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Barry R. Bloom, Ph.D.

TitleHarvard University Distinguished Service Professor and Joan L. and Julius H. Jacobson Professor of Public Health
InstitutionHarvard School of Public Health
DepartmentImmunology and Infectious Diseases
AddressHarvard School of Public Health
Bldg 1, Room 805
665 Huntington Ave
Boston MA 02115
Phone617/432-7684

 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Modlin RL, Bloom BR. TB or Not TB: That Is No Longer the Question. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Nov 27; 5(213):213sr6.
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  2. Teles RM, Graeber TG, Krutzik SR, Montoya D, Schenk M, Lee DJ, Komisopoulou E, Kelly-Scumpia K, Chun R, Iyer SS, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Hewison M, Adams JS, Popper SJ, Relman DA, Stenger S, Bloom BR, Cheng G, Modlin RL. Type I interferon suppresses type II interferon-triggered human anti-mycobacterial responses. Science. 2013 Mar 22; 339(6126):1448-53.
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  3. Laxminarayan R, Arrow K, Jamison D, Bloom BR. Public health. From financing to fevers: lessons of an antimalarial subsidy program. Science. 2012 Nov 2; 338(6107):615-6.
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  4. Lipsitch M, Bloom BR. Rethinking biosafety in research on potential pandemic pathogens. MBio. 2012; 3(5).
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  5. Ganmaa D, Giovannucci E, Bloom BR, Fawzi W, Burr W, Batbaatar D, Sumberzul N, Holick MF, Willett WC. Vitamin D, tuberculin skin test conversion, and latent tuberculosis in Mongolian school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug; 96(2):391-6.
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  6. Lipsitch M, Plotkin JB, Simonsen L, Bloom B. Evolution, safety, and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. Science. 2012 Jun 22; 336(6088):1529-31.
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  7. Fabri M, Stenger S, Shin DM, Yuk JM, Liu PT, Realegeno S, Lee HM, Krutzik SR, Schenk M, Sieling PA, Teles R, Montoya D, Iyer SS, Bruns H, Lewinsohn DM, Hollis BW, Hewison M, Adams JS, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Cheng G, Jo EK, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Vitamin D is required for IFN-gamma-mediated antimicrobial activity of human macrophages. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Oct 12; 3(104):104ra102.
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  8. Farmer P, Almazor CP, Bahnsen ET, Barry D, Bazile J, Bloom BR, Bose N, Brewer T, Calderwood SB, Clemens JD, Cravioto A, Eustache E, Jérôme G, Gupta N, Harris JB, Hiatt HH, Holstein C, Hotez PJ, Ivers LC, Kerry VB, Koenig SP, Larocque RC, Léandre F, Lambert W, Lyon E, Mekalanos JJ, Mukherjee JS, Oswald C, Pape JW, Gretchko Prosper A, Rabinovich R, Raymonville M, Réjouit JR, Ronan LJ, Rosenberg ML, Ryan ET, Sachs JD, Sack DA, Surena C, Suri AA, Ternier R, Waldor MK, Walton D, Weigel JL. Meeting cholera's challenge to Haiti and the world: a joint statement on cholera prevention and care. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011; 5(5):e1145.
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  9. Bloom BR. WHO needs change. Nature. 2011 May 12; 473(7346):143-5.
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  10. Sampson SL, Mansfield KG, Carville A, Magee DM, Quitugua T, Howerth EW, Bloom BR, Hondalus MK. Extended safety and efficacy studies of a live attenuated double leucine and pantothenate auxotroph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2011 Jun 24; 29(29-30):4839-47.
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  11. Bloom BR. Support for global health. Science. 2010 May 14; 328(5980):791.
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  12. Moon S, Szlezák NA, Michaud CM, Jamison DT, Keusch GT, Clark WC, Bloom BR. The global health system: lessons for a stronger institutional framework. PLoS Med. 2010 Jan; 7(1):e1000193.
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  13. Szlezák NA, Bloom BR, Jamison DT, Keusch GT, Michaud CM, Moon S, Clark WC. The global health system: actors, norms, and expectations in transition. PLoS Med. 2010 Jan; 7(1):e1000183.
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  14. Goldstone RM, Goonesekera SD, Bloom BR, Sampson SL. The transcriptional regulator Rv0485 modulates the expression of a pe and ppe gene pair and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Infect Immun. 2009 Oct; 77(10):4654-67.
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  15. Morello M, Krone CL, Dickerson S, Howerth E, Germishuizen WA, Wong YL, Edwards D, Bloom BR, Hondalus MK. Dry-powder pulmonary insufflation in the mouse for application to vaccine or drug studies. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009 Sep; 89(5):371-7.
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  16. Garcia-Contreras L, Wong YL, Muttil P, Padilla D, Sadoff J, Derousse J, Germishuizen WA, Goonesekera S, Elbert K, Bloom BR, Miller R, Fourie PB, Hickey A, Edwards D. Immunization by a bacterial aerosol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 25; 105(12):4656-60.
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  17. Kleinman AM, Bloom BR, Saich A, Mason KA, Aulino F. Avian and pandemic influenza: a biosocial approach. Introduction. J Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 15; 197 Suppl 1:S1-3.
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  18. Michels KB, Bloom BR, Riccardi P, Rosner BA, Willett WC. A study of the importance of education and cost incentives on individual food choices at the Harvard School of Public Health cafeteria. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Feb; 27(1):6-11.
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  19. Rengarajan J, Murphy E, Park A, Krone CL, Hett EC, Bloom BR, Glimcher LH, Rubin EJ. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2224c modulates innate immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8; 105(1):264-9.
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  20. Bloom BR. Sustainable health: a new dimension of sustainability science. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 9; 104(41):15969.
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  21. Wong YL, Sampson S, Germishuizen WA, Goonesekera S, Caponetti G, Sadoff J, Bloom BR, Edwards D. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 20; 104(8):2591-5.
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  22. Khare S, Hondalus MK, Nunes J, Bloom BR, Garry Adams L. Mycobacterium bovis DeltaleuD auxotroph-induced protective immunity against tissue colonization, burden and distribution in cattle intranasally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis Ravenel S. Vaccine. 2007 Feb 26; 25(10):1743-55.
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  23. Tan BH, Meinken C, Bastian M, Bruns H, Legaspi A, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Bloom BR, Ganz T, Modlin RL, Stenger S. Macrophages acquire neutrophil granules for antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 1; 177(3):1864-71.
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  24. Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Gallo RL, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311(5768):1770-3.
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  25. Bloom BR, Salomon JA. Enlightened self-interest and the control of tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 8; 353(10):1057-9.
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  26. Bloom BR. Public health in transition. Sci Am. 2005 Sep; 293(3):92-9.
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  27. Fortune SM, Jaeger A, Sarracino DA, Chase MR, Sassetti CM, Sherman DR, Bloom BR, Rubin EJ. Mutually dependent secretion of proteins required for mycobacterial virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26; 102(30):10676-81.
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  28. Bloom BR. A TB scientist reflects on the continuing struggle against a global threat. Interview by Mike Mitka. JAMA. 2005 Jun 8; 293(22):2708.
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  29. Rengarajan J, Bloom BR, Rubin EJ. Genome-wide requirements for Mycobacterium tuberculosis adaptation and survival in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 7; 102(23):8327-32.
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  30. Krutzik SR, Tan B, Li H, Ochoa MT, Liu PT, Sharfstein SE, Graeber TG, Sieling PA, Liu YJ, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells. Nat Med. 2005 Jun; 11(6):653-60.
