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Clifford B. Saper, M.D.,PH.D.

TitleJames Jackson Putnam Professor of Neurology
InstitutionBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
DepartmentNeurology
AddressBeth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr
Neurology, Kirstein 406
330 Brookline Ave
Boston MA 02215
Phone617/667-2622
Fax617/975-5161
Other Positions
TitleHead of the Department of Neurology At the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
InstitutionBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
DepartmentNeurology


 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Saper CB. Restoration: Potential for compensatory changes in numbers of neurons in adult human brain. Ann Neurol. 2013 Dec; 74(6):762-4.
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  2. Celio MR, Babalian A, Ha QH, Eichenberger S, Clément L, Marti C, Saper CB. Efferent connections of the parvalbumin-positive (PV1) nucleus in the lateral hypothalamus of rodents. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Oct 1; 521(14):3133-53.
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  3. Celio MR, Babalian A, Ha QH, Eichenberger S, Clément L, Marti C, Saper CB. Efferent connections of the parvalbumin-positive (PV1) nucleus in the lateral hypothalamus of rodents. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Oct 1; 521(14):Spc1.
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  4. Saper CB, Pascual-Leone A, Pomeroy S, Koralnik I, Rutkove S, Samuels M, Saper C, Schlaug G, Schomer DL, Walsh CA, Young A. Message from the incoming editor. Ann Neurol. 2013 Sep; 74(3):A9-A10.
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  5. Saper CB, Scammell TE. Emerging therapeutics in sleep. Ann Neurol. 2013 Sep; 74(3):435-40.
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  6. Saper CB, Sehgal A. New perspectives on circadian rhythms and sleep. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Oct; 23(5):721-3.
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  7. Schenck CH, Montplaisir JY, Frauscher B, Hogl B, Gagnon JF, Postuma R, Sonka K, Jennum P, Partinen M, Arnulf I, Cochen de Cock V, Dauvilliers Y, Luppi PH, Heidbreder A, Mayer G, Sixel-Döring F, Trenkwalder C, Unger M, Young P, Wing YK, Ferini-Strambi L, Ferri R, Plazzi G, Zucconi M, Inoue Y, Iranzo A, Santamaria J, Bassetti C, Möller JC, Boeve BF, Lai YY, Pavlova M, Saper C, Schmidt P, Siegel JM, Singer C, St Louis E, Videnovic A, Oertel W. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: devising controlled active treatment studies for symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy-a consensus statement from the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group. Sleep Med. 2013 Aug; 14(8):795-806.
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  8. Ramaligam V, Chen MC, Saper CB, Lu J. Perspectives on the rapid eye movement sleep switch in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2013 Aug; 14(8):707-13.
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  9. Oishi Y, Williams RH, Agostinelli L, Arrigoni E, Fuller PM, Mochizuki T, Saper CB, Scammell TE. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 5; 33(23):9743-51.
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  10. Saper CB. The central circadian timing system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Oct; 23(5):747-51.
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  11. Kaur S, Pedersen NP, Yokota S, Hur EE, Fuller PM, Lazarus M, Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. Glutamatergic signaling from the parabrachial nucleus plays a critical role in hypercapnic arousal. J Neurosci. 2013 May 1; 33(18):7627-40.
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  12. Saper CB. The neurobiology of sleep. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013 Feb; 19(1 Sleep Disorders):19-31.
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  13. Vetrivelan R, Fuller PM, Yokota S, Lu J, Saper CB. Metabolic effects of chronic sleep restriction in rats. Sleep. 2012; 35(11):1511-20.
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  14. Lim AS, Chang AM, Shulman JM, Raj T, Chibnik LB, Cain SW, Rothamel K, Benoist C, Myers AJ, Czeisler CA, Buchman AS, Bennett DA, Duffy JF, Saper CB, De Jager PL. A common polymorphism near PER1 and the timing of human behavioral rhythms. Ann Neurol. 2012 Sep; 72(3):324-34.
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  15. Saper CB, Romanovsky AA, Scammell TE. Neural circuitry engaged by prostaglandins during the sickness syndrome. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Aug; 15(8):1088-95.
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  16. Bruinstroop E, Cano G, Vanderhorst VG, Cavalcante JC, Wirth J, Sena-Esteves M, Saper CB. Spinal projections of the A5, A6 (locus coeruleus), and A7 noradrenergic cell groups in rats. J Comp Neurol. 2012 Jun 15; 520(9):1985-2001.
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  17. Lim AS, Yu L, Costa MD, Leurgans SE, Buchman AS, Bennett DA, Saper CB. Increased fragmentation of rest-activity patterns is associated with a characteristic pattern of cognitive impairment in older individuals. Sleep. 2012 May; 35(5):633-40B.
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  18. Mészár Z, Girard F, Saper CB, Celio MR. The lateral hypothalamic parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV1) nucleus in rodents. J Comp Neurol. 2012 Mar 1; 520(4):798-815.
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  19. Hof PR, Saper CB. Passages 2012. J Comp Neurol. 2012 Jan 1; 520(1):1-5.
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  20. Lim AS, Yu L, Costa MD, Buchman AS, Bennett DA, Leurgans SE, Saper CB. Quantification of the fragmentation of rest-activity patterns in elderly individuals using a state transition analysis. Sleep. 2011 Nov; 34(11):1569-81.
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  21. Saper CB. Goodbye to Edward G. (Ted) Jones, MD, DPhil, 1939-2011. J Comp Neurol. 2011 Nov 1; 519(16):3125-7.
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  22. Lim AS, Saper CB. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and dementia. Ann Neurol. 2011 Nov; 70(5):677-9.
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  23. Eikermann M, Vetrivelan R, Grosse-Sundrup M, Henry ME, Hoffmann U, Yokota S, Saper CB, Chamberlin NL. The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is not required for isoflurane general anesthesia. Brain Res. 2011 Dec 2; 1426:30-7.
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  24. Parvizi J, Le S, Foster BL, Bourgeois B, Riviello JJ, Prenger E, Saper C, Kerrigan JF. Gelastic epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartomas: neuroanatomical analysis of brain lesions in 100 patients. Brain. 2011 Oct; 134(Pt 10):2960-8.
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  25. Fuller PM, Fuller P, Sherman D, Pedersen NP, Saper CB, Lu J. Reassessment of the structural basis of the ascending arousal system. J Comp Neurol. 2011 Apr 1; 519(5):933-56.
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  26. Saper CB. Animal behaviour: the nexus of sex and violence. Nature. 2011 Feb 10; 470(7333):179-81.
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  27. Saper CB, Fuller PM, Pedersen NP, Lu J, Scammell TE. Sleep state switching. Neuron. 2010 Dec 22; 68(6):1023-42.
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  28. Gompf HS, Mathai C, Fuller PM, Wood DA, Pedersen NP, Saper CB, Lu J. Locus ceruleus and anterior cingulate cortex sustain wakefulness in a novel environment. J Neurosci. 2010 Oct 27; 30(43):14543-51.
