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Daniel Irimia, PH.D., M.D.

TitleAssistant Professor of Surgery
InstitutionMassachusetts General Hospital
DepartmentSurgery
AddressMassachusetts General Hospital
Surgery/BioMEMS Resource Center, Rm #1404
114 16th Street
Charlestown MA 02129
Phone617/724-6543
Fax617/724-2999

 Overview 
 overview
Every cell in the human body has the ability to move. Cellular motility is as important in preserving our health, as it is during the course of diseases. Yet, despite major advances in the molecular biology of cellular motility, our understanding of the role of cellular motility in health and disease is still limited. One major obstacle is technological, and only recently new tools to enable precise measurements of cell motility characteristics and patterns of migration have begun to emerge. We are leading these efforts by designing microfluidic devices for measuring the motility of leukocytes and cancer cells, from clinically relevant samples.

Neutrophils, the white blood cells that protect us from harmful microbes, have remarkable migration capabilities. Despite being less than 10 microns in diameter, neutrophils can be very smart about the direction in which they move. For example, more than 90% of the human neutrophils are able to pick up the shorter route towards a chemical stimulus. Here you can see how “smart” neutrophils are at asymmetric and symmetric bifurcations. The ability of neutrophils to orient is lost in patients with severe burn injuries, contributing to the higher rates of infections in these patients.

Cancer cells have surprising abilities to move and orient, which enable them to migrate away from the primary tumor and form metastases (ultimately responsible for 90% of deaths in cancer patients). For example, cancer cells are able find the shortest path to exit microscopic mazes, even in the absence of any externally imposed gradients. Here you can see how one cancer cell navigates through a maze . Our studies provide support for a self-guidance mechanism that epithelial cells can employ when confined in small spaces. We also know that cancer cells can move several times their body length every hour. To put things into perspective, it would take less than one month for a breast cancer cell moving through the lymphatic vessels, to travel 10 centimeters from a tumor in the breast to a local lymph node. Here you can watch breast cancer cells “speeding” through small channels at 200 µm/hour .

These examples of cellular motility revealed in the controlled conditions of microfluidic devices are not just fascinating examples of biological sophistication. They could also open exciting opportunities for probing into disease processes in novel ways, lead to new approaches to treating infections, inflammation, and bring hope that stopping the progression of cancers will eventually be possible in the near future.

To encourage the engineering of better tools for measuring cell motility and the application of these to important problems in cell motility, we are organizing the first ever Dicty World Race. We asked scientists worldwide to apply their knowledge to make Dictyostelium and neutrophil-like cells that move faster and smarter. In the mean time, we are preparing some challenging mazes that these cells will have to navigate towards typical chemoattractants. The Race will take place on 05/16 in Boston, will be broadcast online, and preceded by a hands-on workshop on microfluidic tools for cell migration. Such knowledge could lead to better drugs to enhance white blood cell activity against microbes or slow down the movement of cancer cells during metastasis. Join us for the first ever Dicty World Race .


 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Cho H, Hamza B, Wong EA, Irimia D. On-demand, competing gradient arrays for neutrophil chemotaxis. Lab Chip. 2014 Mar 7; 14(5):972-8.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Hamza B, Wong E, Patel S, Cho H, Martel J, Irimia D. Retrotaxis of human neutrophils during mechanical confinement inside microfluidic channels. Integr Biol (Camb). 2014 Jan 13.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Baik SH, Cha MY, Hyun YM, Cho H, Hamza B, Kim DK, Han SH, Choi H, Kim KH, Moon M, Lee J, Kim M, Irimia D, Mook-Jung I. Migration of neutrophils targeting amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Jan 8.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Irimia D. Cell migration in confined environments. Methods Cell Biol. 2014; 121:141-53.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Prentice-Mott HV, Chang CH, Mahadevan L, Mitchison TJ, Irimia D, Shah JV. Biased migration of confined neutrophil-like cells in asymmetric hydraulic environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 24; 110(52):21006-11.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Mantel PY, Hoang AN, Goldowitz I, Potashnikova D, Hamza B, Vorobjev I, Ghiran I, Toner M, Irimia D, Ivanov AR, Barteneva N, Marti M. Malaria-Infected Erythrocyte-Derived Microvesicles Mediate Cellular Communication within the Parasite Population and with the Host Immune System. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 May 15; 13(5):521-34.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Cho H, Hashimoto T, Wong E, Hori Y, Wood LB, Zhao L, Haigis KM, Hyman BT, Irimia D. Microfluidic Chemotaxis Platform for Differentiating the Roles of Soluble and Bound Amyloid-ß on Microglial Accumulation. Sci Rep. 2013 May 10; 3:1823.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Desai SP, Bhatia SN, Toner M, Irimia D. Mitochondrial Localization and the Persistent Migration of Epithelial Cancer cells. Biophys J. 2013 May 7; 104(9):2077-88.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Kurihara T, Jones CN, Yu YM, Fischman AJ, Watada S, Tompkins RG, Fagan SP, Irimia D. Resolvin D2 restores neutrophil directionality and improves survival after burns. FASEB J. 2013 Jun; 27(6):2270-81.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Hoang AN, Jones CN, Dimisko L, Hamza B, Martel J, Kojic N, Irimia D. . Measuring neutrophil speed and directionality during chemotaxis, directly from a droplet of whole blood. Technology (World Scientific Publishing Co./Imperial College Press). 2013; 1(1):49-57.