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  31. Pan H, Yan BS, Rojas M, Shebzukhov YV, Zhou H, Kobzik L, Higgins DE, Daly MJ, Bloom BR, Kramnik I. Ipr1 gene mediates innate immunity to tuberculosis. Nature. 2005 Apr 7; 434(7034):767-72.
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  32. Altman S, Bassler BL, Beckwith J, Belfort M, Berg HC, Bloom B, Brenchley JE, Campbell A, Collier RJ, Connell N, Cozzarelli NR, Craig NL, Darst S, Ebright RH, Elledge SJ, Falkow S, Galan JE, Gottesman M, Gourse R, Grindley ND, Gross CA, Grossman A, Hochschild A, Howe M, Hurwitz J, Isberg RR, Kaplan S, Kornberg A, Kustu SG, Landick RC, Landy A, Levy SB, Losick R, Long SR, Maloy SR, Mekalanos JJ, Neidhardt FC, Pace NR, Ptashne M, Roberts JW, Roth JR, Rothman-Denes LB, Salyers A, Schaechter M, Shapiro L, Silhavy TJ, Simon MI, Walker G, Yanofsky C, Zinder N. An open letter to Elias Zerhouni. Science. 2005 Mar 4; 307(5714):1409-10.
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  33. Rengarajan J, Sassetti CM, Naroditskaya V, Sloutsky A, Bloom BR, Rubin EJ. The folate pathway is a target for resistance to the drug para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in mycobacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Jul; 53(1):275-82.
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  34. Fortune SM, Solache A, Jaeger A, Hill PJ, Belisle JT, Bloom BR, Rubin EJ, Ernst JD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma through myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Immunol. 2004 May 15; 172(10):6272-80.
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  35. Sampson SL, Dascher CC, Sambandamurthy VK, Russell RG, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR, Hondalus MK. Protection elicited by a double leucine and pantothenate auxotroph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs. Infect Immun. 2004 May; 72(5):3031-7.
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  36. Jain S, Bloom BR, Hondalus MK. Deletion of vapA encoding Virulence Associated Protein A attenuates the intracellular actinomycete Rhodococcus equi. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Oct; 50(1):115-28.
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  37. Bleharski JR, Li H, Meinken C, Graeber TG, Ochoa MT, Yamamura M, Burdick A, Sarno EN, Wagner M, Röllinghoff M, Rea TH, Colonna M, Stenger S, Bloom BR, Eisenberg D, Modlin RL. Use of genetic profiling in leprosy to discriminate clinical forms of the disease. Science. 2003 Sep 12; 301(5639):1527-30.
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  38. Bloom BR. Lessons from SARS. Science. 2003 May 2; 300(5620):701.
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  39. Steyn AJ, Joseph J, Bloom BR. Interaction of the sensor module of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv KdpD with members of the Lpr family. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Feb; 47(4):1075-89.
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  40. Schwebach JR, Chen B, Glatman-Freedman A, Casadevall A, McKinney JD, Harb JL, McGuire PJ, Barkley WE, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Infection of mice with aerosolized Mycobacterium tuberculosis: use of a nose-only apparatus for delivery of low doses of inocula and design of an ultrasafe facility. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Sep; 68(9):4646-9.
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  41. Bloom BR. Tuberculosis--the global view. N Engl J Med. 2002 May 9; 346(19):1434-5.
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  42. Steyn AJ, Collins DM, Hondalus MK, Jacobs WR, Kawakami RP, Bloom BR. Mycobacterium tuberculosis WhiB3 interacts with RpoV to affect host survival but is dispensable for in vivo growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 5; 99(5):3147-52.
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  43. Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Chips, infections, and national security. Science. 2001 Nov 9; 294(5545):1279.
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  44. Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional? Science. 2001 Oct 26; 294(5543):799-801.
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  45. Bloom BR. Medical morals: an exchange. New York Rev Books. 2001 Mar 8; 48(4):E1-E3; author reply E3-E5.
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  46. Thoma-Uszynski S, Stenger S, Takeuchi O, Ochoa MT, Engele M, Sieling PA, Barnes PF, Rollinghoff M, Bolcskei PL, Wagner M, Akira S, Norgard MV, Belisle JT, Godowski PJ, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Induction of direct antimicrobial activity through mammalian toll-like receptors. Science. 2001 Feb 23; 291(5508):1544-7.
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  47. Michaud CM, Murray CJ, Bloom BR. Burden of disease--implications for future research. JAMA. 2001 Feb 7; 285(5):535-9.
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  48. Letvin NL, Bloom BR, Hoffman SL. Prospects for vaccines to protect against AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. JAMA. 2001 Feb 7; 285(5):606-11.
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  49. Ernst WA, Thoma-Uszynski S, Teitelbaum R, Ko C, Hanson DA, Clayberger C, Krensky AM, Leippe M, Bloom BR, Ganz T, Modlin RL. Granulysin, a T cell product, kills bacteria by altering membrane permeability. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 15; 165(12):7102-8.
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  50. Bloom BR. Public-health priorities in the industrialised world. Lancet. 2000 Dec; 356 Suppl:s50.
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  51. Chambers MA, Williams A, Gavier-Widén D, Whelan A, Hall G, Marsh PD, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR, Hewinson RG. Identification of a Mycobacterium bovis BCG auxotrophic mutant that protects guinea pigs against M. bovis and hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis without sensitization to tuberculin. Infect Immun. 2000 Dec; 68(12):7094-9.
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  52. Sieling PA, Porcelli SA, Duong BT, Spada F, Bloom BR, Diamond B, Hahn BH. Human double-negative T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus provide help for IgG and are restricted by CD1c. J Immunol. 2000 Nov 1; 165(9):5338-44.
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  53. Cho S, Mehra V, Thoma-Uszynski S, Stenger S, Serbina N, Mazzaccaro RJ, Flynn JL, Barnes PF, Southwood S, Celis E, Bloom BR, Modlin RL, Sette A. Antimicrobial activity of MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells in human tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 24; 97(22):12210-5.
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  54. Bloom BR. On the particularity of pathogens. Nature. 2000 Aug 17; 406(6797):760-1.
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  55. Kramnik I, Dietrich WF, Demant P, Bloom BR. Genetic control of resistance to experimental infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jul 18; 97(15):8560-5.
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  56. Tian Y, Xing Y, Magliozzo R, Yu K, Bloom BR, Chan J. A commercial preparation of catalase inhibits nitric oxide production by activated murine macrophages: role of arginase. Infect Immun. 2000 May; 68(5):3015-8.
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  57. Hondalus MK, Bardarov S, Russell R, Chan J, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Attenuation of and protection induced by a leucine auxotroph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2000 May; 68(5):2888-98.
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  58. Sousa AO, Mazzaccaro RJ, Russell RG, Lee FK, Turner OC, Hong S, Van Kaer L, Bloom BR. Relative contributions of distinct MHC class I-dependent cell populations in protection to tuberculosis infection in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11; 97(8):4204-8.
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  59. Teitelbaum R, Cammer M, Maitland ML, Freitag NE, Condeelis J, Bloom BR. Mycobacterial infection of macrophages results in membrane-permeable phagosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Dec 21; 96(26):15190-5.
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  60. Bloom BR. The future of public health. Nature. 1999 Dec 2; 402(6761 Suppl):C63-4.
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  61. Stenger S, Rosat JP, Bloom BR, Krensky AM, Modlin RL. Granulysin: a lethal weapon of cytolytic T cells. Immunol Today. 1999 Sep; 20(9):390-4.
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  62. Bloom BR, McKinney JD. The death and resurrection of tuberculosis. Nat Med. 1999 Aug; 5(8):872-4.