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  29. Saper CB, Lenkinski R. MR spectroscopy in translational neuroscience. J Comp Neurol. 2010 Oct 15; 518(20):4089-90.
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  30. Gautron L, Lazarus M, Scott MM, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Identifying the efferent projections of leptin-responsive neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus using a novel conditional tracing approach. J Comp Neurol. 2010 Jun 1; 518(11):2090-108.
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  31. Saper CB. A treasure trove of gene expression patterns. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Jun; 13(6):658-9.
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  32. Kataoka Y, Kalanithi PS, Grantz H, Schwartz ML, Saper C, Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM. Decreased number of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette syndrome. J Comp Neurol. 2010 Feb 1; 518(3):277-91.
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  33. Saper CB. The dance of the perivascular and endothelial cells: mechanisms of brain response to immune signaling. Neuron. 2010 Jan 14; 65(1):4-6.
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  34. Noseda R, Kainz V, Jakubowski M, Gooley JJ, Saper CB, Digre K, Burstein R. A neural mechanism for exacerbation of headache by light. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Feb; 13(2):239-45.
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  35. Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. The agony of the ecstasy: serotonin and obstructive sleep apnea. Neurology. 2009 Dec 8; 73(23):1947-8.
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  36. Arrigoni E, Lu J, Vetrivelan R, Saper CB. Long-term synaptic plasticity is impaired in rats with lesions of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2009 Dec 3; 30(11):2112-20.
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  37. Saper CB. Opening up the JCN toolbox. J Comp Neurol. 2009 Oct 20; 516(6):455.
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  38. Yoshida K, Li X, Cano G, Lazarus M, Saper CB. Parallel preoptic pathways for thermoregulation. J Neurosci. 2009 Sep 23; 29(38):11954-64.
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  39. Saper CB, Maunsell JH. The neuroscience peer review consortium. Brain Struct Funct. 2009 Sep; 213(4-5):359-61.
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  40. Fuller PM, Lu J, Saper CB. Standards of evidence in chronobiology: A response. J Circadian Rhythms. 2009; 7:9.
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  41. Saper CB, Maunsell JH. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Jun 19; 457(1):1-2.
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  42. Saper CB, Maunsell JH. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Neuroinformatics. 2009 Jun; 7(2):89-91.
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  43. Branco LG, Moreira TS, Guyenet PG, Lalley PM, Kawai A, Putnam RW, Chamberlin NL, Saper CB, Gourine AV, Kanamaru M, Homma I. Commentaries on Viewpoint: Central chemoreception is a complex system function that involves multiple brain stem sites. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Apr; 106(4):1467-70.
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  44. Bohland JW, Wu C, Barbas H, Bokil H, Bota M, Breiter HC, Cline HT, Doyle JC, Freed PJ, Greenspan RJ, Haber SN, Hawrylycz M, Herrera DG, Hilgetag CC, Huang ZJ, Jones A, Jones EG, Karten HJ, Kleinfeld D, Kötter R, Lester HA, Lin JM, Mensh BD, Mikula S, Panksepp J, Price JL, Safdieh J, Saper CB, Schiff ND, Schmahmann JD, Stillman BW, Svoboda K, Swanson LW, Toga AW, Van Essen DC, Watson JD, Mitra PP. A proposal for a coordinated effort for the determination of brainwide neuroanatomical connectivity in model organisms at a mesoscopic scale. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 Mar; 5(3):e1000334.
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  45. Jhou TC, Fields HL, Baxter MG, Saper CB, Holland PC. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine neurons, encodes aversive stimuli and inhibits motor responses. Neuron. 2009 Mar 12; 61(5):786-800.
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  46. Saper CB, Maunsell JH. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Neural Dev. 2009; 4:10.
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  47. Saper CB. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Exp Neurol. 2009 Mar; 216(1):1-2.
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  48. Saper CB. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Mar; 33(3):313-4.
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  49. Saper CB, Maunsell JH. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Eur J Neurosci. 2009 Feb; 29(3):435-6.
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  50. Saper CB, Maunsell JH. Neuroendocrinologies membership of the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. Neuroendocrinology. 2009; 89(1):1-2.
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  51. Saper CB, Maunsell JH, Sagvolden T. The neuroscience peer review consortium. Behav Brain Funct. 2009; 5:4.
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  52. Vardeh D, Wang D, Costigan M, Lazarus M, Saper CB, Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald GA, Samad TA. COX2 in CNS neural cells mediates mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009 Feb; 119(2):287-94.
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  53. Orser BA, Saper CB. Multimodal anesthesia and systems neuroscience: the new frontier. Anesthesiology. 2008 Dec; 109(6):948-50.
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  54. Saper CB. A guide to the perplexed on the specificity of antibodies. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009 Jan; 57(1):1-5.
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  55. Cano G, Mochizuki T, Saper CB. Neural circuitry of stress-induced insomnia in rats. J Neurosci. 2008 Oct 1; 28(40):10167-84.
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  56. Pedersen NP, Fuller PM, Lu J, Saper CB. In the flicker of an eye. J Physiol. 2008 Jul 15; 586(14):3305-6.
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  57. Lu J, Nelson LE, Franks N, Maze M, Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. Role of endogenous sleep-wake and analgesic systems in anesthesia. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Jun 1; 508(4):648-62.
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  58. Fuller PM, Lu J, Saper CB. Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Science. 2008 May 23; 320(5879):1074-7.
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  59. Tsuchiya H, Oka T, Nakamura K, Ichikawa A, Saper CB, Sugimoto Y. Prostaglandin E2 attenuates preoptic expression of GABAA receptors via EP3 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 18; 283(16):11064-71.
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  60. Gooley JJ, Saper CB. Is food-directed behavior an appropriate measure of circadian entrainment to restricted daytime feeding? J Biol Rhythms. 2007 Dec; 22(6):479-83.
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  61. Fuller PM, Saper CB, Lu J. The pontine REM switch: past and present. J Physiol. 2007 Nov 1; 584(Pt 3):735-41.
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  62. Lazarus M, Yoshida K, Coppari R, Bass CE, Mochizuki T, Lowell BB, Saper CB. EP3 prostaglandin receptors in the median preoptic nucleus are critical for fever responses. Nat Neurosci. 2007 Sep; 10(9):1131-3.
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  63. Saper CB. In living color. J Comp Neurol. 2007 May 10; 502(2):173-4.
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  64. Boeve BF, Silber MH, Saper CB, Ferman TJ, Dickson DW, Parisi JE, Benarroch EE, Ahlskog JE, Smith GE, Caselli RC, Tippman-Peikert M, Olson EJ, Lin SC, Young T, Wszolek Z, Schenck CH, Mahowald MW, Castillo PR, Del Tredici K, Braak H. Pathophysiology of REM sleep behaviour disorder and relevance to neurodegenerative disease. Brain. 2007 Nov; 130(Pt 11):2770-88.
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  65. Sukhotinsky I, Zalkind V, Lu J, Hopkins DA, Saper CB, Devor M. Neural pathways associated with loss of consciousness caused by intracerebral microinjection of GABA A-active anesthetics. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Mar; 25(5):1417-36.
