strominger JL, Groh-Spies V. Human T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta + CD4-CD8- T cells express oligoclonal TCRs, share junctional motifs across TCR V beta-gene families, and phenotypically resemble memory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15; 90(24):11787-91.
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  148. Canchis PW, Bhan AK, Landau SB, Yang L, Balk SP, Blumberg RS. Tissue distribution of the non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule, CD1d. Immunology. 1993 Dec; 80(4):561-5.
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  149. Panja A, Blumberg RS, Balk SP, Mayer L. CD1d is involved in T cell-intestinal epithelial cell interactions. J Exp Med. 1993 Sep 1; 178(3):1115-9.
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  150. Porcelli S, Yockey CE, Brenner MB, Balk SP. Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- alpha/beta T cells demonstrates preferential use of several V beta genes and an invariant TCR alpha chain. J Exp Med. 1993 Jul 1; 178(1):1-16.
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  151. Blumberg RS, Yockey CE, Gross GG, Ebert EC, Balk SP. Human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes are derived from a limited number of T cell clones that utilize multiple V beta T cell receptor genes. J Immunol. 1993 Jun 1; 150(11):5144-53.
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  152. Davis TH, Yockey CE, Balk SP. Detection of clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements by polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Am J Pathol. 1993 Jun; 142(6):1841-7.
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  153. Bubley GJ, Ashburner BP, Balk SP, Ara G, Varshaney A, Teicher BA. Identification of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adducts in DNA from drug-treated human cell nuclei. Biotechniques. 1992 May; 12(5):694, 696, 698.
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  154. Davis TH, Morton CC, Miller-Cassman R, Balk SP, Kadin ME. Hodgkin's disease, lymphomatoid papulosis, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma derived from a common T-cell clone. N Engl J Med. 1992 Apr 23; 326(17):1115-22.
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  155. Blumberg RS, Terhorst C, Bleicher P, McDermott FV, Allan CH, Landau SB, Trier JS, Balk SP. Expression of a nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule, CD1D, by human intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 1991 Oct 15; 147(8):2518-24.
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  156. Balk SP, Ebert EC, Blumenthal RL, McDermott FV, Wucherpfennig KW, Landau SB, Blumberg RS. Oligoclonal expansion and CD1 recognition by human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Science. 1991 Sep 20; 253(5026):1411-5.
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  157. Balk SP, Bleicher PA, Terhorst C. Isolation and expression of cDNA encoding the murine homologues of CD1. J Immunol. 1991 Jan 15; 146(2):768-74.
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  158. Bleicher PA, Balk SP, Hagen SJ, Blumberg RS, Flotte TJ, Terhorst C. Expression of murine CD1 on gastrointestinal epithelium. Science. 1990 Nov 2; 250(4981):679-82.
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  159. Porcelli S, Brenner MB, Greenstein JL, Balk SP, Terhorst C, Bleicher PA. Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes. Nature. 1989 Oct 5; 341(6241):447-50.
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  160. Balk SP, Bleicher PA, Terhorst C. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA and gene coding for a fourth CD1 molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jan; 86(1):252-6.
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  161. Balk S, Terhorst C. Relationship between the T-cell receptor-T3 complex and Thy-1. Immunol Ser. 1989; 45:411-6.
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  162. Su IJ, Balk SP, Kadin ME. Molecular basis for the aberrant expression of T cell antigens in postthymic T cell malignancies. Am J Pathol. 1988 Aug; 132(2):192-8.
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  163. Bleicher PA, Balk SP. T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. Progress and promise. Arch Dermatol. 1988 Mar; 124(3):359-63.
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  164. Balk SP, Mescher MF. Cytolytic T lymphocyte mediated chromium-51 release versus spontaneous release from blast and spleen cell targets at low temperatures. Cell Immunol. 1981 Nov 15; 65(1):201-5.
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  165. Balk SP, Mescher MF. Specific reversal of cytolytic T cell-target cell functional binding is induced by free target cells. J Immunol. 1981 Jul; 127(1):51-7.
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  166. Balk SP, Walker J, Mescher MF. Kinetics of cytolytic T lymphocyte binding to target cells in suspension. J Immunol. 1981 Jun; 126(6):2177-83.
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