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  63. Brightbill HD, Libraty DH, Krutzik SR, Yang RB, Belisle JT, Bleharski JR, Maitland M, Norgard MV, Plevy SE, Smale ST, Brennan PJ, Bloom BR, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL. Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors. Science. 1999 Jul 30; 285(5428):732-6.
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  64. Sikora A, Liu J, Brosnan C, Buell G, Chessel I, Bloom BR. Cutting edge: purinergic signaling regulates radical-mediated bacterial killing mechanisms in macrophages through a P2X7-independent mechanism. J Immunol. 1999 Jul 15; 163(2):558-61.
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  65. Teitelbaum R, Schubert W, Gunther L, Kress Y, Macaluso F, Pollard JW, McMurray DN, Bloom BR. The M cell as a portal of entry to the lung for the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunity. 1999 Jun; 10(6):641-50.
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  66. Bloom BR, Bloom DE, Cohen JE, Sachs JD. Investing in the World Health Organization. Science. 1999 May 7; 284(5416):911.
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  67. Caruso AM, Serbina N, Klein E, Triebold K, Bloom BR, Flynn JL. Mice deficient in CD4 T cells have only transiently diminished levels of IFN-gamma, yet succumb to tuberculosis. J Immunol. 1999 May 1; 162(9):5407-16.
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  68. Bloom BR. Ethical issues in AIDS vaccine development. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 1999 May; 13(5):273-80.
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  69. Fennelly GJ, Khan SA, Abadi MA, Wild TF, Bloom BR. Mucosal DNA vaccine immunization against measles with a highly attenuated Shigella flexneri vector. J Immunol. 1999 Feb 1; 162(3):1603-10.
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  70. Yu K, Mitchell C, Xing Y, Magliozzo RS, Bloom BR, Chan J. Toxicity of nitrogen oxides and related oxidants on mycobacteria: M. tuberculosis is resistant to peroxynitrite anion. Tuber Lung Dis. 1999; 79(4):191-8.
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  71. Teitelbaum R, Glatman-Freedman A, Chen B, Robbins JB, Unanue E, Casadevall A, Bloom BR. A mAb recognizing a surface antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances host survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Dec 22; 95(26):15688-93.
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  72. Alland D, Kramnik I, Weisbrod TR, Otsubo L, Cerny R, Miller LP, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Identification of differentially expressed mRNA in prokaryotic organisms by customized amplification libraries (DECAL): the effect of isoniazid on gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 27; 95(22):13227-32.
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  73. Stenger S, Hanson DA, Teitelbaum R, Dewan P, Niazi KR, Froelich CJ, Ganz T, Thoma-Uszynski S, Melián A, Bogdan C, Porcelli SA, Bloom BR, Krensky AM, Modlin RL. An antimicrobial activity of cytolytic T cells mediated by granulysin. Science. 1998 Oct 2; 282(5386):121-5.
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  74. Falcone M, Rajan AJ, Bloom BR, Brosnan CF. A critical role for IL-4 in regulating disease severity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis as demonstrated in IL-4-deficient C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice. J Immunol. 1998 May 15; 160(10):4822-30.
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  75. Bloom BR, Widdus R. Vaccine visions and their global impact. Nat Med. 1998 May; 4(5 Suppl):480-4.
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  76. Bloom BR, Small PM. The evolving relation between humans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 1998 Mar 5; 338(10):677-8.
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  77. Howson CP, Fineberg HV, Bloom BR. The pursuit of global health: the relevance of engagement for developed countries. Lancet. 1998 Feb 21; 351(9102):586-90.
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  78. Bloom BR. The highest attainable standard: ethical issues in AIDS vaccines. Science. 1998 Jan 9; 279(5348):186-8.
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  79. Mazzaccaro RJ, Stenger S, Rock KL, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB, Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in resistance to tuberculosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998; 452:85-101.
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  80. Riska PF, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR, McKitrick J, Chan J. Specific identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the luciferase reporter mycobacteriophage: use of p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxy propiophenone. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Dec; 35(12):3225-31.
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  81. Zhu YD, Fennelly G, Miller C, Tarara R, Saxe I, Bloom B, McChesney M. Recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin expressing the measles virus nucleoprotein protects infant rhesus macaques from measles virus pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 1997 Dec; 176(6):1445-53.
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  82. Sousa AO, Salem JI, Lee FK, Verçosa MC, Cruaud P, Bloom BR, Lagrange PH, David HL. An epidemic of tuberculosis with a high rate of tuberculin anergy among a population previously unexposed to tuberculosis, the Yanomami Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Nov 25; 94(24):13227-32.
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  83. Bardarov S, Kriakov J, Carriere C, Yu S, Vaamonde C, McAdam RA, Bloom BR, Hatfull GF, Jacobs WR. Conditionally replicating mycobacteriophages: a system for transposon delivery to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 30; 94(20):10961-6.
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  84. García VE, Sieling PA, Gong J, Barnes PF, Uyemura K, Tanaka Y, Bloom BR, Morita CT, Modlin RL. Single-cell cytokine analysis of gamma delta T cell responses to nonpeptide mycobacterial antigens. J Immunol. 1997 Aug 1; 159(3):1328-35.
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  85. Kim J, Sette A, Rodda S, Southwood S, Sieling PA, Mehra V, Ohmen JD, Oliveros J, Appella E, Higashimoto Y, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Determinants of T cell reactivity to the Mycobacterium leprae GroES homologue. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 1; 159(1):335-43.
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  86. Stenger S, Mazzaccaro RJ, Uyemura K, Cho S, Barnes PF, Rosat JP, Sette A, Brenner MB, Porcelli SA, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Differential effects of cytolytic T cell subsets on intracellular infection. Science. 1997 Jun 13; 276(5319):1684-7.
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  87. Bloom BR. A recombinant circumsporozoite protein vaccine against malaria. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jun 12; 336(24):1760; author reply 1760-1.
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  88. Cirillo JD, Weisbrod TR, Banerjee A, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Genetic determination of the meso-diaminopimelate biosynthetic pathway of mycobacteria. J Bacteriol. 1997 Apr; 179(8):2792.
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  89. Falcone M, Bloom BR. A T helper cell 2 (Th2) immune response against non-self antigens modifies the cytokine profile of autoimmune T cells and protects against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 1997 Mar 3; 185(5):901-7.
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  90. D'Souza CD, Cooper AM, Frank AA, Mazzaccaro RJ, Bloom BR, Orme IM. An anti-inflammatory role for gamma delta T lymphocytes in acquired immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 1997 Feb 1; 158(3):1217-21.
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  91. Wallace M, Scharko AM, Pauza CD, Fisch P, Imaoka K, Kawabata S, Fujihashi K, Kiyono H, Tanaka Y, Bloom BR, Malkovsky M. Functional gamma delta T-lymphocyte defect associated with human immunodeficiency virus infections. Mol Med. 1997 Jan; 3(1):60-71.
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  92. Chan J, Tian Y, Tanaka KE, Tsang MS, Yu K, Salgame P, Carroll D, Kress Y, Teitelbaum R, Bloom BR. Effects of protein calorie malnutrition on tuberculosis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Dec 10; 93(25):14857-61.
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  93. Glatman-Freedman A, Martin JM, Riska PF, Bloom BR, Casadevall A. Monoclonal antibodies to surface antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their use in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay for detection of mycobacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Nov; 34(11):2795-802.
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  94. Flynn JL, Bloom BR. Role of T1 and T2 cytokines in the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Oct 31; 795:137-46.
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  95. Mazzaccaro RJ, Gedde M, Jensen ER, van Santen HM, Ploegh HL, Rock KL, Bloom BR. Major histocompatibility class I presentation of soluble antigen facilitated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 15; 93(21):11786-91.