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  66. Scammell TE, Saper CB. Orexins: looking forward to sleep, back at addiction. Nat Med. 2007 Feb; 13(2):126-8.
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  67. Saper CB, Fuller PM. Inducible clocks: living in an unpredictable world. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2007; 72:543-50.
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  68. Fuller PM, Gooley JJ, Saper CB. Neurobiology of the sleep-wake cycle: sleep architecture, circadian regulation, and regulatory feedback. J Biol Rhythms. 2006 Dec; 21(6):482-93.
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  69. Saper CB. Biomedicine. Life, the universe, and body temperature. Science. 2006 Nov 3; 314(5800):773-4.
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  70. Sukhotinsky I, Reiner K, Govrin-Lippmann R, Belenky M, Lu J, Hopkins DA, Saper CB, Devor M. Projections from the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area to regions involved in pain modulation. J Chem Neuroanat. 2006 Dec; 32(2-4):159-78.
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  71. Saper CB. No place for secrets in scientific research. Nature. 2006 Jul 27; 442(7101):353.
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  72. Lu J, Sherman D, Devor M, Saper CB. A putative flip-flop switch for control of REM sleep. Nature. 2006 Jun 1; 441(7093):589-94.
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  73. Cheshire WP, Saper CB. The insular cortex and cardiac response to stroke. Neurology. 2006 May 9; 66(9):1296-7.
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  74. Boeve BF, Saper CB. REM sleep behavior disorder: a possible early marker for synucleinopathies. Neurology. 2006 Mar 28; 66(6):796-7.
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  75. Arrigoni E, Chamberlin NL, Saper CB, McCarley RW. Adenosine inhibits basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in vitro. Neuroscience. 2006 Jun 30; 140(2):403-13.
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  76. Gooley JJ, Schomer A, Saper CB. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is critical for the expression of food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Mar; 9(3):398-407.
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  77. Zigman JM, Jones JE, Lee CE, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Expression of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the rat and the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Jan 20; 494(3):528-48.
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  78. Lu J, Jhou TC, Saper CB. Identification of wake-active dopaminergic neurons in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter. J Neurosci. 2006 Jan 4; 26(1):193-202.
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  79. Saper CB. Staying awake for dinner: hypothalamic integration of sleep, feeding, and circadian rhythms. Prog Brain Res. 2006; 153:243-52.
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  80. Saper CB. An open letter to our readers on the use of antibodies. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Dec 26; 493(4):477-8.
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  81. Saper CB, Cano G, Scammell TE. Homeostatic, circadian, and emotional regulation of sleep. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Dec 5; 493(1):92-8.
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  82. Stickgold R. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature. 2005 Oct 27; 437(7063):1272-8.
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  83. Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005 Oct 27; 437(7063):1257-63.
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  84. Tarulli AW, Lim C, Bui JD, Saper CB, Alexander MP. Central neurogenic hyperventilation: a case report and discussion of pathophysiology. Arch Neurol. 2005 Oct; 62(10):1632-4.
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  85. Scammell TE, Saper CB. Orexin, drugs and motivated behaviors. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Oct; 8(10):1286-8.
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  86. Crocker A, España RA, Papadopoulou M, Saper CB, Faraco J, Sakurai T, Honda M, Mignot E, Scammell TE. Concomitant loss of dynorphin, NARP, and orexin in narcolepsy. Neurology. 2005 Oct 25; 65(8):1184-8.
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  87. Sukhotinsky I, Hopkins DA, Lu J, Saper CB, Devor M. Movement suppression during anesthesia: neural projections from the mesopontine tegmentum to areas involved in motor control. J Comp Neurol. 2005 Sep 5; 489(4):425-48.
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  88. Holt DJ, Bachus SE, Hyde TM, Wittie M, Herman MM, Vangel M, Saper CB, Kleinman JE. Reduced density of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral striatum in schizophrenia: an in situ hybridization study. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Sep 1; 58(5):408-16.
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  89. Kalanithi PS, Zheng W, Kataoka Y, DiFiglia M, Grantz H, Saper CB, Schwartz ML, Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM. Altered parvalbumin-positive neuron distribution in basal ganglia of individuals with Tourette syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 13; 102(37):13307-12.
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  90. Saper CB, Lu J, Chou TC, Gooley J. The hypothalamic integrator for circadian rhythms. Trends Neurosci. 2005 Mar; 28(3):152-7.
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  91. Arrigoni E, Crocker AJ, Saper CB, Greene RW, Scammell TE. Deletion of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors impairs the recovery of synaptic transmission after hypoxia. Neuroscience. 2005; 132(3):575-80.
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  92. Yoshida K, Konishi M, Nagashima K, Saper CB, Kanosue K. Fos activation in hypothalamic neurons during cold or warm exposure: projections to periaqueductal gray matter. Neuroscience. 2005; 133(4):1039-46.
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  93. Chou TC, Rotman SR, Saper CB. Lateral hypothalamic acetylcholinesterase-immunoreactive neurons co-express either orexin or melanin concentrating hormone. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Nov 11; 370(2-3):123-6.
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  94. Gerashchenko D, Chou TC, Blanco-Centurion CA, Saper CB, Shiromani PJ. Effects of lesions of the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus on spontaneous sleep in rats. Sleep. 2004 Nov 1; 27(7):1275-81.
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  95. Kelly JF, Elias CF, Lee CE, Ahima RS, Seeley RJ, Bjørbaek C, Oka T, Saper CB, Flier JS, Elmquist JK. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and leptin induce distinct patterns of immediate early gene expression in the brain. Diabetes. 2004 Apr; 53(4):911-20.
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  96. Saper CB, Scammell TE. Modafinil: a drug in search of a mechanism. Sleep. 2004 Feb 1; 27(1):11-2.
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  97. Matheson JK, Saper CB. REM sleep behavior disorder: a dopaminergic deficiency disorder? Neurology. 2003 Nov 25; 61(10):1328-9.
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  98. Chou TC, Scammell TE, Gooley JJ, Gaus SE, Saper CB, Lu J. Critical role of dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in a wide range of behavioral circadian rhythms. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 19; 23(33):10691-702.
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  99. Saper CB, Sawchenko PE. Magic peptides, magic antibodies: guidelines for appropriate controls for immunohistochemistry. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Oct 13; 465(2):161-3.
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  100. Zhang YH, Lu J, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Specific roles of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced fever and Fos expression in rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Aug 11; 463(1):3-12.
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  101. Gooley JJ, Lu J, Fischer D, Saper CB. A broad role for melanopsin in nonvisual photoreception. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 6; 23(18):7093-106.
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  102. Scammell TE, Arrigoni E, Thompson MA, Ronan PJ, Saper CB, Greene RW. Focal deletion of the adenosine A1 receptor in adult mice using an adeno-associated viral vector. J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 2; 23(13):5762-70.