  11. Jones CN, Dalli J, Dimisko L, Wong E, Serhan CN, Irimia D. Microfluidic chambers for monitoring leukocyte trafficking and humanized nano-proresolving medicines interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11; 109(50):20560-5.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Bohr S, Patel SJ, Sarin D, Irimia D, Yarmush ML, Berthiaume F. Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model. Wound Repair Regen. 2013 Jan; 21(1):35-43.
    View in: PubMed
  13. El-Haibi CP, Bell GW, Zhang J, Collmann AY, Wood D, Scherber CM, Csizmadia E, Mariani O, Zhu C, Campagne A, Toner M, Bhatia SN, Irimia D, Vincent-Salomon A, Karnoub AE. Critical role for lysyl oxidase in mesenchymal stem cell-driven breast cancer malignancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 23; 109(43):17460-5.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Xu C, Poh YK, Roes I, O'Cearbhaill ED, Matthiesen ME, Mu L, Yang SY, Miranda-Nieves D, Irimia D, Karp JM. A portable chemotaxis platform for short and long term analysis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44995.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Koria P, Bhushan A, Irimia D, Yarmush ML. MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR EXAMINING DIRECTIONAL SENSING IN DENDRITIC CELL CHEMOTAXIS. Nano Life. 2012 Jun 1; 2(2).
    View in: PubMed
  16. Ritch JJ, Valencia A, Alexander J, Sapp E, Gatune L, Sangrey GR, Sinha S, Scherber CM, Zeitlin S, Sadri-Vakili G, Irimia D, Difiglia M, Kegel KB. Multiple phenotypes in Huntington disease mouse neural stem cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012 May; 50(1):70-81.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Oh SF, Dona M, Fredman G, Krishnamoorthy S, Irimia D, Serhan CN. Resolvin E2 formation and impact in inflammation resolution. J Immunol. 2012 May 1; 188(9):4527-34.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Scherber C, Aranyosi AJ, Kulemann B, Thayer SP, Toner M, Iliopoulos O, Irimia D. Epithelial cell guidance by self-generated EGF gradients. Integr Biol (Camb). 2012 Mar; 4(3):259-69.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Aldridge BB, Fernandez-Suarez M, Heller D, Ambravaneswaran V, Irimia D, Toner M, Fortune SM. Asymmetry and aging of mycobacterial cells lead to variable growth and antibiotic susceptibility. Science. 2012 Jan 6; 335(6064):100-4.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Watkins N, Irimia D, Toner M, Bashir R. On a chip. IEEE Pulse. 2011 Nov; 2(6):19-27.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Heo YS, Lee HJ, Hassell BA, Irimia D, Toth TL, Elmoazzen H, Toner M. Controlled loading of cryoprotectants (CPAs) to oocyte with linear and complex CPA profiles on a microfluidic platform. Lab Chip. 2011 Oct 21; 11(20):3530-7.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Yang R, Fredman G, Krishnamoorthy S, Agrawal N, Irimia D, Piomelli D, Serhan CN. Decoding functional metabolomics with docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) identifies novel bioactive signals. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 9; 286(36):31532-41.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Hoerning A, Koss K, Datta D, Boneschansker L, Jones CN, Wong IY, Irimia D, Calzadilla K, Benitez F, Hoyer PF, Harmon WE, Briscoe DM. Subsets of human CD4(+) regulatory T cells express the peripheral homing receptor CXCR3. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Aug; 41(8):2291-302.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Rosenbach AE, Koria P, Goverman J, Kotz KT, Gupta A, Yu M, Fagan SP, Irimia D, Tompkins RG. Microfluidics for T- lymphocyte cell separation and inflammation monitoring in burn patients. Clin Transl Sci. 2011 Feb; 4(1):63-8.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Konry T, Smolina I, Yarmush JM, Irimia D, Yarmush ML. Ultrasensitive detection of low-abundance surface-marker protein using isothermal rolling circle amplification in a microfluidic nanoliter platform. Small. 2011 Feb 7; 7(3):395-400.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Smolen GA, Zhang J, Zubrowski MJ, Edelman EJ, Luo B, Yu M, Ng LW, Scherber CM, Schott BJ, Ramaswamy S, Irimia D, Root DE, Haber DA. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies multiple RSK-dependent regulators of cell migration. Genes Dev. 2010 Dec 1; 24(23):2654-65.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Kane BJ, Younan G, Helm D, Dastouri P, Prentice-Mott H, Irimia D, Chan RK, Toner M, Orgill DP. Controlled induction of distributed microdeformation in wounded tissue via a microchamber array dressing. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Nov; 95(2):333-40.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Prentice-Mott H, Toner M, Irimia D. Microfluidic proportional flow controller. J Micromech Microeng. 2010 Oct 15; 20(11):1-8.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Stott SL, Hsu CH, Tsukrov DI, Yu M, Miyamoto DT, Waltman BA, Rothenberg SM, Shah AM, Smas ME, Korir GK, Floyd FP, Gilman AJ, Lord JB, Winokur D, Springer S, Irimia D, Nagrath S, Sequist LV, Lee RJ, Isselbacher KJ, Maheswaran S, Haber DA, Toner M. Isolation of circulating tumor cells using a microvortex-generating herringbone-chip. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26; 107(43):18392-7.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Kotz KT, Xiao W, Miller-Graziano C, Qian WJ, Russom A, Warner EA, Moldawer LL, De A, Bankey PE, Petritis BO, Camp DG, Rosenbach AE, Goverman J, Fagan SP, Brownstein BH, Irimia D, Xu W, Wilhelmy J, Mindrinos MN, Smith RD, Davis RW, Tompkins RG, Toner M. Clinical microfluidics for neutrophil genomics and proteomics. Nat Med. 2010 Sep; 16(9):1042-7.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Irimia D. Microfluidic technologies for temporal perturbations of chemotaxis. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2010 Aug 15; 12:259-84.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Ambravaneswaran V, Wong IY, Aranyosi AJ, Toner M, Irimia D. Directional decisions during neutrophil chemotaxis inside bifurcating channels. Integr Biol (Camb). 2010 Nov; 2(11-12):639-47.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Butler KL, Ambravaneswaran V, Agrawal N, Bilodeau M, Toner M, Tompkins RG, Fagan S, Irimia D. Burn injury reduces neutrophil directional migration speed in microfluidic devices. PLoS One. 2010; 5(7):e11921.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Wolfer A, Wittner BS, Irimia D, Flavin RJ, Lupien M, Gunawardane RN, Meyer CA, Lightcap ES, Tamayo P, Mesirov JP, Liu XS, Shioda T, Toner M, Loda M, Brown M, Brugge JS, Ramaswamy S. MYC regulation of a "poor-prognosis" metastatic cancer cell state. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 23; 107(8):3698-703.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Chen C, Skog J, Hsu CH, Lessard RT, Balaj L, Wurdinger T, Carter BS, Breakefield XO, Toner M, Irimia D. Microfluidic isolation and transcriptome analysis of serum microvesicles. Lab Chip. 2010 Feb 21; 10(4):505-11.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Irimia D. Cutting edge: electronic counting of white blood cells. Lab Chip. 2009 Oct 21; 9(20):2875-6.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Stoothoff W, Jones PB, Spires-Jones TL, Joyner D, Chhabra E, Bercury K, Fan Z, Xie H, Bacskai B, Edd J, Irimia D, Hyman BT. Differential effect of three-repeat and four-repeat tau on mitochondrial axonal transport. J Neurochem. 2009 Oct; 111(2):417-27.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Irimia D, Toner M. Spontaneous migration of cancer cells under conditions of mechanical confinement. Integr Biol (Camb). 2009 Sep; 1(8-9):506-12.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Russom A, Irimia D, Toner M. Chemical gradient-mediated melting curve analysis for genotyping of SNPs. Electrophoresis. 2009 Jul; 30(14):2536-43.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Irimia D, Balázsi G, Agrawal N, Toner M. Adaptive-control model for neutrophil orientation in the direction of chemical gradients. Biophys J. 2009 May 20; 96(10):3897-916.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Edd JF, Humphry KJ, Irimia D, Weitz DA, Toner M. Nucleation and solidification in static arrays of monodisperse drops. Lab Chip. 2009 Jul 7; 9(13):1859-65.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Kasuga K, Yang R, Porter TF, Agrawal N, Petasis NA, Irimia D, Toner M, Serhan CN. Rapid appearance of resolvin precursors in inflammatory exudates: novel mechanisms in resolution. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15; 181(12):8677-87.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Irimia D, Mindrinos M, Russom A, Xiao W, Wilhelmy J, Wang S, Heath JD, Kurn N, Tompkins RG, Davis RW, Toner M. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of 150 cell samples. Integr Biol (Camb). 2009 Jan; 1(1):99-107.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Agrawal N, Toner M, Irimia D. Neutrophil migration assay from a drop of blood. Lab Chip. 2008 Dec; 8(12):2054-61.