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  96. Mehra V, Gong JH, Iyer D, Lin Y, Boylen CT, Bloom BR, Barnes PF. Immune response to recombinant mycobacterial proteins in patients with tuberculosis infection and disease. J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug; 174(2):431-4.
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  97. Bloom BR. A perspective on AIDS vaccines. Science. 1996 Jun 28; 272(5270):1888-90.
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  98. Morita CT, Tanaka Y, Bloom BR, Brenner MB. Direct presentation of non-peptide prenyl pyrophosphate antigens to human gamma delta T cells. Res Immunol. 1996 Jun; 147(5):347-53.
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  99. Tanaka Y, Brenner MB, Bloom BR, Morita CT. Recognition of nonpeptide antigens by T cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 1996 May; 74(5):223-31.
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  100. Philipp WJ, Poulet S, Eiglmeier K, Pascopella L, Balasubramanian V, Heym B, Bergh S, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR, Cole ST. An integrated map of the genome of the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and comparison with Mycobacterium leprae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2; 93(7):3132-7.
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  101. Guleria I, Teitelbaum R, McAdam RA, Kalpana G, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Auxotrophic vaccines for tuberculosis. Nat Med. 1996 Mar; 2(3):334-7.
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  102. Kass-Eisler A, Leinwand L, Gall J, Bloom B, Falck-Pedersen E. Circumventing the immune response to adenovirus-mediated gene therapy. Gene Ther. 1996 Feb; 3(2):154-62.
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  103. Takiff HE, Cimino M, Musso MC, Weisbrod T, Martinez R, Delgado MB, Salazar L, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Efflux pump of the proton antiporter family confers low-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jan 9; 93(1):362-6.
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  104. Balasubramanian V, Pavelka MS, Bardarov SS, Martin J, Weisbrod TR, McAdam RA, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Allelic exchange in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with long linear recombination substrates. J Bacteriol. 1996 Jan; 178(1):273-9.
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  105. Morita CT, Beckman EM, Bukowski JF, Tanaka Y, Band H, Bloom BR, Golan DE, Brenner MB. Direct presentation of nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphate antigens to human gamma delta T cells. Immunity. 1995 Oct; 3(4):495-507.
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  106. Fennelly GJ, Flynn JL, ter Meulen V, Liebert UG, Bloom BR. Recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin priming against measles. J Infect Dis. 1995 Sep; 172(3):698-705.
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  107. Flynn JL, Goldstein MM, Triebold KJ, Sypek J, Wolf S, Bloom BR. IL-12 increases resistance of BALB/c mice to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 1995 Sep 1; 155(5):2515-24.
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  108. Collins DM, Kawakami RP, de Lisle GW, Pascopella L, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Mutation of the principal sigma factor causes loss of virulence in a strain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 15; 92(17):8036-40.
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  109. Sieling PA, Chatterjee D, Porcelli SA, Prigozy TI, Mazzaccaro RJ, Soriano T, Bloom BR, Brenner MB, Kronenberg M, Brennan PJ, et al. CD1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens. Science. 1995 Jul 14; 269(5221):227-30.
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  110. Flynn JL, Goldstein MM, Chan J, Triebold KJ, Pfeffer K, Lowenstein CJ, Schreiber R, Mak TW, Bloom BR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is required in the protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Immunity. 1995 Jun; 2(6):561-72.
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  111. Bloom BR. A perspective on issues relating to future vaccines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 31; 754:388-95.
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  112. Tanaka Y, Morita CT, Tanaka Y, Nieves E, Brenner MB, Bloom BR. Natural and synthetic non-peptide antigens recognized by human gamma delta T cells. Nature. 1995 May 11; 375(6527):155-8.
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  113. Cirillo JD, Stover CK, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR, Barletta RG. Bacterial vaccine vectors and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Apr; 20(4):1001-9.
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  114. Rubinstein A, Goldstein H, Pettoello-Mantovani M, Mizrachi Y, Bloom BR, Furer E, Althaus B, Que JU, Hasler T, Cryz SJ. Safety and immunogenicity of a V3 loop synthetic peptide conjugated to purified protein derivative in HIV-seronegative volunteers. AIDS. 1995 Mar; 9(3):243-51.
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  115. McAdam RA, Weisbrod TR, Martin J, Scuderi JD, Brown AM, Cirillo JD, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. In vivo growth characteristics of leucine and methionine auxotrophic mutants of Mycobacterium bovis BCG generated by transposon mutagenesis. Infect Immun. 1995 Mar; 63(3):1004-12.
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  116. Bukowski JF, Morita CT, Tanaka Y, Bloom BR, Brenner MB, Band H. V gamma 2V delta 2 TCR-dependent recognition of non-peptide antigens and Daudi cells analyzed by TCR gene transfer. J Immunol. 1995 Feb 1; 154(3):998-1006.
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  117. Chan J, Tanaka K, Carroll D, Flynn J, Bloom BR. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on murine infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 1995 Feb; 63(2):736-40.
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  118. Coiro MJ, Zill N, Bloom B. Health of our nation's children. Vital Health Stat 10. 1994 Dec; (191):1-61.
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  119. Hanna PC, Kruskal BA, Ezekowitz RA, Bloom BR, Collier RJ. Role of macrophage oxidative burst in the action of anthrax lethal toxin. Mol Med. 1994 Nov; 1(1):7-18.
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  120. Gelber RH, Mehra V, Bloom B, Murray LP, Siu P, Tsang M, Brennan PJ. Vaccination with pure Mycobacterium leprae proteins inhibits M. leprae multiplication in mouse footpads. Infect Immun. 1994 Oct; 62(10):4250-5.
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  121. Bloom BR, Flynn J, McDonough K, Kress Y, Chan J. Experimental approaches to mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis in M. tuberculosis infection. Immunobiology. 1994 Oct; 191(4-5):526-36.
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  122. Bloom BR. The United States needs a national vaccine authority. Science. 1994 Sep 2; 265(5177):1378-80.
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  123. Tanaka Y, Sano S, Nieves E, De Libero G, Rosa D, Modlin RL, Brenner MB, Bloom BR, Morita CT. Nonpeptide ligands for human gamma delta T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 16; 91(17):8175-9.
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  124. Cirillo JD, Weisbrod TR, Banerjee A, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Genetic determination of the meso-diaminopimelate biosynthetic pathway of mycobacteria. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jul; 176(14):4424-9.
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  125. Alland D, Kalkut GE, Moss AR, McAdam RA, Hahn JA, Bosworth W, Drucker E, Bloom BR. Transmission of tuberculosis in New York City. An analysis by DNA fingerprinting and conventional epidemiologic methods. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jun 16; 330(24):1710-6.
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  126. Bloom BR, Jacobs WR, Clark-Curtiss JE. Leprosy vaccine. Nature. 1994 Apr 14; 368(6472):579.
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  127. Pascopella L, Collins FM, Martin JM, Lee MH, Hatfull GF, Stover CK, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Use of in vivo complementation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to identify a genomic fragment associated with virulence. Infect Immun. 1994 Apr; 62(4):1313-9.
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  128. Ohmen JD, Barnes PF, Grisso CL, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Evidence for a superantigen in human tuberculosis. Immunity. 1994 Apr; 1(1):35-43.
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  129. Cirillo JD, Weisbrod TR, Pascopella L, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Isolation and characterization of the aspartokinase and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase operon from mycobacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Feb; 11(4):629-39.