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  103. Oka T, Oka K, Kobayashi T, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S, Saper CB. Characteristics of thermoregulatory and febrile responses in mice deficient in prostaglandin EP1 and EP3 receptors. J Physiol. 2003 Sep 15; 551(Pt 3):945-54.
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  104. Oka T, Oka K, Saper CB. Contrasting effects of E type prostaglandin (EP) receptor agonists on core body temperature in rats. Brain Res. 2003 Apr 11; 968(2):256-62.
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  105. Kishi T, Aschkenasi CJ, Lee CE, Mountjoy KG, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Expression of melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA in the central nervous system of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Mar 10; 457(3):213-35.
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  106. Nelson LE, Lu J, Guo T, Saper CB, Franks NP, Maze M. The alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine converges on an endogenous sleep-promoting pathway to exert its sedative effects. Anesthesiology. 2003 Feb; 98(2):428-36.
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  107. Torrealba F, Yanagisawa M, Saper CB. Colocalization of orexin a and glutamate immunoreactivity in axon terminals in the tuberomammillary nucleus in rats. Neuroscience. 2003; 119(4):1033-44.
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  108. Chamberlin NL, Arrigoni E, Chou TC, Scammell TE, Greene RW, Saper CB. Effects of adenosine on gabaergic synaptic inputs to identified ventrolateral preoptic neurons. Neuroscience. 2003; 119(4):913-8.
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  109. Saper CB, Chou TC, Elmquist JK. The need to feed: homeostatic and hedonic control of eating. Neuron. 2002 Oct 10; 36(2):199-211.
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  110. Nelson LE, Guo TZ, Lu J, Saper CB, Franks NP, Maze M. The sedative component of anesthesia is mediated by GABA(A) receptors in an endogenous sleep pathway. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Oct; 5(10):979-84.
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  111. Yamamoto H, Lee CE, Marcus JN, Williams TD, Overton JM, Lopez ME, Hollenberg AN, Baggio L, Saper CB, Drucker DJ, Elmquist JK. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation increases blood pressure and heart rate and activates autonomic regulatory neurons. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul; 110(1):43-52.
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  112. Lu J, Bjorkum AA, Xu M, Gaus SE, Shiromani PJ, Saper CB. Selective activation of the extended ventrolateral preoptic nucleus during rapid eye movement sleep. J Neurosci. 2002 Jun 1; 22(11):4568-76.
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  113. Saper CB. The central autonomic nervous system: conscious visceral perception and autonomic pattern generation. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002; 25:433-69.
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  114. Chou TC, Bjorkum AA, Gaus SE, Lu J, Scammell TE, Saper CB. Afferents to the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 1; 22(3):977-90.
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  115. Gaus SE, Strecker RE, Tate BA, Parker RA, Saper CB. Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic neurons in multiple mammalian species. Neuroscience. 2002; 115(1):285-94.
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  116. Gooley JJ, Lu J, Chou TC, Scammell TE, Saper CB. Melanopsin in cells of origin of the retinohypothalamic tract. Nat Neurosci. 2001 Dec; 4(12):1165.
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  117. Saper CB, Chou TC, Scammell TE. The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends Neurosci. 2001 Dec; 24(12):726-31.
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  118. Griffin JD, Saper CB, Boulant JA. Synaptic and morphological characteristics of temperature-sensitive and -insensitive rat hypothalamic neurones. J Physiol. 2001 Dec 1; 537(Pt 2):521-35.
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  119. Chou TC, Lee CE, Lu J, Elmquist JK, Hara J, Willie JT, Beuckmann CT, Chemelli RM, Sakurai T, Yanagisawa M, Saper CB, Scammell TE. Orexin (hypocretin) neurons contain dynorphin. J Neurosci. 2001 Oct 1; 21(19):RC168.
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  120. Malick A, Jakubowski M, Elmquist JK, Saper CB, Burstein R. A neurohistochemical blueprint for pain-induced loss of appetite. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 14; 98(17):9930-5.
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  121. Lu J, Zhang YH, Chou TC, Gaus SE, Elmquist JK, Shiromani P, Saper CB. Contrasting effects of ibotenate lesions of the paraventricular nucleus and subparaventricular zone on sleep-wake cycle and temperature regulation. J Neurosci. 2001 Jul 1; 21(13):4864-74.
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  122. Scammell TE, Nishino S, Mignot E, Saper CB. Narcolepsy and low CSF orexin (hypocretin) concentration after a diencephalic stroke. Neurology. 2001 Jun 26; 56(12):1751-3.
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  123. Marcus JN, Aschkenasi CJ, Lee CE, Chemelli RM, Saper CB, Yanagisawa M, Elmquist JK. Differential expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2001 Jun 18; 435(1):6-25.
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  124. Elias CF, Lee CE, Kelly JF, Ahima RS, Kuhar M, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Characterization of CART neurons in the rat and human hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2001 Mar 26; 432(1):1-19.
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  125. Estabrooke IV, McCarthy MT, Ko E, Chou TC, Chemelli RM, Yanagisawa M, Saper CB, Scammell TE. Fos expression in orexin neurons varies with behavioral state. J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 1; 21(5):1656-62.
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  126. Saper CB. Passages 2001. J Comp Neurol. 2001 Jan 1; 429(1):1-6.
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  127. Scammell TE, Gerashchenko DY, Mochizuki T, McCarthy MT, Estabrooke IV, Sears CA, Saper CB, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. An adenosine A2a agonist increases sleep and induces Fos in ventrolateral preoptic neurons. Neuroscience. 2001; 107(4):653-63.
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  128. Oka T, Oka K, Scammell TE, Lee C, Kelly JF, Nantel F, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Relationship of EP(1-4) prostaglandin receptors with rat hypothalamic cell groups involved in lipopolysaccharide fever responses. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Dec 4; 428(1):20-32.
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  129. Scammell TE, Estabrooke IV, McCarthy MT, Chemelli RM, Yanagisawa M, Miller MS, Saper CB. Hypothalamic arousal regions are activated during modafinil-induced wakefulness. J Neurosci. 2000 Nov 15; 20(22):8620-8.
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  130. Zhang YH, Lu J, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Lipopolysaccharide activates specific populations of hypothalamic and brainstem neurons that project to the spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2000 Sep 1; 20(17):6578-86.
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  131. Elias CF, Kelly JF, Lee CE, Ahima RS, Drucker DJ, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Chemical characterization of leptin-activated neurons in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jul 24; 423(2):261-81.
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  132. Manoach DS, Gollub RL, Benson ES, Searl MM, Goff DC, Halpern E, Saper CB, Rauch SL. Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jul 15; 48(2):99-109.
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  133. Ahima RS, Saper CB, Flier JS, Elmquist JK. Leptin regulation of neuroendocrine systems. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2000 Jul; 21(3):263-307.
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  134. Lu J, Greco MA, Shiromani P, Saper CB. Effect of lesions of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on NREM and REM sleep. J Neurosci. 2000 May 15; 20(10):3830-42.
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  135. Saper CB. Passages 2000 J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jan 3; 416(1):1-5.