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Hsu CH, Di Carlo D, Chen C, Irimia D, Toner M. Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles. Lab Chip. 2008 Dec; 8(12):2128-34.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Nery FC, Zeng J, Niland BP, Hewett J, Farley J, Irimia D, Li Y, Wiche G, Sonnenberg A, Breakefield XO. TorsinA binds the KASH domain of nesprins and participates in linkage between nuclear envelope and cytoskeleton. J Cell Sci. 2008 Oct 15; 121(Pt 20):3476-86.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Prabhakarpandian B, Pant K, Scott RC, Patillo CB, Irimia D, Kiani MF, Sundaram S. Synthetic microvascular networks for quantitative analysis of particle adhesion. Biomed Microdevices. 2008 Aug; 10(4):585-95.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Maheswaran S, Sequist LV, Nagrath S, Ulkus L, Brannigan B, Collura CV, Inserra E, Diederichs S, Iafrate AJ, Bell DW, Digumarthy S, Muzikansky A, Irimia D, Settleman J, Tompkins RG, Lynch TJ, Toner M, Haber DA. Detection of mutations in EGFR in circulating lung-cancer cells. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 24; 359(4):366-77.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Edd JF, Di Carlo D, Humphry KJ, Köster S, Irimia D, Weitz DA, Toner M. Controlled encapsulation of single-cells into monodisperse picolitre drops. Lab Chip. 2008 Aug; 8(8):1262-4.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Park K, Jang J, Irimia D, Sturgis J, Lee J, Robinson JP, Toner M, Bashir R. 'Living cantilever arrays' for characterization of mass of single live cells in fluids. Lab Chip. 2008 Jul; 8(7):1034-41.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Kelly RT, Tang K, Irimia D, Toner M, Smith RD. Elastomeric microchip electrospray emitter for stable cone-jet mode operation in the nanoflow regime. Anal Chem. 2008 May 15; 80(10):3824-31.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Parekkadan B, Berdichevsky Y, Irimia D, Leeder A, Yarmush G, Toner M, Levine JB, Yarmush ML. Cell-cell interaction modulates neuroectodermal specification of embryonic stem cells. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jun 20; 438(2):190-5.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Russom A, Sethu P, Irimia D, Mindrinos MN, Calvano SE, Garcia I, Finnerty C, Tannahill C, Abouhamze A, Wilhelmy J, López MC, Baker HV, Herndon DN, Lowry SF, Maier RV, Davis RW, Moldawer LL, Tompkins RG, Toner M. Microfluidic leukocyte isolation for gene expression analysis in critically ill hospitalized patients. Clin Chem. 2008 May; 54(5):891-900.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Di Carlo D, Edd JF, Irimia D, Tompkins RG, Toner M. Equilibrium separation and filtration of particles using differential inertial focusing. Anal Chem. 2008 Mar 15; 80(6):2204-11.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Nagrath S, Sequist LV, Maheswaran S, Bell DW, Irimia D, Ulkus L, Smith MR, Kwak EL, Digumarthy S, Muzikansky A, Ryan P, Balis UJ, Tompkins RG, Haber DA, Toner M. Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by microchip technology. Nature. 2007 Dec 20; 450(7173):1235-9.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Di Carlo D, Irimia D, Tompkins RG, Toner M. Continuous inertial focusing, ordering, and separation of particles in microchannels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 27; 104(48):18892-7.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Vu HN, Li Y, Casali M, Irimia D, Megeed Z, Yarmush ML. A microfluidic bioreactor for increased active retrovirus output. Lab Chip. 2008 Jan; 8(1):75-80.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Irimia D, Charras G, Agrawal N, Mitchison T, Toner M. Polar stimulation and constrained cell migration in microfluidic channels. Lab Chip. 2007 Dec; 7(12):1783-90.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Cheng X, Irimia D, Dixon M, Ziperstein JC, Demirci U, Zamir L, Tompkins RG, Toner M, Rodriguez WR. A microchip approach for practical label-free CD4+ T-cell counting of HIV-infected subjects in resource-poor settings. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jul 1; 45(3):257-61.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Cheng X, Liu YS, Irimia D, Demirci U, Yang L, Zamir L, Rodríguez WR, Toner M, Bashir R. Cell detection and counting through cell lysate impedance spectroscopy in microfluidic devices. Lab Chip. 2007 Jun; 7(6):746-55.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Daniel Irimia. Pneumatic Valves in Encyclopedia of Micro- and Nanofluidics edited by Li, Dongqing. 2006.