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  130. Connell ND, Medina-Acosta E, McMaster WR, Bloom BR, Russell DG. Effective immunization against cutaneous leishmaniasis with recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin expressing the Leishmania surface proteinase gp63. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15; 90(24):11473-7.
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  131. Flynn JL, Chan J, Triebold KJ, Dalton DK, Stewart TA, Bloom BR. An essential role for interferon gamma in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 1993 Dec 1; 178(6):2249-54.
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  132. Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Immune regulation: learning from leprosy. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1993 Nov 15; 28(11):71-4, 77-80, 83-4.
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  133. Schwarz EM, Salgame P, Bloom BR. Molecular regulation of human interleukin 2 and T-cell function by interleukin 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 15; 90(16):7734-8.
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  134. McDonough KA, Kress Y, Bloom BR. The interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with macrophages: a study of phagolysosome fusion. Infect Agents Dis. 1993 Aug; 2(4):232-5.
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  135. Flynn JL, Goldstein MM, Triebold KJ, Bloom BR. Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells are necessary for protection against M. tuberculosis in mice. Infect Agents Dis. 1993 Aug; 2(4):259-62.
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  136. Pascopella L, Collins FM, Martin JM, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Identification of a genomic fragment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis responsible for in vivo growth advantage. Infect Agents Dis. 1993 Aug; 2(4):282-4.
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  137. McDonough KA, Kress Y, Bloom BR. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis: interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with macrophages. Infect Immun. 1993 Jul; 61(7):2763-73.
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  138. Sieling PA, Abrams JS, Yamamura M, Salgame P, Bloom BR, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Immunosuppressive roles for IL-10 and IL-4 in human infection. In vitro modulation of T cell responses in leprosy. J Immunol. 1993 Jun 15; 150(12):5501-10.
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  139. Jacobs WR, Barletta RG, Udani R, Chan J, Kalkut G, Sosne G, Kieser T, Sarkis GJ, Hatfull GF, Bloom BR. Rapid assessment of drug susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by means of luciferase reporter phages. Science. 1993 May 7; 260(5109):819-22.
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  140. Cáceres-Dittmar G, Tapia FJ, Sánchez MA, Yamamura M, Uyemura K, Modlin RL, Bloom BR, Convit J. Determination of the cytokine profile in American cutaneous leishmaniasis using the polymerase chain reaction. Clin Exp Immunol. 1993 Mar; 91(3):500-5.
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  141. Flynn JL, Goldstein MM, Triebold KJ, Koller B, Bloom BR. Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells are required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 15; 89(24):12013-7.
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  142. Bloom BR, Murray CJ. Tuberculosis: commentary on a reemergent killer. Science. 1992 Aug 21; 257(5073):1055-64.
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  143. Yamamura M, Wang XH, Ohmen JD, Uyemura K, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Cytokine patterns of immunologically mediated tissue damage. J Immunol. 1992 Aug 15; 149(4):1470-5.
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  144. Bloom BR. Tuberculosis. Back to a frightening future. Nature. 1992 Aug 13; 358(6387):538-9.
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  145. Chan J, Xing Y, Magliozzo RS, Bloom BR. Killing of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reactive nitrogen intermediates produced by activated murine macrophages. J Exp Med. 1992 Apr 1; 175(4):1111-22.
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  146. Bloom BR, Salgame P, Diamond B. Revisiting and revising suppressor T cells. Immunol Today. 1992 Apr; 13(4):131-6.
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  147. Barnes PF, Mehra V, Rivoire B, Fong SJ, Brennan PJ, Voegtline MS, Minden P, Houghten RA, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Immunoreactivity of a 10-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 1992 Mar 15; 148(6):1835-40.
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  148. Convit J, Sampson C, Zúñiga M, Smith PG, Plata J, Silva J, Molina J, Pinardi ME, Bloom BR, Salgado A. Immunoprophylactic trial with combined Mycobacterium leprae/BCG vaccine against leprosy: preliminary results. Lancet. 1992 Feb 22; 339(8791):446-50.
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  149. Stover CK, de la Cruz VF, Bansal GP, Hanson MS, Fuerst TR, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Use of recombinant BCG as a vaccine delivery vehicle. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1992; 327:175-82.
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  150. Mehra V, Bloom BR, Bajardi AC, Grisso CL, Sieling PA, Alland D, Convit J, Fan XD, Hunter SW, Brennan PJ, et al. A major T cell antigen of Mycobacterium leprae is a 10-kD heat-shock cognate protein. J Exp Med. 1992 Jan 1; 175(1):275-84.
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  151. Barletta RG, Kim DD, Snapper SB, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Identification of expression signals of the mycobacteriophages Bxb1, L1 and TM4 using the Escherichia-Mycobacterium shuttle plasmids pYUB75 and pYUB76 designed to create translational fusions to the lacZ gene. J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Jan; 138(1):23-30.
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  152. Bloom BR, Modlin RL, Salgame P. Stigma variations: observations on suppressor T cells and leprosy. Annu Rev Immunol. 1992; 10:453-88.
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  153. Salgame P, Yamamura M, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Evidence for functional subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in human disease: lymphokine patterns in leprosy. Chem Immunol. 1992; 54:44-59.
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  154. Cirillo JD, Barletta RG, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. A novel transposon trap for mycobacteria: isolation and characterization of IS1096. J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec; 173(24):7772-80.
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  155. Sullivan L, Sano S, Pirmez C, Salgame P, Mueller C, Hofman F, Uyemura K, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Expression of adhesion molecules in leprosy lesions. Infect Immun. 1991 Nov; 59(11):4154-60.
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  156. Yamamura M, Uyemura K, Deans RJ, Weinberg K, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Defining protective responses to pathogens: cytokine profiles in leprosy lesions. Science. 1991 Oct 11; 254(5029):277-9.
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  157. Salgame P, Abrams JS, Clayberger C, Goldstein H, Convit J, Modlin RL, Bloom BR. Differing lymphokine profiles of functional subsets of human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones. Science. 1991 Oct 11; 254(5029):279-82.
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  158. Kalpana GV, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombination in mycobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 15; 88(12):5433-7.
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  159. Chan J, Fan XD, Hunter SW, Brennan PJ, Bloom BR. Lipoarabinomannan, a possible virulence factor involved in persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within macrophages. Infect Immun. 1991 May; 59(5):1755-61.
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  160. Salgame P, Convit J, Bloom BR. Immunological suppression by human CD8+ T cells is receptor dependent and HLA-DQ restricted. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 15; 88(6):2598-602.
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  161. Jacobs WR, Kalpana GV, Cirillo JD, Pascopella L, Snapper SB, Udani RA, Jones W, Barletta RG, Bloom BR. Genetic systems for mycobacteria. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 204:537-55.
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  162. Barletta RG, Snapper B, Cirillo JD, Connell ND, Kim DD, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Recombinant BCG as a candidate oral vaccine vector. Res Microbiol. 1990 Sep-Oct; 141(7-8):931-9.
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  163. Bloom BR. An ordinary mortal's guide to the molecular biology of mycobacteria. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1990 Jun; 58(2):365-75.
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  164. Goldberg M, Belkowski LS, Bloom BR. Regulation of macrophage function by interferon-gamma. Somatic cell genetic approaches in murine macrophage cell lines to mechanisms of growth inhibition, the oxidative burst, and expression of the chronic granulomatous disease gene. J Clin Invest. 1990 Feb; 85(2):563-9.
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  165. Jacobs WR, Snapper SB, Lugosi L, Bloom BR. Development of BCG as a recombinant vaccine vehicle. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1990; 155:153-60.
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  166. Bloom BR. Vaccines for the Third World. Nature. 1989 Nov 9; 342(6246):115-20.