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  136. Saper CB. Pain as a visceral sensation. Prog Brain Res. 2000; 122:237-43.
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  137. Saper CB. Hypothalamic connections with the cerebral cortex. Prog Brain Res. 2000; 126:39-48.
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  138. Mayer E, Saper CB. Minding the mind. Prog Brain Res. 2000; 122:3-8.
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  139. de Lacalle S, Saper CB. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity marks putative visceral sensory pathways in human brain. Neuroscience. 2000; 100(1):115-30.
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  140. Saper CB. Image is everything. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Sep 27; 412(3):381-2.
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  141. Saper CB. Scientific conduct and publication: the Journal takes a stand. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Aug 23; 411(2):179-80.
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  142. Chemelli RM, Willie JT, Sinton CM, Elmquist JK, Scammell T, Lee C, Richardson JA, Williams SC, Xiong Y, Kisanuki Y, Fitch TE, Nakazato M, Hammer RE, Saper CB, Yanagisawa M. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell. 1999 Aug 20; 98(4):437-51.
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  143. Saper CB. What's in a citation impact factor? A journal by any other measure. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Aug 16; 411(1):1-2.
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  144. Elias CF, Aschkenasi C, Lee C, Kelly J, Ahima RS, Bjorbaek C, Flier JS, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Leptin differentially regulates NPY and POMC neurons projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area. Neuron. 1999 Aug; 23(4):775-86.
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  145. Saper CB. Reply Trends Neurosci. 1999 Aug; 22(8):347.
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  146. Saper CB. 'Like a thief in the night': the selectivity of degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1999 Aug; 122 ( Pt 8):1401-2.
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  147. Chamberlin NL, Mansour A, Watson SJ, Saper CB. Localization of mu-opioid receptors on amygdaloid projection neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of the rat. Brain Res. 1999 May 8; 827(1-2):198-204.
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  148. Manoach DS, Press DZ, Thangaraj V, Searl MM, Goff DC, Halpern E, Saper CB, Warach S. Schizophrenic subjects activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task, as measured by fMRI. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 May 1; 45(9):1128-37.
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  149. Saper CB. Clinical problem-solving: diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 1; 340(13):1047-8; author reply 1048-9.
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  150. Manaye KF, Zweig R, Wu D, Hersh LB, De Lacalle S, Saper CB, German DC. Quantification of cholinergic and select non-cholinergic mesopontine neuronal populations in the human brain. Neuroscience. 1999 Mar; 89(3):759-70.
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  151. Elmquist JK, Elias CF, Saper CB. From lesions to leptin: hypothalamic control of food intake and body weight. Neuron. 1999 Feb; 22(2):221-32.
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  152. Gorson KC, Ropper AH, Adelman LS, Raynor EM, Saper CB. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy: pathological evidence of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 1999 Feb; 22(2):266-70.
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  153. Lu J, Shiromani P, Saper CB. Retinal input to the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic nucleus in the rat. Neuroscience. 1999; 93(1):209-14.
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  154. Holt DJ, Herman MM, Hyde TM, Kleinman JE, Sinton CM, German DC, Hersh LB, Graybiel AM, Saper CB. Evidence for a deficit in cholinergic interneurons in the striatum in schizophrenia. Neuroscience. 1999; 94(1):21-31.
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  155. Elias CF, Saper CB, Maratos-Flier E, Tritos NA, Lee C, Kelly J, Tatro JB, Hoffman GE, Ollmann MM, Barsh GS, Sakurai T, Yanagisawa M, Elmquist JK. Chemically defined projections linking the mediobasal hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic area. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Dec 28; 402(4):442-59.
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  156. Elias CF, Lee C, Kelly J, Aschkenasi C, Ahima RS, Couceyro PR, Kuhar MJ, Saper CB, Elmquist JK. Leptin activates hypothalamic CART neurons projecting to the spinal cord. Neuron. 1998 Dec; 21(6):1375-85.
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  157. Elmquist JK, Maratos-Flier E, Saper CB, Flier JS. Unraveling the central nervous system pathways underlying responses to leptin. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Oct; 1(6):445-50.
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  158. Saper CB. Neurobiological basis of fever. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Sep 29; 856:90-4.
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  159. Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. A brainstem network mediating apneic reflexes in the rat. J Neurosci. 1998 Aug 1; 18(15):6048-56.
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  160. Schachter SC, Saper CB. Vagus nerve stimulation. Epilepsia. 1998 Jul; 39(7):677-86.
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  161. Scammell T, Gerashchenko D, Urade Y, Onoe H, Saper C, Hayaishi O. Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons by the somnogen prostaglandin D2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 23; 95(13):7754-9.
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  162. Elmquist JK, Bjørbaek C, Ahima RS, Flier JS, Saper CB. Distributions of leptin receptor mRNA isoforms in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Jun 15; 395(4):535-47.
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  163. Sherin JE, Elmquist JK, Torrealba F, Saper CB. Innervation of histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons by GABAergic and galaninergic neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the rat. J Neurosci. 1998 Jun 15; 18(12):4705-21.
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  164. Chamberlin NL, Du B, de Lacalle S, Saper CB. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector: use for transgene expression and anterograde tract tracing in the CNS. Brain Res. 1998 May 18; 793(1-2):169-75.
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  165. Scammell TE, Griffin JD, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Microinjection of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor into the anteroventral preoptic region attenuates LPS fever. Am J Physiol. 1998 Mar; 274(3 Pt 2):R783-9.
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  166. Saper CB. "All fall down": the mechanism of orthostatic hypotension in multiple systems atrophy and Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1998 Feb; 43(2):149-51.
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  167. Elmquist JK, Ahima RS, Elias CF, Flier JS, Saper CB. Leptin activates distinct projections from the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jan 20; 95(2):741-6.
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  168. Basheer R, Sherin JE, Saper CB, Morgan JI, McCarley RW, Shiromani PJ. Effects of sleep on wake-induced c-fos expression. J Neurosci. 1997 Dec 15; 17(24):9746-50.
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  169. Elmquist JK, Scammell TE, Saper CB. Mechanisms of CNS response to systemic immune challenge: the febrile response. Trends Neurosci. 1997 Dec; 20(12):565-70.
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  170. Lim C, Mufson EJ, Kordower JH, Blume HW, Madsen JR, Saper CB. Connections of the hippocampal formation in humans: II. The endfolial fiber pathway. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Sep 1; 385(3):352-71.
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  171. Lim C, Blume HW, Madsen JR, Saper CB. Connections of the hippocampal formation in humans: I. The mossy fiber pathway. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Sep 1; 385(3):325-51.
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  172. Holt DJ, Graybiel AM, Saper CB. Neurochemical architecture of the human striatum. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Jul 21; 384(1):1-25.
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  173. Elmquist JK, Breder CD, Sherin JE, Scammell TE, Hickey WF, Dewitt D, Saper CB. Intravenous lipopolysaccharide induces cyclooxygenase 2-like immunoreactivity in rat brain perivascular microglia and meningeal macrophages. J Comp Neurol. 1997 May 5; 381(2):119-29.