  62. Daniel Irimia. Techniques of Manipulating Cells in Encyclopedia of Micro- and Nanofluidics edited by Li, Dongqing. 2006.
  63. Cheng X, Irimia D, Dixon M, Sekine K, Demirci U, Zamir L, Tompkins RG, Rodriguez W, Toner M. A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4(+) T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects. Lab Chip. 2007 Feb; 7(2):170-8.
    View in: PubMed
  64. King KR, Wang S, Irimia D, Jayaraman A, Toner M, Yarmush ML. A high-throughput microfluidic real-time gene expression living cell array. Lab Chip. 2007 Jan; 7(1):77-85.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Irimia D, Geba DA, Toner M. Universal microfluidic gradient generator. Anal Chem. 2006 May 15; 78(10):3472-7.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Vianello F, Papeta N, Chen T, Kraft P, White N, Hart WK, Kircher MF, Swart E, Rhee S, Palù G, Irimia D, Toner M, Weissleder R, Poznansky MC. Murine B16 melanomas expressing high levels of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1/CXCL12 induce tumor-specific T cell chemorepulsion and escape from immune control. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 1; 176(5):2902-14.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Irimia D, Toner M. Cell handling using microstructured membranes. Lab Chip. 2006 Mar; 6(3):345-52.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Daniel Irimia. Capillary Force Valves in Encyclopedia of Micro- and Nanofluidics edited by Li, Dongqing. 2006.
  69. Aksan A, Irimia D, He X, Toner M. Desiccation kinetics of biopreservation solutions in microchannels. J Appl Phys. 2006; 99(6):2181280.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Irimia D, Liu SY, Tharp WG, Samadani A, Toner M, Poznansky MC. Microfluidic system for measuring neutrophil migratory responses to fast switches of chemical gradients. Lab Chip. 2006 Feb; 6(2):191-8.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Tharp WG, Yadav R, Irimia D, Upadhyaya A, Samadani A, Hurtado O, Liu SY, Munisamy S, Brainard DM, Mahon MJ, Nourshargh S, van Oudenaarden A, Toner MG, Poznansky MC. Neutrophil chemorepulsion in defined interleukin-8 gradients in vitro and in vivo. J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Mar; 79(3):539-54.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Toner M, Irimia D. Blood-on-a-chip. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2005; 7:77-103.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Irimia D, Tompkins RG, Toner M. Single-cell chemical lysis in picoliter-scale closed volumes using a microfabricated device. Anal Chem. 2004 Oct 15; 76(20):6137-43.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Irimia D, Karlsson JO. Kinetics of intracellular ice formation in one-dimensional arrays of interacting biological cells. Biophys J. 2005 Jan; 88(1):647-60.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Stott SL, Irimia D, Karlsson JO. Parametric analysis of intercellular ice propagation during cryosurgery, simulated using monte carlo techniques. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Apr; 3(2):113-23.
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  76. Irimia, D., Karlsson, J.O.M. Development of a Cell Patterning Technique Using Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Disilane. Journal of Biomedical Microdevices. 2003; 5(3):185-194.
  77. Irimia D, Karlsson JO. Kinetics and mechanism of intercellular ice propagation in a micropatterned tissue construct. Biophys J. 2002 Apr; 82(4):1858-68.
    View in: PubMed
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