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  167. Lugosi L, Jacobs WR, Bloom BR. Genetic transformation of BCG. Tubercle. 1989 Sep; 70(3):159-70.
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  168. Goldberg M, Belkowski LS, Bloom BR. Regulation of macrophage growth and antiviral activity by interferon-gamma. J Cell Biol. 1989 Sep; 109(3):1331-40.
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  169. Convit J, Castellanos PL, Ulrich M, Castés M, Rondón A, Pinardi ME, Rodríquez N, Bloom BR, Formica S, Valecillos L, et al. Immunotherapy of localized, intermediate, and diffuse forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jul; 160(1):104-15.
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  170. Modlin RL, Pirmez C, Hofman FM, Torigian V, Uyemura K, Rea TH, Bloom BR, Brenner MB. Lymphocytes bearing antigen-specific gamma delta T-cell receptors accumulate in human infectious disease lesions. Nature. 1989 Jun 15; 339(6225):544-8.
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  171. Cooper CL, Mueller C, Sinchaisri TA, Pirmez C, Chan J, Kaplan G, Young SM, Weissman IL, Bloom BR, Rea TH, et al. Analysis of naturally occurring delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in leprosy by in situ hybridization. J Exp Med. 1989 May 1; 169(5):1565-81.
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  172. Grosskinsky CM, Jacobs WR, Clark-Curtiss JE, Bloom BR. Genetic relationships among Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and candidate leprosy vaccine strains determined by DNA hybridization: identification of an M. leprae-specific repetitive sequence. Infect Immun. 1989 May; 57(5):1535-41.
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  173. Fan XD, Stark GR, Bloom BR. Molecular cloning of a gene selectively induced by gamma interferon from human macrophage cell line U937. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 May; 9(5):1922-8.
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  174. Mehra V, Bloom BR, Torigian VK, Mandich D, Reichel M, Young SM, Salgame P, Convit J, Hunter SW, McNeil M, et al. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae cell wall-associated proteins with the use of T lymphocyte clones. J Immunol. 1989 Apr 15; 142(8):2873-8.
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  175. Hunter SW, McNeil M, Modlin RL, Mehra V, Bloom BR, Brennan PJ. Isolation and characterization of the highly immunogenic cell wall-associated protein of Mycobacterium leprae. J Immunol. 1989 Apr 15; 142(8):2864-72.
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  176. Chan J, Fujiwara T, Brennan P, McNeil M, Turco SJ, Sibille JC, Snapper M, Aisen P, Bloom BR. Microbial glycolipids: possible virulence factors that scavenge oxygen radicals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Apr; 86(7):2453-7.
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  177. Jacobs WR, Snapper SB, Tuckman M, Bloom BR. Mycobacteriophage vector systems. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Mar-Apr; 11 Suppl 2:S404-10.
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  178. Bloom BR. New approaches to vaccine development. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Mar-Apr; 11 Suppl 2:S460-6.
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  179. Bloom BR, Salgame P, Mehra V, Kato H, Modlin R, Rea T, Brennan P, Convit J, Lugozi L, Snapper S, et al. Vaccine development. On relating immunology to the Third World: some studies on leprosy. Immunol Suppl. 1989; 2:87-9; discussion 91-2.
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  180. Salgame P, Modlin R, Bloom BR. On the mechanism of human T cell suppression. Int Immunol. 1989; 1(2):121-9.
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  181. Lugosi L, Jacobs W, Bloom BR. Transformation of BCG with plasmid DNA. Acta Leprol. 1989; 7 Suppl 1:256-7.
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  182. Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. New strategies for leprosy and tuberculosis and for development of bacillus Calmette-Guérin into a multivaccine vehicle. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989; 569:155-73.
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  183. Jacobs WR, Snapper SB, Lugosi L, Jekkel A, Melton RE, Kieser T, Bloom BR. Development of genetic systems for the mycobacteria. Acta Leprol. 1989; 7 Suppl 1:203-7.
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  184. Snapper SB, Lugosi L, Jekkel A, Melton RE, Kieser T, Bloom BR, Jacobs WR. Lysogeny and transformation in mycobacteria: stable expression of foreign genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Sep; 85(18):6987-91.
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  185. Fan XD, Goldberg M, Bloom BR. Interferon-gamma-induced transcriptional activation is mediated by protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jul; 85(14):5122-5.
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  186. Damiani G, Biano A, Beltrame A, Vismara D, Mezzopreti MF, Colizzi V, Young DB, Bloom BR. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to 28-, 35-, and 65-kilodalton proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 1988 May; 56(5):1281-7.
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  187. Melancon-Kaplan J, Hunter SW, McNeil M, Stewart C, Modlin RL, Rea TH, Convit J, Salgame P, Mehra V, Bloom BR, et al. Immunological significance of Mycobacterium leprae cell walls. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar; 85(6):1917-21.
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  188. Modlin RL, Melancon-Kaplan J, Young SM, Pirmez C, Kino H, Convit J, Rea TH, Bloom BR. Learning from lesions: patterns of tissue inflammation in leprosy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb; 85(4):1213-7.
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  189. Bloom BR, Mehra V, Melancon-Kaplan J, Castes M, Convit J, Brennan PJ, Rea TH, Modlin RL. Mechanisms of immunological unresponsiveness in the spectra of leprosy and leishmaniasis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988; 239:263-78.
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  190. Modlin RL, Brenner MB, Krangel MS, Duby AD, Bloom BR. T-cell receptors of human suppressor cells. Nature. 1987 Oct 8-14; 329(6139):541-5.
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  191. Bloom BR. Strengthening biomedical science and institutions. FASEB J. 1987 Sep; 1(3):175-6.
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  192. Jacobs WR, Tuckman M, Bloom BR. Introduction of foreign DNA into mycobacteria using a shuttle phasmid. Nature. 1987 Jun 11-17; 327(6122):532-5.
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  193. Buchanan TM, Nomaguchi H, Anderson DC, Young RA, Gillis TP, Britton WJ, Ivanyi J, Kolk AH, Closs O, Bloom BR, et al. Characterization of antibody-reactive epitopes on the 65-kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium leprae. Infect Immun. 1987 Apr; 55(4):1000-3.
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  194. Rager-Zisman B, Quan PC, Rosner M, Moller JR, Bloom BR. Role of NK cells in protection of mice against herpes simplex virus-1 infection. J Immunol. 1987 Feb 1; 138(3):884-8.
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  195. Modlin RL, Gersuk GM, Nelson EE, Pattengale PK, Gunter JR, Chen L, Cooper CL, Bloom BR, Rea TH. T-lymphocyte clones from leprosy skin lesions. Lepr Rev. 1986 Dec; 57 Suppl 2:143-7.
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  196. Modlin RL, Mehra V, Wong L, Fujimiya Y, Chang WC, Horwitz DA, Bloom BR, Rea TH, Pattengale PK. Suppressor T lymphocytes from lepromatous leprosy skin lesions. J Immunol. 1986 Nov 1; 137(9):2831-4.
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  197. Bloom BR. Learning from leprosy: a perspective on immunology and the Third World. J Immunol. 1986 Jul 1; 137(1):i-x.
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  198. Modlin RL, Kato H, Mehra V, Nelson EE, Fan XD, Rea TH, Pattengale PK, Bloom BR. Genetically restricted suppressor T-cell clones derived from lepromatous leprosy lesions. Nature. 1986 Jul 31-Aug 6; 322(6078):459-61.
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  199. Modlin RL, Mehra V, Jordan R, Bloom BR, Rea TH. In situ and in vitro characterization of the cellular immune response in erythema nodosum leprosum. J Immunol. 1986 Feb 1; 136(3):883-6.