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  174. Elmquist JK, Ahima RS, Maratos-Flier E, Flier JS, Saper CB. Leptin activates neurons in ventrobasal hypothalamus and brainstem. Endocrinology. 1997 Feb; 138(2):839-42.
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  175. Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Activation of neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by intravenous lipopolysaccharide. J Comp Neurol. 1996 Oct 21; 374(3):315-31.
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  176. Nelson PT, Stefansson K, Gulcher J, Saper CB. Molecular evolution of tau protein: implications for Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem. 1996 Oct; 67(4):1622-32.
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  177. Scammell TE, Elmquist JK, Griffin JD, Saper CB. Ventromedial preoptic prostaglandin E2 activates fever-producing autonomic pathways. J Neurosci. 1996 Oct 1; 16(19):6246-54.
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  178. Holt DJ, Hersh LB, Saper CB. Cholinergic innervation in the human striatum: a three-compartment model. Neuroscience. 1996 Sep; 74(1):67-87.
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  179. Scammell TE, Elmquist JK, Saper CB. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase produces hypothermia and depresses lipopolysaccharide fever. Am J Physiol. 1996 Aug; 271(2 Pt 2):R333-8.
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  180. Elmquist JK, Scammell TE, Jacobson CD, Saper CB. Distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain following intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration. J Comp Neurol. 1996 Jul 15; 371(1):85-103.
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  181. Nelson PT, Saper CB. Injections of okadaic acid, but not beta-amyloid peptide, induce Alz-50 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in the cerebral cortex of sheep. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Apr 19; 208(2):77-80.
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  182. Breder CD, Saper CB. Expression of inducible cyclooxygenase mRNA in the mouse brain after systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Brain Res. 1996 Mar 25; 713(1-2):64-9.
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  183. Sherin JE, Shiromani PJ, McCarley RW, Saper CB. Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons during sleep. Science. 1996 Jan 12; 271(5246):216-9.
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  184. Saper CB. Any way you cut it: a new journal policy for the use of unbiased counting methods. J Comp Neurol. 1996 Jan 1; 364(1):5.
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  185. Saper CB. Role of the cerebral cortex and striatum in emotional motor response. Prog Brain Res. 1996; 107:537-50.
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  186. Holstege G, Bandler R, Saper CB. The emotional motor system. Prog Brain Res. 1996; 107:3-6.
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  187. Saper CB. Nicotine addiction in young people. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 2; 333(18):1225-6.
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  188. Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. Differential distribution of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor subunits in the parabrachial nucleus of the rat. Neuroscience. 1995 Sep; 68(2):435-43.
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  189. Saper CB. Of hearts and minds: natriuretic peptides in the brain. J Comp Neurol. 1995 May 29; 356(2):166-7.
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  190. Nelson PT, Saper CB. Ultrastructure of neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex of sheep. Neurobiol Aging. 1995 May-Jun; 16(3):315-23.
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  191. Saper CB. The spinoparabrachial pathway: shedding new light on an old path. J Comp Neurol. 1995 Mar 20; 353(4):477-9.
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  192. Breder CD, Hazuka C, Ghayur T, Klug C, Huginin M, Yasuda K, Teng M, Saper CB. Regional induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in the mouse brain after systemic lipopolysaccharide administration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Nov 22; 91(24):11393-7.
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  193. Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. Topographic organization of respiratory responses to glutamate microstimulation of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Neurosci. 1994 Nov; 14(11 Pt 1):6500-10.
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  194. Moga MM, Saper CB. Neuropeptide-immunoreactive neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1994 Aug 1; 346(1):137-50.
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  195. De Lacalle S, Lim C, Sobreviela T, Mufson EJ, Hersh LB, Saper CB. Cholinergic innervation in the human hippocampal formation including the entorhinal cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1994 Jul 15; 345(3):321-44.
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  196. Saper CB, Breder CD. The neurologic basis of fever. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jun 30; 330(26):1880-6.
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  197. Nelson PT, Greenberg SG, Saper CB. Neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex of sheep. Neurosci Lett. 1994 Mar 28; 170(1):187-90.
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  198. Breder CD, Tsujimoto M, Terano Y, Scott DW, Saper CB. Distribution and characterization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-like immunoreactivity in the murine central nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Nov 22; 337(4):543-67.
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  199. Saper CB. Limitations of morphological studies in human brain: opportunities for studies in nonhuman primates. Neurobiol Aging. 1993 Nov-Dec; 14(6):705-6.
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  200. Iwasaki Y, Gaskill MB, Fu R, Saper CB, Robertson GL. Opioid antagonist diprenorphine microinjected into parabrachial nucleus selectively inhibits vasopressin response to hypovolemic stimuli in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1993 Nov; 92(5):2230-9.
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  201. Bennett DA, Cochran EJ, Saper CB, Leverenz JB, Gilley DW, Wilson RS. Pathological changes in frontal cortex from biopsy to autopsy in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 1993 Nov-Dec; 14(6):589-96.
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  202. Rye DB, Leverenz J, Greenberg SG, Davies P, Saper CB. The distribution of Alz-50 immunoreactivity in the normal human brain. Neuroscience. 1993 Sep; 56(1):109-27.
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  203. de Lacalle S, Hersh LB, Saper CB. Cholinergic innervation of the human cerebellum. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Feb 15; 328(3):364-76.
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  204. Nelson PT, Marton L, Saper CB. Alz-50 immunohistochemistry in the normal sheep striatum: a light and electron microscope study. Brain Res. 1993 Jan 15; 600(2):285-97.
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  205. Saper CB. On not-so-simple tests of simple hypotheses: a commentary on the review and model system by De Lacoste and White. Neurobiol Aging. 1993 Jan-Feb; 14(1):49-50; discussion 55-6.
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  206. Chamberlin NL, Saper CB. Topographic organization of cardiovascular responses to electrical and glutamate microstimulation of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Dec 8; 326(2):245-62.
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  207. Yasuda K, Rens-Domiano S, Breder CD, Law SF, Saper CB, Reisine T, Bell GI. Cloning of a novel somatostatin receptor, SSTR3, coupled to adenylylcyclase. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 5; 267(28):20422-8.
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  208. Clouston PD, Saper CB, Arbizu T, Johnston I, Lang B, Newsom-Davis J, Posner JB. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. III. Cerebellar degeneration, cancer, and the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Neurology. 1992 Oct; 42(10):1944-50.
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  209. Breder CD, Yamada Y, Yasuda K, Seino S, Saper CB, Bell GI. Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in brain. J Neurosci. 1992 Oct; 12(10):3920-34.
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  210. Breder CD, Smith WL, Raz A, Masferrer J, Seibert K, Needleman P, Saper CB. Distribution and characterization of cyclooxygenase immunoreactivity in the ovine brain. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Aug 15; 322(3):409-38.
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  211. Herbert H, Saper CB. Organization of medullary adrenergic and noradrenergic projections to the periaqueductal gray matter in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Jan 1; 315(1):34-52.