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  200. Modlin RL, Tapia FJ, Bloom BR, Gallinoto ME, Castes M, Rondon AJ, Rea TH, Convit J. In situ characterization of the cellular immune response in American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1985 May; 60(2):241-8.
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  201. Kiyotaki C, Bloom BR. Activation of murine macrophage cell lines. Possible involvement of protein kinases in stimulation of superoxide production. J Immunol. 1984 Aug; 133(2):923-31.
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  202. Nagata Y, Rosen OM, Makman MH, Bloom BR. Biochemical analysis of mutants of a macrophage cell line resistant to the growth-inhibitory activity of interferon. J Cell Biol. 1984 Apr; 98(4):1342-7.
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  203. Kiyotaki C, Peisach J, Bloom BR. Oxygen metabolism in cloned macrophage cell lines: glucose dependence of superoxide production, metabolic and spectral analysis. J Immunol. 1984 Feb; 132(2):857-66.
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  204. Berry H, Bloom B, Fernandes L, Morris M. Comparison of timegadine and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. A placebo controlled trial. Clin Rheumatol. 1983 Dec; 2(4):357-61.
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  205. Bloom BR. Rationales for vaccines against leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1983 Dec; 51(4):505-9.
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  206. Tanaka Y, Tanowitz H, Bloom BR. Growth of Trypanosoma cruzi in a cloned macrophage cell line and in a variant defective in oxygen metabolism. Infect Immun. 1983 Sep; 41(3):1322-31.
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  207. Shouval D, Rager-Zisman B, Quan P, Shafritz DA, Bloom BR, Reid LM. Role in nude mice of interferon and natural killer cells in inhibiting the tumorigenicity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells infected with hepatitis B virus. J Clin Invest. 1983 Aug; 72(2):707-17.
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  208. Gundersen S, Funderud S, Bloom BR, Godal T. Natural killer cell activity is closely associated with a growth-inhibitory serum protein with protease-like activity. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand C. 1983 Apr; 91(2):137-45.
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  209. Uede T, Sandberg K, Bloom BR, Ishizaka K. IgE-binding factors from mouse T lymphocytes. I. Formation of IgE-binding factors by stimulation with homologous IgE and interferon. J Immunol. 1983 Feb; 130(2):649-54.
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  210. Rager-Zisman B, Brosnan CF, Bloom BR. Macrophage oxidative metabolism: a defense mechanism against virus infection? Adv Exp Med Biol. 1983; 162:489-95.
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  211. Mehra V, Convit J, Rubinstein A, Bloom BR. Activated suppressor T cells in leprosy. J Immunol. 1982 Nov; 129(5):1946-51.
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  212. Rager-Zisman B, Kunkel M, Tanaka Y, Bloom BR. Role of macrophage oxidative metabolism in resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. Infect Immun. 1982 Jun; 36(3):1229-37.
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  213. Quan PC, Ishizaka T, Bloom BR. Studies on the mechanism of NK cell lysis. J Immunol. 1982 Apr; 128(4):1786-91.
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  214. Schneck J, Rager-Zisman B, Rosen OM, Bloom BR. Genetic analysis of the role of cAMP in mediating effects of interferon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Mar; 79(6):1879-83.
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  215. Trischmann TM, Bloom BR. Genetics of murine resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect Immun. 1982 Feb; 35(2):546-51.
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  216. Yodoi J, Hirashima M, Bloom BR, Ishizaka K. Formation of IgE-binding factors by rat T lymphocytes. I. Induction of IgE-binding factors by poly I:C and interferon. J Immunol. 1981 Oct; 127(4):1579-85.
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  217. Brosnan CF, Bornstein MB, Bloom BR. The effects of macrophage depletion on the clinical and pathologic expression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 1981 Feb; 126(2):614-20.
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  218. Schneck J, Rosen OM, Diamond B, Bloom BR. Modulation of Fc-receptor expression and Fc-mediated phagocytosis in variants of a macrophage-like cell line. J Immunol. 1981 Feb; 126(2):745-9.
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  219. Damiani G, Kiyotaki C, Soeller W, Sasada M, Peisach J, Bloom BR. Macrophage variants in oxygen metabolism. J Exp Med. 1980 Oct 1; 152(4):808-22.
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  220. Mehra V, Mason LH, Rothman W, Reinherz E, Schlossman SF, Bloom BR. Delineation of a human T cell subset responsible for lepromin-induced suppression in leprosy patients. J Immunol. 1980 Sep; 125(3):1183-8.
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  221. Bloom BR. New approaches to macrophage function. Kekkaku. 1980 Aug; 55(8):389-91.
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  222. Bloom BR. The unspecificity of cellular reactions. J Immunol. 1980 Jun; 124(6):2527-9.
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  223. Shipley M, Berry H, Bloom B. A double-blind cross-over trial of indomethacin, fenoprofen and placebo in ankylosing spondylitis, with comments on patient assessment. Rheumatol Rehabil. 1980 May; 19(2):122-5.
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  224. Newman W, Diamond B, Flomenberg P, Scharff MD, Bloom BR. Response of a continuous macrophage-like cell line to MIF. J Immunol. 1979 Nov; 123(5):2292-7.
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  225. Mehra V, Mason LH, Fields JP, Bloom BR. Lepromin-induced suppressor cells in patients with leprosy. J Immunol. 1979 Oct; 123(4):1813-7.
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  226. Umetsu DT, Romano TJ, Bloom BR, Thorbecke GJ. Diminution by vesicular stomatitis virus of acute graft vs host mortality in mice. Cell Immunol. 1979 Sep 1; 46(2):416-21.
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  227. Bloom BR. Games parasites play: how parasites evade immune surveillance. Nature. 1979 May 3; 279(5708):21-6.
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  228. Mehra V, Bloom BR. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to Mycobacterium leprae in guinea pigs. Infect Immun. 1979 Mar; 23(3):787-94.
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  229. Diamond B, Bloom BR, Scharff MD. The Fc receptors of primary and cultured phagocytic cells studied with homogeneous antibodies. J Immunol. 1978 Oct; 121(4):1329-33.
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  230. Rosen N, Schneck J, Bloom BR, Rosen OM. Inhibition of plasminogen activator secretion by cyclic AMP in a macrophage-like cell line. J Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 1978 Oct; 4(5):345-58.
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  231. Neighbour PA, Rager-Zisman B, Bloom BR. Susceptibility of mice to acute and persistent measles infection. Infect Immun. 1978 Sep; 21(3):764-70.
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  232. Newman W, Gordon S, Hämmerling U, Senik A, Bloom BR. Production of migration inhibition factor (MIF) and an inducer of plasminogen activator (IPA) by subsets of T cells in MLC. J Immunol. 1978 Mar; 120(3):927-31.
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  233. Muschel RJ, Rosen N, Rosen OM, Bloom BR. Modulation of Fc-mediated phagocytosis by cyclic AMP and insulin in a macrophage-like cell line. J Immunol. 1977 Nov; 119(5):1813-20.
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  234. Stoner GL, Brosnan CF, Wisniewski HM, Bloom BR. Studies on demyelination by activated lymphocytes in the rabbit eye. I. Effects of a mononuclear cell infiltrate induced by products of activated lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1977 Jun; 118(6):2094-102.
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  235. Brosnan CF, Stoner GL, Bloom BR, Wisniewski HM. Studies on demyelination by activated lymphocytes in the rabbit eye. II. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated demyelination. J Immunol. 1977 Jun; 118(6):2103-10.
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  236. Kress Y, Tanowitz H, Bloom B, Wittner M. Trypanosoma cruzi: infection of normal and activated mouse macrophages. Exp Parasitol. 1977 Apr; 41(2):385-96.