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  212. Saper CB, Breder CD. Endogenous pyrogens in the CNS: role in the febrile response. Prog Brain Res. 1992; 93:419-28; discussion 428-9.
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  213. Allen GV, Saper CB, Hurley KM, Cechetto DF. Organization of visceral and limbic connections in the insular cortex of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Sep 1; 311(1):1-16.
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  214. Spencer SE, Kibbe MR, Hurley KM, Needleman P, Saper CB. Origin of porcine brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1991 Jul 22; 128(2):217-20.
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  215. Hurley KM, Herbert H, Moga MM, Saper CB. Efferent projections of the infralimbic cortex of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Jun 8; 308(2):249-76.
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  216. Yasui Y, Saper CB, Cechetto DF. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactive projections from the thalamus to the striatum and amygdala in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Jun 8; 308(2):293-310.
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  217. Saper CB, Sorrentino DM, German DC, de Lacalle S. Medullary catecholaminergic neurons in the normal human brain and in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1991 Jun; 29(6):577-84.
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  218. Yasui Y, Breder CD, Saper CB, Cechetto DF. Autonomic responses and efferent pathways from the insular cortex in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Jan 15; 303(3):355-74.
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  219. Saper CB, Kibbe MR, Hurley KM, Spencer S, Holmes HR, Leahy KM, Needleman P. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in the rat. Circ Res. 1990 Dec; 67(6):1345-54.
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  220. Saper CB, Kibbe MR, Hurley KM, Spencer S. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cerebrovascular system in the rat. Stroke. 1990 Nov; 21(11 Suppl):III166-7.
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  221. Yasui Y, Cechetto DF, Saper CB. Evidence for a cholinergic projection from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the rat. Brain Res. 1990 May 28; 517(1-2):19-24.
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  222. Moga MM, Saper CB, Gray TS. Neuropeptide organization of the hypothalamic projection to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990 May 22; 295(4):662-82.
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  223. Moga MM, Herbert H, Hurley KM, Yasui Y, Gray TS, Saper CB. Organization of cortical, basal forebrain, and hypothalamic afferents to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990 May 22; 295(4):624-61.
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  224. Herbert H, Moga MM, Saper CB. Connections of the parabrachial nucleus with the nucleus of the solitary tract and the medullary reticular formation in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Mar 22; 293(4):540-80.
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  225. Herbert H, Saper CB. Cholecystokinin-, galanin-, and corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactive projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Mar 22; 293(4):581-98.
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  226. Yasui Y, Saper CB, Cechetto DF. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the visceral sensory cortex, thalamus, and related pathways in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Dec 22; 290(4):487-501.
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  227. German DC, Manaye K, Smith WK, Woodward DJ, Saper CB. Midbrain dopaminergic cell loss in Parkinson's disease: computer visualization. Ann Neurol. 1989 Oct; 26(4):507-14.
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  228. Moga MM, Saper CB, Gray TS. Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: cytoarchitecture, immunohistochemistry, and projection to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1989 May 15; 283(3):315-32.
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  229. Saper CB, Hurley KM, Moga MM, Holmes HR, Adams SA, Leahy KM, Needleman P. Brain natriuretic peptides: differential localization of a new family of neuropeptides. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Jan 2; 96(1):29-34.
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  230. Needleman P, Blaine EH, Greenwald JE, Michener ML, Saper CB, Stockmann PT, Tolunay HE. The biochemical pharmacology of atrial peptides. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1989; 29:23-54.
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  231. Cechetto DF, Saper CB. Neurochemical organization of the hypothalamic projection to the spinal cord in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1988 Jun 22; 272(4):579-604.
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  232. Standaert DG, Saper CB. Origin of the atriopeptin-like immunoreactive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci. 1988 Jun; 8(6):1940-50.
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  233. Breder CD, Dinarello CA, Saper CB. Interleukin-1 immunoreactive innervation of the human hypothalamus. Science. 1988 Apr 15; 240(4850):321-4.
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  234. Rye DB, Lee HJ, Saper CB, Wainer BH. Medullary and spinal efferents of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and adjacent mesopontine tegmentum in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1988 Mar 15; 269(3):315-41.
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  235. Saper CB, Wainer BH, German DC. Axonal and transneuronal transport in the transmission of neurological disease: potential role in system degenerations, including Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience. 1987 Nov; 23(2):389-98.
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  236. Saper CB. The value of alternative morphological approaches to Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 1987 Nov-Dec; 8(6):576-7.
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  237. Standaert DG, Cechetto DF, Needleman P, Saper CB. Inhibition of the firing of vasopressin neurons by atriopeptin. Nature. 1987 Sep 10-16; 329(6135):151-3.
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  238. Cechetto DF, Saper CB. Evidence for a viscerotopic sensory representation in the cortex and thalamus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Aug 1; 262(1):27-45.
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  239. Jenny AB, Saper CB. Organization of the facial nucleus and corticofacial projection in the monkey: a reconsideration of the upper motor neuron facial palsy. Neurology. 1987 Jun; 37(6):930-9.
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  240. Rye DB, Saper CB, Lee HJ, Wainer BH. Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of the rat: cytoarchitecture, cytochemistry, and some extrapyramidal connections of the mesopontine tegmentum. J Comp Neurol. 1987 May 22; 259(4):483-528.
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  241. Tucker DC, Saper CB, Ruggiero DA, Reis DJ. Organization of central adrenergic pathways: I. Relationships of ventrolateral medullary projections to the hypothalamus and spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 1987 May 22; 259(4):591-603.
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  242. Saper CB, German DC. Hypothalamic pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 1987 Mar 9; 74(3):364-70.
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  243. Standaert DG, Needleman P, Saper CB. Organization of atriopeptin-like immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Nov 15; 253(3):315-41.
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  244. Standaert DG, Saper CB, Rye DB, Wainer BH. Colocalization of atriopeptin-like immunoreactivity with choline acetyltransferase- and substance P-like immunoreactivity in the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei in the rat. Brain Res. 1986 Sep 10; 382(1):163-8.
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  245. Standaert DG, Watson SJ, Houghten RA, Saper CB. Opioid peptide immunoreactivity in spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Neurosci. 1986 May; 6(5):1220-6.
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  246. Saper CB, DeMarchena O. Somatosympathetic reflex unilateral sweating and pupillary dilatation in a paraplegic man. Ann Neurol. 1986 Apr; 19(4):389-90.
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  247. Saper CB, Akil H, Watson SJ. Lateral hypothalamic innervation of the cerebral cortex: immunoreactive staining for a peptide resembling but immunochemically distinct from pituitary/arcuate alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Brain Res Bull. 1986 Jan; 16(1):107-20.
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  248. Tucker DC, Saper CB. Specificity of spinal projections from hypothalamic and brainstem areas which innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Brain Res. 1985 Dec 23; 360(1-2):159-64.
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  249. Matzuk MM, Saper CB. Preservation of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1985 Nov; 18(5):552-5.