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  237. Romano TJ, Nowakowski M, Bloom BR, Thorbecke GJ. Selective viral immunosuppression of the graft-versus-host reaction. J Exp Med. 1977 Mar 1; 145(3):666-75.
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  238. Bloom BR, Senik A, Stoner G, Ju G, Nowakowski M, Kano S, Jimenez L. Studies on the interactions between viruses and lymphocytes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1977; 41 Pt 1:73-83.
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  239. Bloom BR. Health research and developing nations. Hastings Cent Rep. 1976 Dec; 6(6):9-12.
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  240. Kano S, Bloom BR, Shreffler DC. Blocking of MLC stimulation by anti-Ia sera: studies with the virus plaque assay. J Immunol. 1976 Jul; 117(1):242-5.
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  241. Kress Y, Bloom BR, Wittner M, Rowen A, Tanowitz H. Resistance of Trypanosoma cruzi to killing by macrophages. Nature. 1975 Oct 2; 257(5525):394-6.
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  242. Bloom BR, Stoner G, Gaffney J, Shevach E, Green I. Production of migration inhibitory factor and lymphotoxin by non-T cells. Eur J Immunol. 1975 Mar; 5(3):218-20.
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  243. Wisniewski HM, Bloom BR. Experimental allergic optic neuritis (EAON) in the rabbit. A new model to study primary demyelinating diseases. J Neurol Sci. 1975 Feb; 24(2):257-63.
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  244. Wisniewski HM, Bloom BR. Primary demyelination as a nonspecific consequence of a cell-mediated immune reaction. J Exp Med. 1975 Feb 1; 141(2):346-59.
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  245. Rager-Zisman B, Bloom BR. Immunological destruction of herpes simplex virus I infected cells. Nature. 1974 Oct 11; 251(5475):542-3.
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  246. Henney CS, Gaffney J, Bloom BR. On the relation of products of activated lymphocytes to cell-mediated cytolysis. J Exp Med. 1974 Sep 1; 140(3):837-52.
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  247. Kano S, Bloom BR, Howe ML. Enumeration of activated thymus-derived lymphocytes by the virus plaque assay. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Aug; 70(8):2299-303.
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  248. Bloom BR. Does transfer factor act specifically or as an immunologic adjuvant? N Engl J Med. 1973 Apr 26; 288(17):908-9.
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  249. Nowakowski M, Feldman JD, Kano S, Bloom BR. The production of vesicular stomatitis virus by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and continuous lymphoblastoid lines. J Exp Med. 1973 Apr 1; 137(4):1042-59.
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  250. Sorg C, Bloom BR. Products of activated lymphocytes. I. The use of radiolabeling techniques in the characterization and partial purification of the migration inhibition factor of the guinea pig. J Exp Med. 1973 Jan 1; 137(1):148-70.
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  251. Maillard JL, Bloom BR. Adjuvants and in vitro antibody production. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1973; 29(0):567-71.
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  252. Bloom BR, Gaffney J, Jimenez L. Dissociation of MIF production and cell proliferation. J Immunol. 1972 Dec; 109(6):1395-8.
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  253. Suter L, Bloom BR, Wadsworth EM, Oettgen HF. Use of the macrophage migration inhibition test to monitor fractionation of soluble antigens of chemically induced sarcomas of inbred guinea pigs. J Immunol. 1972 Oct; 109(4):766-75.
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  254. Bloom BR, Maillard J, Gaffney J, Kano S, Shevach E, Green I. The virus plaque assay and the effector cell in cell-mediated immune reactions. Transplant Proc. 1972 Sep; 4(3):329-34.
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  255. Maillard J, Bloom BR. Immunological adjuvants and the mechanism of cell cooperation. J Exp Med. 1972 Jul 1; 136(1):185-90.
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  256. Jimenez L, Bloom BR. A kinetic approach to cellular interaction in delayed-type hypersensitivity. Cell Immunol. 1972 Feb; 3(2):172-85.
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  257. Bloom BR. Proceedings: The number and nature of tuberculin hypersensitive lymphocytes. Ann Sclavo. 1971 Nov-Dec; 13(6):758-67.
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  258. Bloom BR. In vitro methods in cell-mediated immunity in man. N Engl J Med. 1971 May 27; 284(21):1212-3.
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  259. Jimenez L, Bloom BR, Blume MR, Oettgen HF. On the number and nature of antigen-sensitive lymphocytes in the blood of delayed-hypersensitive human donors. J Exp Med. 1971 Apr 1; 133(4):740-51.
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  260. Baumal R, Bloom B, Scharff MD. Induction of long term lymphocyte lines from delayed hypersensitive human donors using specific antigen plus Epstein-Barr virus. Nat New Biol. 1971 Mar 3; 230(1):20-1.
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  261. Bloom BR. A potential method for enumerating antigen-sensitive cells in delayed hypersensitivity. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1971; 41(1):91-5.
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  262. Bloom BR. In vitro approaches to the mechanism of cell-mediated immune reactions. Adv Immunol. 1971; 13:101-208.
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  263. Bloom BR, Jimenez L. Migration inhibitory factor and the cellular basis of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Am J Pathol. 1970 Sep; 60(3):453-68.
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  264. Bloom BR, Jimenez L, Marcus PI. A plaque assay for enumerating antigen-sensitive cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity. J Exp Med. 1970 Jul 1; 132(1):16-30.
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  265. Bloom BR, Bennett B. Macrophages and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Semin Hematol. 1970 Apr; 7(2):215-24.
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  266. Bloom BR, Bennett B. Relation of the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1970 Feb 13; 169(1):258-65.
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  267. Bloom BR, Bennett B, Oettgen HF, McLean EP, Old LJ. Demonstration of delayed hypersensitivity to soluble antigens of chemically induced tumors by inhibition of macrophage migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Dec; 64(4):1176-80.
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  268. Bennett B, Bloom BR. Reactions in vivo and in vitro produced by a soluble substance associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Mar; 59(3):756-62.
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  269. Bennett B, Bloom BR. Studies on the migration inhibitory factor associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity: cytodynamics and specificity. Transplantation. 1967 Jul; 5(4):Suppl:996-1000.
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  270. Battisto JR, Bloom BR. Dual immunological unresponsiveness induced by cell membrane coupled hapten or antigen. Nature. 1966 Oct 8; 212(5058):156-7.
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  271. Bloom BR, Bennett B. Mechanism of a reaction in vitro associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity. Science. 1966 Jul 1; 153(3731):80-2.
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  272. Battisto JR, Bloom BR. Mechanism of immunologic unresponsiveness: a new approach. Fed Proc. 1966 Jan-Feb; 25(1):152-9.
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  273. JAQUET H, BLOOM B, CEBRA JJ. THE REDUCTIVE DISSOCIATION OF RABBIT IMMUNE GLOBULIN IN SODIUM DODECYLSULFATE. J Immunol. 1964 Jun; 92:991-1007.
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  274. BLOOM BR, HAMILTON LD, CHASE MW. EFFECTS OF MITOMYCIN C ON THE CELLULAR TRANSFER OF DELAYED-TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY IN THE GUINEA PIG. Nature. 1964 Feb 15; 201:689-91.
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  275. WEISMAN JI, BLOOM B. Anuria following phenylbutazone therapy. N Engl J Med. 1955 Jun 23; 252(25):1086-7.
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  276. MELTZER A, BLOOM B. Malignant testicular neoplasms in infancy; report of a case with six-year survival. N Engl J Med. 1947 Oct 2; 237(14):513-5.
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