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  250. Cechetto DF, Standaert DG, Saper CB. Spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn projections to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1985 Oct 8; 240(2):153-60.
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  251. Saper CB, German DC, White CL. Neuronal pathology in the nucleus basalis and associated cell groups in senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type: possible role in cell loss. Neurology. 1985 Aug; 35(8):1089-95.
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  252. Needleman P, Adams SP, Cole BR, Currie MG, Geller DM, Michener ML, Saper CB, Schwartz D, Standaert DG. Atriopeptins as cardiac hormones. Hypertension. 1985 Jul-Aug; 7(4):469-82.
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  253. Saper CB. Organization of cerebral cortical afferent systems in the rat. II. Hypothalamocortical projections. J Comp Neurol. 1985 Jul 1; 237(1):21-46.
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  254. Lemann W, Saper CB. Evidence for a cortical projection to the magnocellular basal nucleus in the rat: an electron microscopic axonal transport study. Brain Res. 1985 May 20; 334(2):339-43.
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  255. Lorenz RG, Saper CB, Wong DL, Ciaranello RD, Loewy AD. Co-localization of substance P- and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase-like immunoreactivity in neurons of ventrolateral medulla that project to the spinal cord: potential role in control of vasomotor tone. Neurosci Lett. 1985 Apr 19; 55(3):255-60.
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  256. Saper CB, Standaert DG, Currie MG, Schwartz D, Geller DM, Needleman P. Atriopeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the brain: presence in cardiovascular regulatory areas. Science. 1985 Mar 1; 227(4690):1047-9.
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  257. Lemann W, Saper CB, Rye DB, Wainer BH. Stabilization of TMB reaction product for electron microscopic retrograde and anterograde fiber tracing. Brain Res Bull. 1985 Mar; 14(3):277-81.
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  258. Spencer S, Saper CB, Joh T, Reis DJ, Goldstein M, Raese JD. Distribution of catecholamine-containing neurons in the normal human hypothalamus. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 25; 328(1):73-80.
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  259. Fulwiler CE, Saper CB. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive innervation of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the rat: possible substrate for autonomic regulation of feeding. Neurosci Lett. 1985 Feb 4; 53(3):289-96.
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  260. Saper CB, Chelimsky TC. A cytoarchitectonic and histochemical study of nucleus basalis and associated cell groups in the normal human brain. Neuroscience. 1984 Dec; 13(4):1023-37.
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  261. Rye DB, Saper CB, Wainer BH. Stabilization of the tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) reaction product: application for retrograde and anterograde tracing, and combination with immunohistochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 1984 Nov; 32(11):1145-53.
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  262. Rye DB, Wainer BH, Mesulam MM, Mufson EJ, Saper CB. Cortical projections arising from the basal forebrain: a study of cholinergic and noncholinergic components employing combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase. Neuroscience. 1984 Nov; 13(3):627-43.
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  263. Fulwiler CE, Saper CB. Subnuclear organization of the efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. Brain Res. 1984 Aug; 319(3):229-59.
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  264. Saper CB. Organization of cerebral cortical afferent systems in the rat. II. Magnocellular basal nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 1984 Jan 20; 222(3):313-42.
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  265. Saper CB, Levisohn D. Afferent connections of the median preoptic nucleus in the rat: anatomical evidence for a cardiovascular integrative mechanism in the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V) region. Brain Res. 1983 Dec 12; 288(1-2):21-31.
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  266. Saper CB, Reis DJ, Joh T. Medullary catecholamine inputs to the anteroventral third ventricular cardiovascular regulatory region in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1983 Dec 11; 42(3):285-91.
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  267. Armstrong DM, Saper CB, Levey AI, Wainer BH, Terry RD. Distribution of cholinergic neurons in rat brain: demonstrated by the immunocytochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase. J Comp Neurol. 1983 May 1; 216(1):53-68.
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  268. Saper CB. A simple inexpensive and reliable nanoliter syringe. Brain Res Bull. 1983 Mar; 10(3):403-5.
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  269. Saper CB, Loewy AD. Projections of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in the rat: evidence for additional extrapyramidal circuitry. Brain Res. 1982 Dec 9; 252(2):367-72.
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  270. Saper CB. Convergence of autonomic and limbic connections in the insular cortex of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1982 Sep 10; 210(2):163-73.
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  271. Saper CB. Reciprocal parabrachial-cortical connections in the rat. Brain Res. 1982 Jun 17; 242(1):33-40.
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  272. Saper CB, Petito CK. Correspondence of melanin-pigmented neurons in human brain with A1-A14 catecholamine cell groups. Brain. 1982 Mar; 105(Pt 1):87-101.
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  273. Saper CB, Jarowski CI. Leukemic infiltration of the cerebellum in acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Neurology. 1982 Jan; 32(1):77-80.
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  274. Saper CB, Loewy AD. Efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. Brain Res. 1980 Sep 22; 197(2):291-317.
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  275. Rigel DS, Saper C. Passing a small-bore nasogastric feeding catheter. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Feb; 92(2 Pt 1):264.
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  276. Loewy AD, McKellar S, Saper CB. Direct projections from the A5 catecholamine cell group to the intermediolateral cell column. Brain Res. 1979 Oct 5; 174(2):309-14.
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  277. Loewy AD, Saper CB, Baker RP. Descending projections from the pontine micturition center. Brain Res. 1979 Aug 31; 172(3):533-8.
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  278. Saper CB, Swanson LW, Cowan WM. Some efferent connections of the rostral hypothalamus in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) and cat. J Comp Neurol. 1979 Mar 15; 184(2):205-41.
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  279. Saper CB, Swanson LW, Cowan WM. An autoradiographic study of the efferent connections of the lateral hypothalamic area in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1979 Feb 15; 183(4):689-706.
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  280. Saper CB, Swanson LW, Cowan WM. The efferent connections of the anterior hypothalamic area of the rat, cat and monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1978 Dec 15; 182(4):575-99.
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  281. Loewy AD, Saper CB. Edinger-Westphal nucleus: projections to the brain stem and spinal cord in the cat. Brain Res. 1978 Jul 7; 150(1):1-27.
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  282. Loewy AD, Saper CB, Yamodis ND. Re-evaluation of the efferent projections of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the cat. Brain Res. 1978 Feb 3; 141(1):153-9.
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  283. Saper CB, Loewy AD, Swanson LW, Cowan WM. Direct hypothalamo-autonomic connections. Brain Res. 1976 Nov 26; 117(2):305-12.
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  284. Saper CB, Swanson LW, Cowan WM. The efferent connections of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1976 Oct 15; 169(4):409-42.
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  285. Jones EG, Burton H, Saper CB, Swanson LW. Midbrain, diencephalic and cortical relationships of the basal nucleus of Meynert and associated structures in primates. J Comp Neurol. 1976 Jun 15; 167(4):385-419.
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  286. Saper CB, Sweeney DC. Enhanced appetitive discrimination learning in rats treated with -methyltyrosine. Psychopharmacologia. 1973; 30(1):37-44.
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